BioPAX pathway converted from "Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition" in the Reactome database. Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition Cyclin A/B1/B2 associated events during G2/M transition This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Formation of Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes Formation of Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10537469 1 cytosol GO 0005829 CCNA [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Reactome http://www.reactome.org Reactome DB_ID: 10537454 1 UniProt:F1NBD7 CDK1 Gallus gallus NCBI Taxonomy 9031 UniProt F1NBD7 Chain Coordinates 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537471 1 CCNA:CDK1 [cytosol] CCNA:CDK1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10537469 1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537454 1 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537471 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537471 Reactome R-GGA-170091 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170091.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537473 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537473 Reactome R-GGA-170084 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170084.1 Cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdc2 in G1. Cyclin dependent kinases are themselves catalytically inactive due to the fact that their active sites are blocked by a portion of the CDK molecule itself. Binding to their corresponding cyclin partner results in a conformational change that partially exposes the active site. 1717476 Pubmed 1991 Human cyclins A and B1 are differentially located in the cell and undergo cell cycle-dependent nuclear transport Pines, J Hunter, Tony J Cell Biol 115:1-17 9001210 Pubmed 1997 The human Myt1 kinase preferentially phosphorylates Cdc2 on threonine 14 and localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Liu, F Stanton, JJ Wu, Z Piwnica-Worms, H Mol Cell Biol 17:571-83 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Translocation of Cyclin A:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14) to the nucleus Translocation of Cyclin A:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14) to the nucleus This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 10537486 1 CCNA:p-T14-CDK1 [cytosol] CCNA:p-T14-CDK1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10537469 1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537459 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 14 (in Homo sapiens) 14 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine [MOD:00047] 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537486 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537486 Reactome R-GGA-170085 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170085.1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537477 1 nucleoplasm GO 0005654 CCNA:p-T14-CDK1 [nucleoplasm] CCNA:p-T14-CDK1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537475 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 14 (in Homo sapiens) 14 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10526503 1 CCNA [nucleoplasm] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537477 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537477 Reactome R-GGA-170090 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170090.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537488 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537488 Reactome R-GGA-170088 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170088.1 Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes translocate to the nucleus in G1 and may associate with condensing chromosomes in prophase (Pines and Hunter 1991). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.11.1 CAK-mediated phosphorylation of Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes CAK-mediated phosphorylation of Cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 10537477 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29358 1 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) Adenosine 5'-triphosphate atp ATP ChEBI 30616 Reactome DB_ID: 113582 1 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP trianion 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP ChEBI 456216 Reactome DB_ID: 10537481 1 CCNA:p-T14,T161-CDK1 [nucleoplasm] CCNA:p-T14,T161-CDK1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10526503 1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537479 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 14 (in Homo sapiens) 14 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine at 161 (in Homo sapiens) 161 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537481 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537481 Reactome R-GGA-170092 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170092.1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 10529993 CAK [nucleoplasm] CAK Reactome DB_ID: 10529983 1 UniProt:E1C8L2 CDK7 UniProt E1C8L2 1 EQUAL 346 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10529991 1 UniProt:E1BVP0 MNAT1 UniProt E1BVP0 1 EQUAL 309 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10529987 1 UniProt:A0A1L1RPK0 CCNH UniProt A0A1L1RPK0 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10529993 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10529993 Reactome R-GGA-69221 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-69221.1 GO 0004674 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537482 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537482 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537484 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537484 Reactome R-GGA-170087 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170087.1 Full activity of most CDKs is dependent on CAK mediated phosphorylation at a conserved residue (Thr 161 in Cdc2). This modification is thought to improve substrate binding. High affinity binding of Cyclin A within the Cyclin A:Cdc2 complex requires this phosphorylation (Desai et al 1995). 7799941 Pubmed 1995 Effects of phosphorylation by CAK on cyclin binding by CDC2 and CDK2. Desai, D Wessling, HC Fisher, RP Morgan, DO Mol Cell Biol 15:345-50 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Translocation of active Cdc25C to the nucleus Translocation of active Cdc25C to the nucleus This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 10534652 1 UniProt:A0A1D5PY31 CDC25A UniProt A0A1D5PY31 O-phospho-L-serine at 198 (in Homo sapiens) 198 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine [MOD:00046] 1 EQUAL 473 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537498 1 O-phospho-L-serine at 198 (in Homo sapiens) 198 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 473 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537500 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537500 Reactome R-GGA-170149 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170149.1 During interphase, CDC25C, phosphorylated on serine residue 216, is associated with 14-3-3 proteins, preventing nuclear import. At the onset of mitosis, dephosphorylation of S216 of Cdc25C and dissociation of 14-3-3, with phosphorylation of CDC25C on S198 by activated PLK1 promotes nuclear import (Takizawa and Morgan 2000, Toyoshima-Morimoto et al. 2002, Bonnet et al. 2008). Activating CDC25C phosphorylation and nuclear translocation may further be enhanced by activated CCNB:CDK1 complexes (Bonnet et al. 2008). 11063929 Pubmed 2000 Control of mitosis by changes in the subcellular location of cyclin-B1-Cdk1 and Cdc25C Takizawa, CG Morgan, DO Curr Opin Cell Biol 12:658-65 18384749 Pubmed 2008 Differential phosphorylation of Cdc25C phosphatase in mitosis Bonnet, Jérôme Mayonove, Pauline Morris, May C Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 370:483-8 11897663 Pubmed 2002 Plk1 promotes nuclear translocation of human Cdc25C during prophase Toyoshima-Morimoto, F Taniguchi, E Nishida, E EMBO Rep 3:341-8 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.3.16 Dephosphorylation of nuclear Cyclin A:phospho-Cdc2 complexes Dephosphorylation of nuclear Cyclin A:phospho-Cdc2 complexes This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 10537505 1 CCNA:p-T14,Y15,T161-CDK1 [nucleoplasm] CCNA:p-T14,Y15,T161-CDK1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537503 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 161 (in Homo sapiens) 161 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine at 14 (in Homo sapiens) 14 EQUAL O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine at 15 (in Homo sapiens) 15 EQUAL O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine [MOD:00048] 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10526503 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537505 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537505 Reactome R-GGA-170147 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170147.1 Reactome DB_ID: 113518 2 water [ChEBI:15377] water ChEBI 15377 Reactome DB_ID: 10537509 1 CCNA:p-T161-CDK1 [nucleoplasm] CCNA:p-T161-CDK1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10526503 1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537507 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 161 (in Homo sapiens) 161 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537509 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537509 Reactome R-GGA-170146 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170146.1 Reactome DB_ID: 113550 2 hydrogenphosphate [ChEBI:43474] hydrogenphosphate [PO3(OH)](2-) HYDROGENPHOSPHATE ION hydrogen phosphate [P(OH)O3](2-) HPO4(2-) phosphate INORGANIC PHOSPHATE GROUP ChEBI 43474 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 10526722 1 EQUAL 524 EQUAL GO 0004721 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 10526723 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10526723 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537511 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537511 Reactome R-GGA-170158 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170158.1 Activation of the cyclin A:Cdc2 complexes at mitosis requires the removal of the inhibitory phosphate groups on Cdc2 (CDK1). This dephosphorylation is achieved by the activity of the CDC25A phosphatase (Timofeev et al. 2009). CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C are kept inactive during interphase and are activated at the G2/M transition (see Wolfe and Gould 2004). 19192479 Pubmed 2009 Human Cdc25A phosphatase has a non-redundant function in G2 phase by activating Cyclin A-dependent kinases Timofeev, Oleg Cizmecioglu, Onur Hu, Entan Orlik, Thomas Hoffmann, Ingrid FEBS Lett. 583:841-7 15107615 Pubmed 2004 Inactivating Cdc25, mitotic style Wolfe, BA Gould, KL Cell Cycle 3:601-3 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Formation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes Formation of Cyclin B:Cdc2 complexes This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 10537454 1 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537452 1 UniProt:P29332 CCNB2 UniProt P29332 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537456 1 CCNB:CDK1 [cytosol] CCNB:CDK1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537452 1 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537454 1 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537456 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537456 Reactome R-GGA-170077 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170077.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537463 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537463 Reactome R-GGA-170057 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170057.1 Cyclin dependent kinases are themselves catalytically inactive due to the fact that their active site is blocked by a portion of the Cdk molecule itself. Binding to their corresponding cyclin partner results in conformational change that partially exposes the active site. The two B-type cyclins localize to different regions within the cell and and are thought to have specific roles as CDK1-activating subunits (see Bellanger et al., 2007). Cyclin B1 is primarily cytoplasmic during interphase and translocates into the nucleus at the onset of mitosis (Jackman et al., 1995; Hagting et al., 1999). Cyclin B2 colocalizes with the Golgi apparatus and contributes to its fragmentation during mitosis (Jackman et al., 1995; Draviam et al., 2001). 17533373 Pubmed 2007 Cyclin B2 suppresses mitotic failure and DNA re-replication in human somatic cells knocked down for both cyclins B1 and B2 Bellanger, S de Gramont, A Sobczak-Thépot, J Oncogene 26:7175-84 11238451 Pubmed 2001 The localization of human cyclins B1 and B2 determines CDK1 substrate specificity and neither enzyme requires MEK to disassemble the Golgi apparatus Draviam, VM Orrechia, S Lowe, M Pardi, R Pines, J J Cell Biol 152:945-58 10395539 Pubmed 1999 Translocation of cyclin B1 to the nucleus at prophase requires a phosphorylation-dependent nuclear import signal Hagting, A Jackman, M Simpson, K Pines, J Curr Biol 9:680-9 7737117 Pubmed 1995 Human cyclins B1 and B2 are localized to strikingly different structures: B1 to microtubules, B2 primarily to the Golgi apparatus Jackman, M Firth, M Pines, J EMBO J 14:1646-54 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Translocation of Cdc25B to the cytoplasm Translocation of Cdc25B to the cytoplasm This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 10537492 1 UniProt:A0A3Q2U9H7 LOC107049885 UniProt A0A3Q2U9H7 1 EQUAL 580 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537494 1 1 EQUAL 580 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537496 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537496 Reactome R-GGA-170120 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170120.1 Cdc25B shuttles between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Translocation out of the nucleus involves a nuclear export sequence in the N-terminus of Cdc25B (Lindqvist et al., 2004). 15456846 Pubmed 2004 Characterisation of Cdc25B localisation and nuclear export during the cell cycle and in response to stress Lindqvist, A Kallstrom, H Karlsson Rosenthal, C J Cell Sci 117:4979-90 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.3.16 Dephosphorylation of cytoplasmic Cyclin B1/B2:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14, Tyr 15) complexes by CDC25B Dephosphorylation of cytoplasmic Cyclin B1/B2:phospho-Cdc2 (Thr 14, Tyr 15) complexes by CDC25B This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 2 Reactome DB_ID: 10537523 1 CCNB2:p-T14,Y15,T161-CDK1 [cytosol] CCNB2:p-T14,Y15,T161-CDK1 Reactome DB_ID: 10537521 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 161 (in Homo sapiens) 161 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine at 14 (in Homo sapiens) 14 EQUAL O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine at 15 (in Homo sapiens) 15 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537452 1 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537523 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537523 Reactome R-GGA-170152 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170152.1 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 2 Reactome DB_ID: 10537525 1 CCNB2:p-T161-CDK1 [cytosol] CCNB2:p-T161-CDK1 Reactome DB_ID: 10532982 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 161 (in Homo sapiens) 161 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 10537452 1 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537525 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537525 Reactome R-GGA-68898 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-68898.1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 10537494 1 EQUAL 580 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537526 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537526 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537528 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537528 Reactome R-GGA-170161 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170161.1 Activation of the mitotic cyclinB:Cdc2 (CCNB:CDK1) complexes at mitosis requires the removal of the inhibitory phosphate groups on Cdc2 (CDK1). This dephosphorylation is achieved by the activity of the CDC25 family of phosphatases, which act on both CCNB1 and CCNB2-bound CDK1 (Galaktionov and Beach 1991, Goda et al. 2003, Timofeev et al. 2010). The CDC25 members, CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C are kept inactive during interphase and are activated at the G2/M transition. CCNB:CDK1 complexes appear to participate in the full activation of CDC25 in a process that involves an amplification loop (see Wolfe and Gould, 2004). The initial activation of the CCNB:CDK1 (cyclin B1:Cdc2 and cyclin-B2:Cdc2) complexes occurs in the cytoplasm in prophase (Jackman et al., 2003). CDC25B, which is present at highest concentrations in the cytoplasm at this time, is thought to trigger the activation of CCNB1:CDK1 (Lindqvist et al. 2004; Honda et al., 1993). Active CCNB1:CDK1 then phosphorylates CDC25C (contributing to its PLK1-mediated activation) and stabilizes CDC25A (Strausfeld et al., 1994; Hoffman et al.,1993; Mailand et al, 2002). This creates positive feedback loops that allows CDC25A and CDC25C to dephosphorylate and further activate CDK1. As active CDC25C is nuclear, it presumably predominantly contributes to activation of nuclear CDK1 (Strausfeld et al. 1994, Toyoshima-Morimoto et al. 2002, Bonnet, Coopman et al. 2008, Bonnet Mayonove et al. 2008). 1836978 Pubmed 1991 Specific activation of cdc25 tyrosine phosphatases by B-type cyclins: evidence for multiple roles of mitotic cyclins Galaktionov, K Beach, D Cell 67:1181-94 8440392 Pubmed 1993 Dephosphorylation of human p34cdc2 kinase on both Thr-14 and Tyr-15 by human cdc25B phosphatase Honda, R Ohba, Y Nagata, A Okayama, H Yasuda, H FEBS Lett 318:331-4 12754270 Pubmed 2003 The RRASK motif in Xenopus cyclin B2 is required for the substrate recognition of Cdc25C by the cyclin B-Cdc2 complex Goda, Tadahiro Ishii, Takashi Nakajo, Nobushige Sagata, Noriyuki Kobayashi, Hideki J. Biol. Chem. 278:19032-7 12524548 Pubmed 2003 Active cyclin B1-Cdk1 first appears on centrosomes in prophase Jackman, M Lindon, C Nigg, EA Pines, J Nat Cell Biol 5:143-8 20360007 Pubmed 2010 Cdc25 phosphatases are required for timely assembly of CDK1-cyclin B at the G2/M transition Timofeev, Oleg Cizmecioglu, Onur Settele, Florian Kempf, Tore Hoffmann, Ingrid J. Biol. Chem. 285:16978-90 18604163 Pubmed 2008 Characterization of centrosomal localization and dynamics of Cdc25C phosphatase in mitosis Bonnet, Jérôme Coopman, Peter Morris, May C Cell Cycle 7:1991-8 10827953 Pubmed 2000 Rapid destruction of human Cdc25A in response to DNA damage. Mailand, N Lukas, C Syljuâsen, RG Welcker, M Lukas, J Science 288:1425-9 12411508 Pubmed 2002 Regulation of G(2)/M events by Cdc25A through phosphorylation-dependent modulation of its stability Mailand, N Podtelejnikov, AV Groth, A Mann, M Lukas, J EMBO J 21:5911-20 8428594 Pubmed 1993 Phosphorylation and activation of human cdc25-C by cdc2--cyclin B and its involvement in the self-amplification of MPF at mitosis Hoffmann, Ingrid Clarke, PR Marcote, MJ Karsenti, E Draetta, G EMBO J 12:53-63 8119945 Pubmed 1994 Activation of p34cdc2 protein kinase by microinjection of human cdc25C into mammalian cells. Requirement for prior phosphorylation of cdc25C by p34cdc2 on sites phosphorylated at mitosis. Strausfeld, U Fernandez, A Capony, JP Girard, F Lautredou, N Derancourt, J Labbe, JC Lamb, NJ J Biol Chem 269:5989-6000 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Translocation of Cdc25 to the nucleus Translocation of Cdc25 to the nucleus This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10537515 1 CDC25 [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity CDC25A [cytosol] LOC107049885 [cytosol] phospho-CDC25A [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10537517 1 CDC25 [nucleoplasm] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity LOC107049885 [nucleoplasm] phospho-CDC25A [nucleoplasm] CDC25A [nucleoplasm] Reactome Database ID Release 81 10537519 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10537519 Reactome R-GGA-170159 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-170159.1 The localization of the Cdc25A, B and C proteins is dynamic involving the shuttling of these proteins between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Sequences in these proteins mediate both nuclear export and import (Kallstrom et al., 2005; Lindqvist et al., 2004; Graves et al, 2001; Takizawa and Morgan, 2000). 11313932 Pubmed 2001 Localization of human Cdc25C is regulated both by nuclear export and 14-3-3 protein binding. Graves, PR Lovly, CM Uy, GL Piwnica-Worms, H Oncogene 20:1839-51 15572030 Pubmed 2005 Cdc25A localisation and shuttling: characterisation of sequences mediating nuclear export and import Kallstrom, H Lindqvist, A Pospisil, V Lundgren, A Rosenthal, CK Exp Cell Res 303:89-100 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.11.22 CCNA:CDK1/2 complexes and CCNB1:CDK1 complexes phosphorylate FOXM1 CCNA:CDK1/2 complexes and CCNB1:CDK1 complexes phosphorylate FOXM1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29358 1 Reactome DB_ID: 10581019 1 UniProt:F1NHA5 FOXM1 UniProt F1NHA5 1 EQUAL 763 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 113582 1 Reactome DB_ID: 10581022 1 O-phospho-L-threonine at 611 (in Homo sapiens) 611 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 763 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10581024 CCNA:p-CDK1/2 [nucleoplasm] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity GO 0004693 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 10581027 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10581027 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10581029 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10581029 Reactome R-GGA-4088024 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-4088024.1 In the G2 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A (CCNA) and B (CCNB)-dependent kinases CDK1 and CDK2 phosphorylate FOXM1 transcription factor, increasing its transcriptional activity. Threonine residue T611 (corresponds to T596 in FOXM1B isoform) was shown to be phosphorylated by both CCNA:CDK1/2 and CCNB:CDK1 complexes and its functional relevance is best establshed (Major et al. 2004, Laoukili et al. 2008, Fu et al. 2008). CCNA:CDK1/2 may also phosphorylate FOXM1 on T600 (Laoukili et al. 2008), while CCNB:CDK1 may phosphorylate it on S693 (S678 in FOXM1B isoform) (Fu et al. 2008). The phosphorylation of FOXM1 threonine residue T611 relieves the N-terminal domain-mediated autoinhibition of FOXM1 transcriptional activity (Laoukili et al. 2008), likely enabling interaction with transcriptional co-activators (Major et al. 2004), and creates a docking site for the Polo-box domain (PBD) of PLK1 (Fu et al. 2008). 15024056 Pubmed 2004 Forkhead box M1B transcriptional activity requires binding of Cdk-cyclin complexes for phosphorylation-dependent recruitment of p300/CBP coactivators Major, Michael L Lepe, Rita Costa, Robert H Mol. Cell. Biol. 24:2649-61 18285455 Pubmed 2008 Activation of FoxM1 during G2 requires cyclin A/Cdk-dependent relief of autorepression by the FoxM1 N-terminal domain Laoukili, Jamila Alvarez, Monica Meijer, Lars A T Stahl, Marie Mohammed, Shabaz Kleij, Livio Heck, Albert J R Medema, René H Mol. Cell. Biol. 28:3076-87 19160488 Pubmed 2008 Plk1-dependent phosphorylation of FoxM1 regulates a transcriptional programme required for mitotic progression Fu, Zheng Malureanu, Liviu Huang, J Wang, Wei Li, H van Deursen, Jan M Tindall, Donald J Chen, J Nat. Cell Biol. 10:1076-82 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 81 10615839 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10615839 Reactome R-GGA-69273 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-69273.1 Cell cycle progression is regulated by cyclin-dependent protein kinases at both the G1/S and the G2/M transitions. The G2/M transition is regulated through the phosphorylation of nuclear lamins and histones (reviewed in Sefton, 2001).<br>The two B-type cyclins localize to different regions within the cell and are thought to have specific roles as CDK1-activating subunits (see Bellanger et al., 2007). Cyclin B1 is primarily cytoplasmic during interphase and translocates into the nucleus at the onset of mitosis (Jackman et al., 1995; Hagting et al., 1999). Cyclin B2 colocalizes with the Golgi apparatus and contributes to its fragmentation during mitosis (Jackman et al., 1995; Draviam et al., 2001). 18228324 Pubmed 2001 Overview of protein phosphorylation Sefton, BM Curr Protoc Cell Biol 14:Unit 14.1 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA