BioPAX pathway converted from "Wax biosynthesis" in the Reactome database. Wax biosynthesis Wax biosynthesis This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 1 FAR1 reduces PalmCoA to HXOL FAR1 reduces PalmCoA to HXOL palmitoyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ => hexadecanol + 2 NADP+ [FAR1] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 70106 2 cytosol GO 0005829 hydron [ChEBI:15378] hydron Reactome http://www.reactome.org ChEBI 15378 Reactome DB_ID: 200993 1 palmitoyl-CoA(4-) [ChEBI:57379] palmitoyl-CoA(4-) hexadecanoyl-CoA 3'-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-(3-{(3R)-4-[(3-{[2-(hexadecanoylsulfanyl)ethyl]amino}-3-oxopropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxobutyl} diphosphate) ChEBI 57379 Reactome DB_ID: 29364 2 NADPH(4-) [ChEBI:57783] NADPH(4-) NADPH 2'-O-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] diphosphate} NADPH tetraanion ChEBI 57783 Reactome DB_ID: 29366 2 NADP(3-) [ChEBI:58349] NADP(3-) NADP(+) 2'-O-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoylpyridinio)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] diphosphate} NADP trianion ChEBI 58349 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 coenzyme A(4-) [ChEBI:57287] coenzyme A(4-) CoA 3'-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-{3-[(3R)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxo-4-({3-oxo-3-[(2-sulfanylethyl)amino]propyl}amino)butyl] diphosphate} ChEBI 57287 Reactome DB_ID: 8848577 1 hexadecan-1-ol [ChEBI:16125] hexadecan-1-ol ChEBI 16125 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 10691055 peroxisomal membrane GO 0005778 UniProt:Q9VCF6 Dmel\CG12268 Drosophila melanogaster NCBI Taxonomy 7227 UniProt Q9VCF6 Chain Coordinates 1 EQUAL 515 EQUAL GO 0016491 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 83 10691056 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10691056 Reactome Database ID Release 83 10691058 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10691058 Reactome R-DME-390425 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-390425.1 Peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase 1 (FAR1) catalyzes the reaction of palmitoyl-CoA (PalmCoA) and 2 NADPH + 2 H+ to form hexadecanol (HXOL), CoASH, and 2 NADP+. As judged from mRNA levels, FAR1 is widely expressed in the body (Cheng and Russell 2004). 15220348 Pubmed 2004 Mammalian wax biosynthesis. I. Identification of two fatty acyl-Coenzyme A reductases with different substrate specificities and tissue distributions Cheng, Jeffrey B Russell, David W J Biol Chem 279:37789-97 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 1 FAR2 reduces PalmCoA to HXOL FAR2 reduces PalmCoA to HXOL palmitoyl-CoA + 2 NADPH + 2 H+ => hexadecanol + 2 NADP+ [FAR2] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 70106 2 Reactome DB_ID: 200993 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29364 2 Reactome DB_ID: 29366 2 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8848577 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 10691066 UniProt:Q8MS59 wat UniProt Q8MS59 1 EQUAL 515 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 10691067 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10691067 Reactome Database ID Release 83 10691069 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10691069 Reactome R-DME-390438 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-390438.1 Peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA reductase 2 (FAR2) catalyzes the reaction of palmitoyl-CoA (PalmCoA) and 2 NADPH + 2 H+ to form hexadecanol (HXOL), CoASH, and 2 NADP+. As judged from mRNA levels, FAR2 is not widely expressed in the body but is abundant in brain (Cheng and Russell 2004). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.75 AWAT1 transfers acyl group from acyl-CoA to ARACOH, forming wax esters AWAT1 transfers acyl group from acyl-CoA to ARACOH, forming wax esters This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 192172 1 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GO 0005788 acyl-CoA [ChEBI:17984] acyl-CoA ChEBI 17984 Reactome DB_ID: 5696426 1 icosan-1-ol [ChEBI:75627] icosan-1-ol arachidyl alcohol eicosyl alcohol eicosan-1-ol arachidic alcohol 1-eicosanol ChEBI 75627 Reactome DB_ID: 162743 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5696412 1 wax ester [ChEBI:10036] wax ester Wax esters ChEBI 10036 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10726467 endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO 0005789 Homologues of AWAT1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Dgat2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Dmel\CG1946 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Dmel\CG1941 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q7K1C2 UniProt A1Z739 UniProt Q7JYK2 GO 0047196 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 83 10726468 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10726468 Reactome Database ID Release 83 10726470 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10726470 Reactome R-DME-5696424 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-5696424.1 Arachidyl alcohol (ARACOH) is straight-chain fatty alcohol of C20 length used as an emollient in cosmetics. Esterification of alcohols with fatty acids represents the formation of both storage and cytoprotective molecules in the body. Overproduction of these esters is associated with several disease pathologies, including atherosclerosis and obesity. The ER membrane-associated acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 1 (AWAT1) mediates the esterification of its preferred substrate ARACOH (Turkish et al. 2005). 15671038 Pubmed 2005 Identification of two novel human acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferases: members of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) gene superfamily Turkish, Aaron R Henneberry, Annette L Cromley, Debra Padamsee, Mahajabeen Oelkers, P Bazzi, Hisham Christiano, Angela M Billheimer, JT Sturley, Stephen L J. Biol. Chem. 280:14755-64 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.75 AWAT2 transfers PALM from PALM-CoA to HXOL, forming palmityl palmitate ester AWAT2 transfers PALM from PALM-CoA to HXOL, forming palmityl palmitate ester This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 8848577 1 Reactome DB_ID: 200993 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8848499 1 palmityl palmitate [ChEBI:75584] palmityl palmitate cetyl palmitate palmitic acid, cetyl ester hexadecanoic acid, hexadecyl ester WE(16:0/16:0) n-hexadecyl hexadecanoate hexadecanyl hexadecanoate hexadecyl hexadecanoate palmitic acid palmityl ester n-hexadecanyl palmitate ChEBI 75584 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10713766 Homologues of AWAT2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Dmel\CG1941 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Dgat2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Dmel\CG1946 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Reactome Database ID Release 83 10736121 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10736121 Reactome Database ID Release 83 10736123 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10736123 Reactome R-DME-8848582 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-8848582.1 AWAT2 (Acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2, also known as MFAT and DC4) associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane catalyzes the reaction of HXOL (hexadecanol) and PALM-CoA (palmitoyl-CoA) to form the wax monoester palmityl palmitate. The enzyme also acts efficiently on other long-chain fatty alcohols and fatty acyl CoAs. It is abundant in skin and is thought to play a central role in the synthesis of wax molecules that protect the skin from drying (Cheng & Russell 2004; Turkish et al. 2005; Yen et al. 2005). 15220349 Pubmed 2004 Mammalian wax biosynthesis. II. Expression cloning of wax synthase cDNAs encoding a member of the acyltransferase enzyme family Cheng, Jeffrey B Russell, David W J. Biol. Chem. 279:37798-807 16106050 Pubmed 2005 A human skin multifunctional O-acyltransferase that catalyzes the synthesis of acylglycerols, waxes, and retinyl esters Yen, Chi-Liang Eric Brown, Charles H Monetti, Mara Farese, RV J. Lipid Res. 46:2388-97 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.76 AWAT2 transfers PALM from PALM-CoA to atROL, forming atR-PALM AWAT2 transfers PALM from PALM-CoA to atROL, forming atR-PALM This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 30209 1 all-trans-retinol [ChEBI:17336] all-trans-retinol ChEBI 17336 Reactome DB_ID: 200993 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 Reactome DB_ID: 2534407 1 all-trans-retinyl palmitate [ChEBI:17616] all-trans-retinyl palmitate ChEBI 17616 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 10713766 GO 0050252 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 83 10713767 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10713767 Reactome Database ID Release 83 10736125 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10736125 Reactome R-DME-8848585 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-8848585.1 AWAT2 (Acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2, also known as MFAT and DC4) associated with the endoplasmic reticulum membrane catalyzes the reaction of atROL (all-trans retinol) and PALM-CoA (palmitoyl-CoA) to form the ester retinyl palmitate. This ester is thought to provide an inactive storage form of retinol and might play a role in protecting skin, where AWAT2 is most abundant from the effects of UV light (Arne et al. 2017; Yen et al. 2005). 28096191 Pubmed 2017 Allosteric modulation of the substrate specificity of acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2 (AWAT2) Arne, Jason M Widjaja-Adhi, Made Airanthi K Hughes, Taylor Huynh, Kevin W Silvaroli, Josie A Chelstowska, Sylwia Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y Golczak, Marcin J. Lipid Res. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 83 10750305 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10750305 Reactome R-DME-9640463 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-9640463.1 GO 0010025 GO biological process Waxes are esters of long chain fatty acids and long chain fatty alcohols that play an important role in protecting the skin surface from drying and abrasion. Enzymes that catalyze two reactions of wax biosynthesis have been characterized in humans. FAR1 and FAR2 catalyze the reduction of fatty acids to fatty alcohols in the peroxisome and AWAT1 and AWAT2 catalyze the reaction of fatty alcohols and acyl-CoA in the cytosol to form wax esters. The existence of a transport process, otherwise uncharacterized, to move fatty alcohols from the peroxisome to the cytosol is inferred from the observation that cultured cells that do not normally synthesize waxes can be induced to do so by co-transfection with DNA constructs encoding FAR and AWAT enzymes (Cheng & Russell 2004a,b). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA