BioPAX pathway converted from "TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 recruits TRIF (TICAM1)" in the Reactome database. TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 recruits TRIF (TICAM1) TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 recruits TRIF (TICAM1) TRIF (TICAM1) mediates the MyD88-independent pathway from TLR4. Authored: de Bono, B, 2005-08-16 10:54:15 Reviewed: Gay, NJ, 2006-04-24 16:48:17 Reviewed: Gillespie, ME, 2010-11-30 Reviewed: Fitzgerald, Katherine A, 2012-11-13 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2011-08-12 Reactome DB_ID: 166163 1 endosome membrane GO 0010008 TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 [endosome membrane] TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 Reactome DB_ID: 2201336 2 UniProt:Q86XR7 TICAM2 TICAM2 TICAM2 TIRP TIRAP3 TRAM FUNCTION Functions as sorting adapter in different signaling pathways to facilitate downstream signaling leading to type I interferon induction (PubMed:16603631, PubMed:16757566, PubMed:25385819, PubMed:25825441). In TLR4 signaling, physically bridges TLR4 and TICAM1 and functionally transmits signal to TICAM1 in early endosomes after endocytosis of TLR4. In TLR2 signaling, physically bridges TLR2 and MYD88 and is required for the TLR2-dependent movement of MYD88 to endosomes following ligand engagement (PubMed:25385819). Involved in IL-18 signaling and is proposed to function as a sorting adapter for MYD88 in IL-18 signaling during adaptive immune response (PubMed:22685567). Forms a complex with RAB11FIP2 that is recruited to the phagosomes to promote the activation of the actin-regulatory GTPases RAC1 and CDC42 and subsequent phagocytosis of Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:30883606).SUBUNIT Homodimer. Interacts with TLR4, TICAM1, IRF3 and IRF7 in response to LPS. Interacts with IL1R1, IL1RAP, IRAK2, IRAK3 and TRAF6. Interacts with protein kinase-inactive mutants of IRAK1 and IRAK4. Isoform 1 interacts with isoform 2; the interaction occurs in late endosomes and disrupts the interaction between isoform 1 and TICAM1. Interacts with MYD88; the interaction decreases after IL-18 stimulation in a time-dependent manner. Interacts with IL18R1 and IL18RAP. Interacts with TLR2 (PubMed:25385819). Interacts with RAB11FIP2 (PubMed:30883606).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in spleen, prostate, testis, uterus, small intestine, colon, peripheral blood leukocytes, heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas Isoform 2 is ubiquitously expressed (at lower levels than isoform 1).DOMAIN The TIR domain mediates the interaction with TRAF6 and MYD88.PTM Phosphorylated by PRKCE in response to LPS. Phosphorylation is essential for its function. It is depleted from the membrane upon phosphorylation. Tyrosine phosphorylation is inhibited by phosphatase PTPN4.PTM Isoform 1 is myristoylated. Required for membrane association which is critical for its ability to initiate efficient signaling. Reactome http://www.reactome.org Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt Q86XR7 N-myristoylglycine at 2 2 EQUAL N-myristoylglycine [MOD:00068] O-phospho-L-serine at 16 16 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine [MOD:00046] Chain Coordinates 2 EQUAL 235 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 2201299 1 TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 [endosome membrane] TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 Reactome DB_ID: 2201291 2 TLR4:LY96 [endosome membrane] TLR4:LY96 Reactome DB_ID: 2201307 1 UniProt:Q9Y6Y9 LY96 LY96 ESOP1 LY96 MD2 FUNCTION Binds bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:17569869). Cooperates with TLR4 in the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and with TLR2 in the response to cell wall components from Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (PubMed:11160242, PubMed:11593030). Enhances TLR4-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B (PubMed:10359581). Cells expressing both LY96 and TLR4, but not TLR4 alone, respond to LPS (PubMed:10359581).SUBUNIT Heterogeneous homomer formed from homodimers; disulfide-linked (PubMed:11593030, PubMed:12642668). Belongs to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, a multi-protein complex containing at least CD14, LY96 and TLR4 (PubMed:11274165). Binds to the extracellular domains of TLR2 and TLR4 (PubMed:10359581, PubMed:11593030, PubMed:17803912). Ligand binding induces interaction with TLR4 and oligomerization of the complex.PTM N-glycosylated; high-mannose. UniProt Q9Y6Y9 19 EQUAL 160 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 2201285 1 UniProt:O00206 TLR4 TLR4 TLR4 FUNCTION Cooperates with LY96 and CD14 to mediate the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:27022195). Acts via MYD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response (PubMed:9237759, PubMed:10835634, PubMed:27022195,PubMed:21393102). Also involved in LPS-independent inflammatory responses triggered by free fatty acids, such as palmitate, and Ni(2+). Responses triggered by Ni(2+) require non-conserved histidines and are, therefore, species-specific (PubMed:20711192). Both M.tuberculosis HSP70 (dnaK) and HSP65 (groEL-2) act via this protein to stimulate NF-kappa-B expression (PubMed:15809303). In complex with TLR6, promotes sterile inflammation in monocytes/macrophages in response to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) or amyloid-beta 42. In this context, the initial signal is provided by oxLDL- or amyloid-beta 42-binding to CD36. This event induces the formation of a heterodimer of TLR4 and TLR6, which is rapidly internalized and triggers inflammatory response, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 and CCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine, via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion. Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-) (PubMed:23880187). Stimulation of monocytes in vitro with M.tuberculosis PstS1 induces p38 MAPK and ERK1/2 activation primarily via TLR2, but also partially via this receptor (PubMed:16622205, PubMed:10835634, PubMed:15809303, PubMed:17478729, PubMed:20037584, PubMed:20711192, PubMed:23880187, PubMed:27022195, PubMed:9237759). Activated by the signaling pathway regulator NMI which acts as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) in response to cell injury or pathogen invasion, therefore promoting nuclear factor NF-kappa-B activation (PubMed:29038465).SUBUNIT Belongs to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, a multi-protein complex containing at least CD14, LY96 and TLR4 (PubMed:11274165). Binding to bacterial LPS leads to homodimerization. Interacts with LY96 via the extracellular domain (PubMed:17803912, PubMed:19252480). Interacts with MYD88 and TIRAP via their respective TIR domains (By similarity). Interacts with TICAM2 (PubMed:14519765, PubMed:25736436). Interacts with NOX4 (PubMed:15356101). Interacts with CNPY3 (By similarity). Interacts with HSP90B1. The interaction with both CNPY3 and HSP90B1 is required for proper folding in the endoplasmic reticulum. Interacts with MAP3K21; this interaction leads to negative regulation of TLR4 signaling (PubMed:21602844). Interacts with CD36, following CD36 stimulation by oxLDL or amyloid-beta 42, and forms a heterodimer with TLR6 (PubMed:20037584). The trimeric complex is internalized and triggers inflammatory response. LYN kinase activity facilitates TLR4-TLR6 heterodimerization and signal initiation. Interacts with TICAM1 in response to LPS in a WDFY1-dependent manner (PubMed:25736436). Interacts with WDFY1 in response to LPS (By similarity). Interacts with SMPDL3B (By similarity). Interacts with CEACAM1; upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, forms a complex including TLR4 and the phosphorylated form of SYK and CEACAM1, which in turn, recruits PTPN6 that dephosphorylates SYK, reducing the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lysosome disruption, which in turn, reduces the activity of the inflammasome (By similarity). Interacts with RFTN1; the interaction occurs in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation (PubMed:27022195). Interacts with SCIMP; the interaction occurs in response to lipopolysaccharide stimulation and is enhanced by phosphorylation of SCIMP by LYN (By similarity). This interaction facilitates the phosphorylation of TLR4 by LYN which elicits a selective cytokine response in macrophages (By similarity). Interacts with TRAF3IP3 (PubMed:30573680). Interacts with TREM1; this interaction enhances TLR4-mediated inflammatory response (PubMed:21393102, PubMed:17098818).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) In case of infection, interacts with uropathogenic E.coli protein TcpC.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in placenta, spleen and peripheral blood leukocytes (PubMed:9435236, PubMed:9237759). Detected in monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells and several types of T-cells (PubMed:9237759, PubMed:27022195).DOMAIN The TIR domain mediates interaction with NOX4.DOMAIN The TIR domain mediates NAD(+) hydrolase (NADase) activity. Self-association of TIR domains is required for NADase activity.PTM N-glycosylated. Glycosylation of Asn-526 and Asn-575 seems to be necessary for the expression of TLR4 on the cell surface and the LPS-response. Likewise, mutants lacking two or more of the other N-glycosylation sites were deficient in interaction with LPS.PTM Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by LYN after binding lipopolysaccharide.POLYMORPHISM Allele TLR4*B (Gly-299, Ile-399) is associated with a blunted response to inhaled LPS.MISCELLANEOUS His-456 and His-458 are found in TLR4 of human and several other primate species and may be responsible for inflammatory responses triggered by nickel (Ni(2+)). Ni(2+) may cross-link the two receptor monomers through specific histidines, triggering the formation of a dimer that structurally resembles that induced by LPS. This process may be the basis for the development of contact allergy to Ni(2+). A mouse model of contact allergy to Ni(2+) in which TLR4-deficient mice expresses human TLR4 has been proposed.SIMILARITY Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family. UniProt O00206 24 EQUAL 839 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 2201291 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2201291 Reactome R-HSA-2201291 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2201291.1 Reactome DB_ID: 2201311 2 endosome lumen GO 0031904 lipopolysaccharide [ChEBI:16412] lipopolysaccharide lipopolysaccharides LPS ChEBI 16412 Reactome DB_ID: 2201284 2 UniProt:P08571 CD14 CD14 CD14 FUNCTION Coreceptor for bacterial lipopolysaccharide (PubMed:1698311, PubMed:23264655). In concert with LBP, binds to monomeric lipopolysaccharide and delivers it to the LY96/TLR4 complex, thereby mediating the innate immune response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (PubMed:20133493, PubMed:23264655, PubMed:22265692). Acts via MyD88, TIRAP and TRAF6, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response (PubMed:8612135). Acts as a coreceptor for TLR2:TLR6 heterodimer in response to diacylated lipopeptides and for TLR2:TLR1 heterodimer in response to triacylated lipopeptides, these clusters trigger signaling from the cell surface and subsequently are targeted to the Golgi in a lipid-raft dependent pathway (PubMed:16880211). Binds electronegative LDL (LDL(-)) and mediates the cytokine release induced by LDL(-) (PubMed:23880187).SUBUNIT Interacts with LPS-bound LPB (PubMed:1698311, PubMed:23264655). Belongs to the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) receptor, a multi-protein complex containing at least CD14, LY96 and TLR4 (PubMed:11274165). Interacts with LPAR1 (By similarity). Interacts with the TLR2:TLR6 or TLR2:TLR1 heterodimers; upon interaction with ligands such as diacylated lipopeptides and triacylated lipopeptides, respectively (PubMed:16880211). Interacts with MYO18A (PubMed:25965346). Interacts with FSTL1 (PubMed:22265692).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Detected on macrophages (at protein level) (PubMed:1698311). Expressed strongly on the surface of monocytes and weakly on the surface of granulocytes; also expressed by most tissue macrophages.INDUCTION The expression in monocytes is highly induced by 27-hydroxycholesterol, priming monocytes/macrophages such that LPS-mediated inflammatory reaction is accelerated. Secretion of soluble CD14 is also enhanced.DOMAIN The C-terminal leucine-rich repeat (LRR) region is required for responses to smooth LPS.PTM N- and O- glycosylated. O-glycosylated with a core 1 or possibly core 8 glycan. UniProt P08571 N-asparaginyl-glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine at 345 345 EQUAL N-asparaginyl-glycosylphosphatidylinositolethanolamine [MOD:00167] 20 EQUAL 345 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 2201299 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2201299 Reactome R-HSA-2201299 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2201299.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 166163 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=166163 Reactome R-HSA-166163 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-166163.1 Reactome DB_ID: 166170 2 cytosol GO 0005829 UniProt:Q8IUC6 TICAM1 TICAM1 PRVTIRB TICAM1 TRIF FUNCTION Involved in innate immunity against invading pathogens. Adapter used by TLR3, TLR4 (through TICAM2) and TLR5 to mediate NF-kappa-B and interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) activation, and to induce apoptosis (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303, PubMed:28747347). Ligand binding to these receptors results in TRIF recruitment through its TIR domain (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303). Distinct protein-interaction motifs allow recruitment of the effector proteins TBK1, TRAF6 and RIPK1, which in turn, lead to the activation of transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7, NF-kappa-B and FADD respectively (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303). Phosphorylation by TBK1 on the pLxIS motif leads to recruitment and subsequent activation of the transcription factor IRF3 to induce expression of type I interferon and exert a potent immunity against invading pathogens (PubMed:25636800). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (By similarity).SUBUNIT Homodimer (PubMed:12539043). Found in a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex at least composed of DHX36, DDX1, DDX21 and TICAM1; this complex exists in resting cells with or without poly(I:C) RNA ligand stimulation. Interacts (via TIR domain) with DDX21 (via C-terminus). Interacts (via TIR domain) with DHX36 (via C-terminus) (By similarity). Interacts with AZI2 and IRF7 (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:15611223). Interacts with TICAM2 in TLR4 recruitment (PubMed:12721283, PubMed:25736436). Interaction with PIAS4 inhibits the TICAM1-induced NF-kappa-B, IRF and IFNB1 activation (PubMed:15251447). Interacts with IKBKB and IKBKE. Interaction with SARM1 blocks TICAM1-dependent transcription factor activation (PubMed:16964262). Interacts with TRAF3 (By similarity). Interacts (when phosphorylated) with IRF3; following activation and phosphorylation on the pLxIS motif by TBK1, recruits IRF3 (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:14739303, PubMed:25636800, PubMed:27302953). Interacts with TBK1, TRAF6 and RIPK1 and these interactions are enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:14982987, PubMed:25736436). Interacts with TRAFD1 (By similarity). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via UBA domain) (PubMed:21695056). Interacts with TLR4 in response to LPS in a WDFY1-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts with WDFY1 in response to poly(I:C) (By similarity). Interacts (via the TIR domain) with TLR3 in response to poly(I:C) and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:25736436). Interacts with TRIM56 (PubMed:22948160). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (By similarity). Interacts (via the TIR domain) with TLR5 (PubMed:20855887). Interacts with TRIM8 (PubMed:28747347).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease; this interaction leads to TICAM1 cleavage, thereby disrupting TLR3 signaling and preventing the establishment of an antiviral state.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Seneca Valley virus protease 3C; this interaction allows the cleavage of TICAM1/TRIF and subsequent suppression of host innate immunity.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via C-terminus) with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) protease 3C.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitously expressed but with higher levels in liver.DOMAIN The pLxIS motif constitutes an IRF3-binding motif: following phosphorylation by TBK1, the phosphorylated pLxIS motif of TICAM1 recruits IRF3 (PubMed:25636800). IRF3 is then phosphorylated and activated by TBK1 to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines (PubMed:25636800).DOMAIN The N-terminal region is essential for activation of the IFNB promoter activity.DOMAIN The N-terminal domain (TRIF-NTD) is globular and consists of two alpha-helical subdomains connected by a 14-residue linker. It shares structural similarity with IFIT family members N-terminal regions.PTM Phosphorylated by TBK1 (PubMed:14530355, PubMed:25636800). Following activation, phosphorylated by TBK1 at Ser-210 in the pLxIS motif (PubMed:25636800). The phosphorylated pLxIS motif constitutes an IRF3-binding motif, leading to recruitment of the transcription factor IRF3 to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines (PubMed:25636800, PubMed:27302953).PTM Polyubiquitinated by TRIM38 with 'Lys-48'-linked chains, leading to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:23056470). Polyubiquitinated with 'Lys-6'- and 'Lys-33'-linked chains in a TRIM8-dependent manner; ubiquitination disrupts the interaction with TBK1 and subsequent interferon production (PubMed:28747347).PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved and degraded by hepatitis A virus (HAV) protein 3CD allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by CVB3 protease 3C allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by Seneca Valley virus protease 3C allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by protease 3C of human enterovirus D68 (EV68) allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by HCV protease NS3/4A, thereby disrupting TLR3 signaling and preventing the establishment of an antiviral state. UniProt Q8IUC6 1 EQUAL 712 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 166172 1 TICAM1:TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 [endosome membrane] TICAM1:TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 TRIF:TRAM:TLR4:LY96:LPS:CD14 Reactome DB_ID: 166163 1 Reactome DB_ID: 166170 2 1 EQUAL 712 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 166172 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=166172 Reactome R-HSA-166172 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-166172.2 Reactome Database ID Release 78 166175 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=166175 Reactome R-HSA-166175 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-166175.2 14556004 Pubmed 2003 TRAM is specifically involved in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated Yamamoto, M Sato, S Hemmi, H Uematsu, S Hoshino, K Kaisho, T Takeuchi, O Takeda, K Nat Immunol 4:1144-50 12855817 Pubmed 2003 Role of adaptor TRIF in the MyD88-independent toll-like receptor signaling pathway Yamamoto, M Sato, S Hemmi, H Hoshino, K Kaisho, T Sanjo, H Takeuchi, O Sugiyama, M Okabe, M Takeda, K Science 301:640-3 14517278 Pubmed 2003 LPS-TLR4 signaling to IRF-3/7 and NF-kappaB involves the toll adapters Fitzgerald, Katherine A Rowe, DC Barnes, BJ Caffrey, DR Visintin, A Latz, E Monks, BG Pitha-Rowe, Paula M Golenbock, DT J Exp Med 198:1043-55