BioPAX pathway converted from "Signaling by NOTCH4" in the Reactome database. Signaling by NOTCH4 Signaling by NOTCH4 The NOTCH4 gene locus was discovered as a frequent site of insertion for the proviral genome of the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) (Gallahan and Callahan 1987). MMTV-insertion results in aberrant expression of the mouse mammary tumor gene int-3, which was subsequently discovered to represent the intracellular domain of Notch4 (Robbins et al. 1992, Uyttendaele et al. 1996).<br><br>NOTCH4 is prevalently expressed in endothelial cells (Uyttendaele et al. 1996). DLL4 and JAG1 act as ligands for NOTCH4 in human endothelial cells (Shawber et al. 2003, Shawber et al. 2007), but DLL4- and JAG1-mediated activation of NOTCH4 have not been confirmed in all cell types tested (Aste-Amezaga et al. 2010, James et al. 2014). The gamma secretase complex cleaves activated NOTCH4 receptor to release the intracellular domain fragment (NICD4) (Saxena et al. 2001, Das et al. 2004). NICD4 traffics to the nucleus where it acts as a transcription factor and stimulates expression of NOTCH target genes HES1, HES5, HEY1 and HEY2, as well as VEGFR3 and ACTA2 (Lin et al. 2002, Raafat et al.2004, Tsunematsu et al. 2004, Shawber et al. 2007, Tang et al. 2008, Bargo et al. 2010). NOTCH4 signaling can be downregulated by AKT1 phosphorylation-induced cytoplasmic retention (Ramakrishnan et al. 2015) as well as proteasome-dependent degradation upon FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination (Wu et al. 2001, Tsunematsu et al. 2004).<br><br>NOTCH4 was reported to inhibit NOTCH1 signaling in-cis, by binding to NOTCH1 and interfering with the S1 cleavage of NOTCH1, thus preventing production of functional NOTCH1 heterodimers at the cell surface (James et al. 2014).<br><br>NOTCH4 is involved in development of the vascular system. Overexpression of constitutively active Notch4 in mouse embryonic vasculature results in abnormal vessel structure and patterning (Uyttendaele et al. 2001). NOTCH4 may act to inhibit apoptosis of endothelial cells (MacKenzie et al. 2004).<br><br>Expression of int-3 interferes with normal mammary gland development in mice and promotes tumorigenesis. The phenotype of mice expressing int-3 in mammary glands is dependent on the presence of Rbpj (Raafat et al. 2009). JAG1 and NOTCH4 are upregulated in human ER+ breast cancers resistant to anti-estrogen therapy, which correlates with elevated expression of NOTCH target genes HES1, HEY1 and HEY2, and is associated with increased population of breast cancer stem cells and distant metastases (Simoes et al. 2015). Development of int-3-induced mammary tumours in mice depends on Kit and Pdgfra signaling (Raafat et al. 2006) and on int-3-induced activaton of NFKB signaling (Raafat et al. 2017). In head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), high NOTCH4 expression correlates with elevated HEY1 levels, increased cell proliferation and survival, epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype and cisplatin resistance (Fukusumi et al. 2018). In melanoma, however, exogenous NOTCH4 expression correlates with mesenchymal-to-epithelial-like transition and reduced invasiveness (Bonyadi Rad et al. 2016). NOTCH4 is frequently overexpressed in gastric cancer. Increased NOTCH4 levels correlate with activation of WNT signaling and gastric cancer progression (Qian et al. 2015).<br><br>NOTCH4 is expressed in adipocytes and may promote adipocyte differentiation (Lai et al. 2013).<br><br>During Dengue virus infection, DLL1, DLL4, NOTCH4 and HES1 are upregulated in interferon-beta (INFB) dependent manner (Li et al. 2015). NOTCH4 signaling may be affected by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection, as the EBV protein BARF0 binds to NOTCH4 (Kusano and Raab-Traub 2001). Authored: Jassal, B, 2004-12-15 13:08:03 Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Joutel, A, 2004-12-15 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, M, 2012-02-10 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 NOTCH4 Activation and Transmission of Signal to the Nucleus NOTCH4 Activation and Transmission of Signal to the Nucleus NOTCH4 is co-expressed with DLL4 (Delta-4) and JAG1 (Jagged-1) in the vascular system (Shutter et al. 2000, Uyttendaele et al. 2000). NOTCH4 can be activated by DLL4 and JAG1 when HMVECd cells (human primary endothelial cell line derived from neonatal dermal microvasculature) or HUVEC cells (human umbilical venous endothelial cell line) expressing recombinant mouse Notch4 are co-cultured with HMVECd or HUVEC cells expressing recombinant human or mouse DLL4 (Shawber et al. 2003, Shawber et al. 2007) or mouse Jag1 (Shawber et al. 2007). Activation of NOTCH4 by DLL4 and JAG1 could not be reproduced when the mouse fibroblast cell line NIH 3T3 or human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 was transduced with Notch4- or either Dll4- or Jag1-expressing vectors and used in co-culture experiments (Aste-Amezaga et al. 2010, James et al. 2014).<br><br>Signaling by NOTCH4, similar to other NOTCH family proteins, involves proteolytic cleavage of the membrane-bound NOTCH4 receptor and release of the NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment (NICD4) into the cytosol (Saxena et al. 2001, Das et al. 2004). NICD4 traffics from the cytosol to the nucleus, where it acts as a transcription factor (Lin et al. 2002). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 DLL4 binds NOTCH4 DLL4 binds NOTCH4 Both DLL4 and NOTCH4 are strongly expressed in the vascular endothelium and DLL4 is able to activate NOTCH4 signaling (Shutter et al. 2000, Shawber et al. 2003, Shawber et al. 2007). In mice, Notch4 and Dll4 are specifically expressed in arterial endothelial cells, and Dll4 is required for normal arterial patterning and development (Duarte et al. 2004). Authored: Jassal, B, 2004-12-15 13:08:03 Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Reviewed: Joutel, A, 2004-12-15 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 158437 1 plasma membrane GO 0005886 UniProt:Q9NR61 DLL4 DLL4 DLL4 UNQ1895/PRO4341 FUNCTION Involved in the Notch signaling pathway as Notch ligand (PubMed:11134954). Activates NOTCH1 and NOTCH4. Involved in angiogenesis; negatively regulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration and angiogenic sprouting (PubMed:20616313). Essential for retinal progenitor proliferation. Required for suppressing rod fates in late retinal progenitors as well as for proper generation of other retinal cell types (By similarity). During spinal cord neurogenesis, inhibits V2a interneuron fate (PubMed:17728344).SUBUNIT Interacts with NOTCH4. Interacts (via N-terminal DSL and MNNL domains) with NOTCH1 (via EGF-like domains).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in vascular endothelium.DOMAIN The Delta-Serrate-Lag2 (DSL) domain is required for binding to the Notch receptor. Reactome http://www.reactome.org Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt Q9NR61 Chain Coordinates 27 EQUAL 685 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 157053 1 NOTCH4 [plasma membrane] NOTCH4 NTM-NEC 4 heterodimer Reactome DB_ID: 157213 1 UniProt:Q99466 NOTCH4 NOTCH4 NOTCH4 INT3 FUNCTION Functions as a receptor for membrane-bound ligands Jagged1, Jagged2 and Delta1 to regulate cell-fate determination. Upon ligand activation through the released notch intracellular domain (NICD) it forms a transcriptional activator complex with RBPJ/RBPSUH and activates genes of the enhancer of split locus. Affects the implementation of differentiation, proliferation and apoptotic programs. May regulate branching morphogenesis in the developing vascular system (By similarity).SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a C-terminal fragment N(TM) and a N-terminal fragment N(EC) which are probably linked by disulfide bonds (By similarity). Interacts with MAML1, MAML2 and MAML3 which act as transcriptional coactivators for NOTCH4.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in the heart, moderately in the lung and placenta and at low levels in the liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, pancreas, spleen, lymph node, thymus, bone marrow and fetal liver. No expression was seen in adult brain or peripheral blood leukocytes.PTM Synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum as an inactive form which is proteolytically cleaved by a furin-like convertase in the trans-Golgi network before it reaches the plasma membrane to yield an active, ligand-accessible form. Cleavage results in a C-terminal fragment N(TM) and a N-terminal fragment N(EC). Following ligand binding, it is cleaved by TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE) to yield a membrane-associated intermediate fragment called notch extracellular truncation (NEXT). This fragment is then cleaved by presenilin dependent gamma-secretase to release a notch-derived peptide containing the intracellular domain (NICD) from the membrane (By similarity).PTM Phosphorylated.POLYMORPHISM The poly-Leu region of NOTCH4 (in the signal peptide) is polymorphic and the number of Leu varies in the population (from 6 to 12).SIMILARITY Belongs to the NOTCH family. UniProt Q99466 1337 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 1983677 1 extracellular region GO 0005576 O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 40 40 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine O-fucosyl-L-serine at 79 79 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-serine O-fucosyl-L-serine at 210 210 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 248 248 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 290 290 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 331 331 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 369 369 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-serine at 451 451 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 489 489 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-serine at 603 603 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 705 705 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-serine at 743 743 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 781 781 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 820 820 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 944 944 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 982 982 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine at 1060 1060 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-serine at 1145 1145 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 398 398 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine O-glucosyl-L-serine at 481 481 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 519 519 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 557 557 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 595 595 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 697 697 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 735 735 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 773 773 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 936 936 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 974 974 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine at 1052 1052 EQUAL 24 EQUAL 1336 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 157053 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=157053 Reactome R-HSA-157053 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-157053.1 Reactome DB_ID: 2105041 1 DLL4:NOTCH4 [plasma membrane] DLL4:NOTCH4 Reactome DB_ID: 158437 1 27 EQUAL 685 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 157053 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 2105041 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2105041 Reactome R-HSA-2105041 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2105041.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 2168987 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2168987 Reactome R-HSA-2168987 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2168987.1 15466159 Pubmed 2004 Dosage-sensitive requirement for mouse Dll4 in artery development Duarte, A Hirashima, Masanori Benedito, R Trindade, Alexandre Diniz, Patrícia Bekman, Evguenia Costa, Luís Henrique, Domingos Rossant, Janet Genes Dev. 18:2474-8 17948123 Pubmed 2007 Notch alters VEGF responsiveness in human and murine endothelial cells by direct regulation of VEGFR-3 expression Shawber, Carrie J Funahashi, Y Francisco, Esther Vorontchikhina, Marina Kitamura, Yukari Stowell, Stephanie A Borisenko, Valeriya Feirt, Nikki Podgrabinska, Simona Shiraishi, Kazuko Chawengsaksophak, Kallayanee Rossant, Janet Accili, D Skobe, Mihaela Kitajewski, J J. Clin. Invest. 117:3369-82 12814948 Pubmed 2003 Notch signaling in primary endothelial cells Shawber, Carrie J Das, I Francisco, Esther Kitajewski, J Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci. 995:162-70 10837024 Pubmed 2000 Dll4, a novel Notch ligand expressed in arterial endothelium Shutter, JR Scully, S Fan, W Richards, WG Kitajewski, J Deblandre, GA Kintner, CR Stark, KL Genes Dev 14:1313-8 GO 0045747 GO biological process JAG1 binds NOTCH4 JAG1 binds NOTCH4 JAG1 can activate NOTCH4 signaling, based on co-culture of JAG1-expressing and NOTCH4 expressing HUVEC cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cell line) (Shawber et al. 2007). JAG1 and NOTCH4 are upregulated in human ER+ breast cancers resistant to anti-estrogen therapy, which correlates with an increase in population of breast cancer stem cells (Simoes et al. 2015). Authored: Jassal, B, 2004-12-15 13:08:03 Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Joutel, A, 2004-12-15 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 157053 1 Reactome DB_ID: 157098 1 UniProt:P78504 JAG1 JAG1 JAG1 JAGL1 FUNCTION Ligand for multiple Notch receptors and involved in the mediation of Notch signaling (PubMed:18660822, PubMed:20437614). May be involved in cell-fate decisions during hematopoiesis (PubMed:9462510). Seems to be involved in early and late stages of mammalian cardiovascular development. Inhibits myoblast differentiation (By similarity). Enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced angiogenesis (in vitro).SUBUNIT Interacts with NOTCH2 and NOTCH3 (By similarity). Interacts with NOTCH1 (in the presence of calcium ions) (PubMed:18660822).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed in adult and fetal tissues. In cervix epithelium expressed in undifferentiated subcolumnar reserve cells and squamous metaplasia. Expression is up-regulated in cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Expressed in bone marrow cell line HS-27a which supports the long-term maintenance of immature progenitor cells.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Expressed in 32-52 days embryos in the distal cardiac outflow tract and pulmonary artery, major arteries, portal vein, optic vesicle, otocyst, branchial arches, metanephros, pancreas, mesocardium, around the major bronchial branches, and in the neural tube.DOMAIN The second EGF-like domain is atypical. UniProt P78504 34 EQUAL 1218 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9604245 1 JAG1:NOTCH4 [plasma membrane] JAG1:NOTCH4 Reactome DB_ID: 157053 1 Reactome DB_ID: 157098 1 34 EQUAL 1218 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604245 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604245 Reactome R-HSA-9604245 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604245.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604247 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604247 Reactome R-HSA-9604247 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604247.1 26387946 Pubmed 2015 Anti-estrogen Resistance in Human Breast Tumors Is Driven by JAG1-NOTCH4-Dependent Cancer Stem Cell Activity Simões, Bruno M O'Brien, Ciara S Eyre, Rachel Silva, Andreia Yu, Ling Sarmiento-Castro, Aida Alférez, Denis G Spence, Kath Santiago-Gómez, Angélica Chemi, Francesca Acar, Ahmet Gandhi, Ashu Howell, Anthony Brennan, Keith Rydén, Lisa Catalano, Stefania Andó, Sebastiano Gee, Julia Ucar, Ahmet Sims, Andrew H Marangoni, Elisabetta Farnie, Gillian Landberg, Göran Howell, Sacha J Clarke, Robert B Cell Rep 12:1968-77 ADAM10 cleaves NOTCH4 ADAM10 cleaves NOTCH4 Based on sequence similarity with other NOTCH family members and the requirement for knockout of both Notch1 and Notch4 in endothelial cells to recapitulate vasculature defects seen upon endothelial cell-specific Adam10 knockout, it is plausible that ADAM10 cleaves ligand-activated NOTCH4, releasing the membrane-bound NEXT4 fragment (Alabi et al. 2016). Authored: Jassal, B, 2004-12-15 13:08:03 Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Joutel, A, 2004-12-15 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9604269 1 DLL4:NOTCH4,JAG1:NOTCH4 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Reactome DB_ID: 157641 1 1432 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 157186 ADAM10:Zn2+ [plasma membrane] ADAM10:Zn2+ ADAM 10 metalloprotease (Zn cofactor) Reactome DB_ID: 109265 1 zinc(2+) [ChEBI:29105] zinc(2+) ChEBI 29105 Reactome DB_ID: 157237 1 UniProt:O14672 ADAM10 ADAM10 KUZ ADAM10 MADM FUNCTION Cleaves the membrane-bound precursor of TNF-alpha at '76-Ala-|-Val-77' to its mature soluble form. Responsible for the proteolytical release of soluble JAM3 from endothelial cells surface (PubMed:20592283). Responsible for the proteolytic release of several other cell-surface proteins, including heparin-binding epidermal growth-like factor, ephrin-A2, CD44, CDH2 and for constitutive and regulated alpha-secretase cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) (PubMed:26686862, PubMed:11786905, PubMed:29224781). Contributes to the normal cleavage of the cellular prion protein (PubMed:11477090). Involved in the cleavage of the adhesion molecule L1 at the cell surface and in released membrane vesicles, suggesting a vesicle-based protease activity (PubMed:12475894). Controls also the proteolytic processing of Notch and mediates lateral inhibition during neurogenesis (By similarity). Responsible for the FasL ectodomain shedding and for the generation of the remnant ADAM10-processed FasL (FasL APL) transmembrane form (PubMed:17557115). Also cleaves the ectodomain of the integral membrane proteins CORIN and ITM2B (PubMed:19114711, PubMed:21288900). Mediates the proteolytic cleavage of LAG3, leading to release the secreted form of LAG3 (By similarity). Mediates the proteolytic cleavage of IL6R and IL11RA, leading to the release of secreted forms of IL6R and IL11RA (PubMed:26876177). Enhances the cleavage of CHL1 by BACE1 (By similarity). Cleaves NRCAM (By similarity). Cleaves TREM2, resulting in shedding of the TREM2 ectodomain (PubMed:24990881). Involved in the development and maturation of glomerular and coronary vasculature (By similarity). During development of the cochlear organ of Corti, promotes pillar cell separation by forming a ternary complex with CADH1 and EPHA4 and cleaving CADH1 at adherens junctions (By similarity). May regulate the EFNA5-EPHA3 signaling (PubMed:16239146).FUNCTION (Microbial infection) Promotes the cytotoxic activity of S.aureus hly by binding to the toxin at zonula adherens and promoting formation of toxin pores.ACTIVITY REGULATION Catalytically inactive when the propeptide is intact and associated with the mature enzyme (By similarity). The disintegrin and cysteine-rich regions modulate access of substrates to exerts an inhibitory effect on the cleavage of ADAM10 substrates (PubMed:29224781).SUBUNIT Forms a ternary EFNA5-EPHA3-ADAM10 complex mediating EFNA5 extracellular domain shedding by ADAM10 which regulates the EFNA5-EPHA3 complex internalization and function, the cleavage occurs in trans, with ADAM10 and its substrate being on the membranes of opposing cells (PubMed:16239146). Interacts with the clathrin adapter AP2 complex subunits AP2A1, AP2A2, AP2B1, and AP2M1; this interaction facilitates ADAM10 endocytosis from the plasma membrane during long-term potentiation in hippocampal neurons (PubMed:23676497). Interacts (via extracellular domain) with TSPAN33 (via extracellular domain) and (via cytoplasmic domain) with AFDN; interaction with TSPAN33 allows the docking of ADAM10 to zonula adherens through a PDZ11-dependent interaction between TSPAN33 and PLEKHA7 while interaction with AFDN locks ADAM10 at zonula adherens (PubMed:30463011). Forms a ternary complex composed of ADAM10, EPHA4 and CADH1; within the complex, ADAM10 cleaves CADH1 which disrupts adherens junctions (By similarity). Interacts with EPHA2 (By similarity). Interacts with NGF in a divalent cation-dependent manner (PubMed:20164177). Interacts with TSPAN14; the interaction promotes ADAM10 maturation and cell surface expression (PubMed:26686862, PubMed:26668317). Interacts with TSPAN5, TSPAN10, TSPAN15, TSPAN17 and TSPAN33; these interactions regulate ADAM10 substrate specificity (PubMed:26686862). Interacts with DLG1; this interaction recruits ADAM10 to the cell membrane during long-term depression in hippocampal neurons (PubMed:23676497). Interacts (via extracellular domain) with BACE1 (via extracellular domain) (By similarity). Interacts with FAM171A1 (PubMed:30312582).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with S.aureus hly; this interaction is necessary for toxin pore formation, disruption of focal adhesions and S.aureus hly-mediated cytotoxicity.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in the brain (at protein level) (PubMed:23676497). Expressed in spleen, lymph node, thymus, peripheral blood leukocyte, bone marrow, cartilage, chondrocytes and fetal liver (PubMed:11511685, PubMed:9016778).INDUCTION In osteoarthritis affected-cartilage.DOMAIN The propeptide keeps the metalloprotease in a latent form via a cysteine switch mechanism. This mechanism may be mediated by a highly conserved cysteine (Cys-173) in the propeptide, which interacts and neutralizes the zinc-coordinating HEXGHXXGXXHD catalytic core of the metalloprotease domain. The dissociation of the cysteine from the zinc ion upon the activation-peptide release activates the enzyme.DOMAIN The Cys-rich region C-terminal to the disintegrin domain functions as a substrate-recognition module, it recognizes the EFNA5-EPHA3 complex but not the individual proteins (By similarity). Both Cys-rich and stalk region are necessary for interaction with TSPAN5, TSPAN10, TSPAN14, TSPAN17, TSPAN33 (PubMed:26668317). Stalk region is sufficient for interaction with TSPAN15 (By similarity).PTM The precursor is cleaved by furin and PCSK7. UniProt O14672 214 EQUAL 748 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 157186 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=157186 Reactome R-HSA-157186 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-157186.2 GO 0008237 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 157208 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=157208 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604264 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604264 Reactome R-HSA-9604264 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604264.1 27354212 Pubmed 2016 ADAM10-Dependent Signaling Through Notch1 and Notch4 Controls Development of Organ-Specific Vascular Beds Alabi, Rolake O Glomski, Krzysztof Haxaire, Coline Weskamp, Gisela Monette, Sébastien Blobel, Carl P Circ. Res. 119:519-31 GO 0035333 GO biological process 3.4.23.32 3.4.23.43 3.4.23.20 3.4.23.25 3.4.23.36 3.4.23.35 3.4.23.34 3.4.23.4 3.4.23.5 3.4.23.1 3.4.23.15 Gamma-secretase cleaves NOTCH4 Gamma-secretase cleaves NOTCH4 NEXT4 fragment of NOTCH4 is further cleaved at the S3 site by the gamma-secretase complex, which releases the intracellular domain NICD4 into the cytosol (Saxena et al. 2001, Das et al. 2004). Authored: Jassal, B, 2004-12-15 13:08:03 Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Joutel, A, 2004-12-15 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 157641 1 1432 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 157636 1 cytosol GO 0005829 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 157635 1 1432 EQUAL 1466 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 157343 gamma-secretase complex [plasma membrane] gamma-secretase complex Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9013333 1 Presenilin [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 157341 1 APH-1 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity APH1B [plasma membrane] APH1A [plasma membrane] UniProt Q8WW43 UniProt Q96BI3 Reactome DB_ID: 157331 1 UniProt:Q9NZ42 PSENEN PSENEN PSENEN PEN2 MDS033 FUNCTION Essential subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, an endoprotease complex that catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and APP (amyloid-beta precursor protein) (PubMed:12522139, PubMed:12763021, PubMed:12740439, PubMed:12679784, PubMed:24941111, PubMed:30598546, PubMed:30630874). The gamma-secretase complex plays a role in Notch and Wnt signaling cascades and regulation of downstream processes via its role in processing key regulatory proteins, and by regulating cytosolic CTNNB1 levels (Probable). PSENEN modulates both endoproteolysis of presenilin and gamma-secretase activity (PubMed:12522139, PubMed:12763021, PubMed:12740439, PubMed:12679784, PubMed:24941111).SUBUNIT The functional gamma-secretase complex is composed of at least four polypeptides: a presenilin homodimer (PSEN1 or PSEN2), nicastrin (NCSTN), APH1 (APH1A or APH1B) and PSENEN.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed. Expressed in leukocytes, lung, placenta, small intestine, liver, kidney, spleen thymus, skeletal muscle, heart and brain.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PEN-2 family.CAUTION The high-resolution electron microscopy structures indicate that the N-terminus is cytoplasmic, followed by two short helices that dip into the membrane, but do not cross it (PubMed:26280335). In contrast, results based on mutagenesis to create N-glycosylation sites indicate that the N-terminus is lumenal (PubMed:12639958, PubMed:30598546, PubMed:30630874). Both studies indicate that the C-terminus is lumenal (PubMed:12639958, PubMed:26280335). UniProt Q9NZ42 1 EQUAL 101 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 2534241 1 UniProt:Q92542 NCSTN NCSTN NCSTN KIAA0253 UNQ1874/PRO4317 FUNCTION Essential subunit of the gamma-secretase complex, an endoprotease complex that catalyzes the intramembrane cleavage of integral membrane proteins such as Notch receptors and APP (amyloid-beta precursor protein) (PubMed:10993067, PubMed:12679784, PubMed:25043039, PubMed:26280335, PubMed:30598546, PubMed:30630874). The gamma-secretase complex plays a role in Notch and Wnt signaling cascades and regulation of downstream processes via its role in processing key regulatory proteins, and by regulating cytosolic CTNNB1 levels.SUBUNIT Component of the gamma-secretase complex (PubMed:10993067, PubMed:30598546, PubMed:30630874). The functional gamma-secretase complex is composed of at least four polypeptides: a presenilin homodimer (PSEN1 or PSEN2), nicastrin (NCSTN), APH1 (APH1A or APH1B) and PSENEN/PEN2 (PubMed:12740439, PubMed:25043039, PubMed:26623517, PubMed:26280335, PubMed:25918421, PubMed:30598546, PubMed:30630874). Binds to proteolytic processed C-terminal fragments C83 and C99 of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) (PubMed:10993067, PubMed:30630874). Interacts with PSEN1 and PSEN2 (PubMed:10993067).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Detected in brain (at protein level) (PubMed:10993067). Widely expressed (PubMed:11396676).INDUCTION Constitutively expressed in neural cells.PTM N-glycosylated.SIMILARITY Belongs to the nicastrin family. UniProt Q92542 34 EQUAL 709 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 157343 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=157343 Reactome R-HSA-157343 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-157343.2 GO 0004190 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 157355 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=157355 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604294 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604294 Reactome R-HSA-9604294 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604294.1 11518718 Pubmed 2001 Murine notch homologs (N1-4) undergo presenilin-dependent proteolysis Saxena, MT Schroeter, EH Mumm, JS Kopan, R J Biol Chem 276:40268-73 15123653 Pubmed 2004 Notch oncoproteins depend on gamma-secretase/presenilin activity for processing and function Das, I Craig, Colleen Funahashi, Y Jung, Kwang-Mook Kim, Tae-Wan Byers, Richard Weng, Andrew P Kutok, Jeffery L Aster, JC Kitajewski, J J. Biol. Chem. 279:30771-80 NICD4 traffics to the nucleus NICD4 traffics to the nucleus The cytosolic NICD4 translocates to the nucleus. Trafficking of NICD4 to the nucleus is negatively regulated by binding of NICD4 to 14-3-3-zeta (YWHAZ), which happens upon NICD4 phosphorylation by activated AKT1 (Ramakrishnan et al. 2015). Authored: Jassal, B, 2004-12-15 13:08:03 Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Joutel, A, 2004-12-15 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 157636 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 157945 1 nucleoplasm GO 0005654 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604308 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604308 Reactome R-HSA-9604308 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604308.1 25740432 Pubmed 2015 AKT and 14-3-3 regulate Notch4 nuclear localization Ramakrishnan, Gopalakrishnan Davaakhuu, Gantulga Chung, Wen Cheng Zhu, He Rana, Ajay Filipovic, Aleksandra Green, Andrew R Atfi, Azeddine Pannuti, Antonio Miele, Lucio Tzivion, Guri Sci Rep 5:8782 INHIBITION Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604397 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604397 Reactome DB_ID: 9604390 p-4S-NICD4:YWHAZ dimer [cytosol] p-4S-NICD4:YWHAZ dimer Reactome DB_ID: 206751 1 YWHAZ dimer [cytosol] YWHAZ dimer 14-3-3 zeta dimer Reactome DB_ID: 206099 2 UniProt:P63104 YWHAZ YWHAZ YWHAZ FUNCTION Adapter protein implicated in the regulation of a large spectrum of both general and specialized signaling pathways. Binds to a large number of partners, usually by recognition of a phosphoserine or phosphothreonine motif. Binding generally results in the modulation of the activity of the binding partner. Induces ARHGEF7 activity on RAC1 as well as lamellipodia and membrane ruffle formation (PubMed:16959763). In neurons, regulates spine maturation through the modulation of ARHGEF7 activity (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with CDK16 and BSPRY (By similarity). Interacts with WEE1 (C-terminal). Interacts with SAMSN1 (By similarity). Interacts with MLF1 (phosphorylated form); the interaction retains it in the cytoplasm (By similarity). Interacts with Thr-phosphorylated ITGB2 (By similarity). Interacts with BCL2L11 (By similarity). Homodimer. Heterodimerizes with YWHAE. Homo- and heterodimerization is inhibited by phosphorylation on Ser-58. Interacts with FOXO4, NOXA1, SSH1 and ARHGEF2. Interacts with Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoS (unphosphorylated form). Interacts with BAX; the interaction occurs in the cytoplasm. Under stress conditions, MAPK8-mediated phosphorylation releases BAX to mitochondria. Interacts with phosphorylated RAF1; the interaction is inhibited when YWHAZ is phosphorylated on Thr-232 (PubMed:31024343). Interacts with BRAF (PubMed:31024343). Interacts with TP53; the interaction enhances p53 transcriptional activity. The Ser-58 phosphorylated form inhibits this interaction and p53 transcriptional activity. Interacts with ABL1 (phosphorylated form); the interaction retains ABL1 in the cytoplasm. Interacts with PKA-phosphorylated AANAT; the interaction modulates AANAT enzymatic activity by increasing affinity for arylalkylamines and acetyl-CoA and protecting the enzyme from dephosphorylation and proteasomal degradation. It may also prevent thiol-dependent inactivation. Interacts with AKT1; the interaction phosphorylates YWHAZ and modulates dimerization. Interacts with GAB2 and TLK2. Interacts with the 'Thr-369' phosphorylated form of DAPK2 (PubMed:26047703). Interacts with PI4KB, TBC1D22A and TBC1D22B (PubMed:23572552). Interacts with ZFP36L1 (via phosphorylated form); this interaction occurs in a p38 MAPK- and AKT-signaling pathways (By similarity). Interacts with SLITRK1 (PubMed:19640509). Interacts with AK5, LDB1, MADD, MARK3, PDE1A and SMARCB1 (PubMed:16959763). Interacts with MEFV (PubMed:27030597).PTM The delta, brain-specific form differs from the zeta form in being phosphorylated (By similarity). Phosphorylation on Ser-184 by MAPK8; promotes dissociation of BAX and translocation of BAX to mitochondria. Phosphorylation on Thr-232; inhibits binding of RAF1. Phosphorylated on Ser-58 by PKA and protein kinase C delta type catalytic subunit in a sphingosine-dependent fashion. Phosphorylation on Ser-58 by PKA; disrupts homodimerization and heterodimerization with YHAE and TP53.SIMILARITY Belongs to the 14-3-3 family.CAUTION Was originally thought to have phospholipase A2 activity. UniProt P63104 1 EQUAL 245 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 206751 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=206751 Reactome R-HSA-206751 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-206751.3 Reactome DB_ID: 9604329 1 O-phospho-L-serine at 1495 1495 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine [MOD:00046] O-phospho-L-serine at 1847 1847 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1865 1865 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1917 1917 EQUAL 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604390 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604390 Reactome R-HSA-9604390 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604390.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9013700 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9013700 Reactome R-HSA-9013700 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9013700.1 20161710 Pubmed 2010 Characterization of Notch1 antibodies that inhibit signaling of both normal and mutated Notch1 receptors Aste-Amézaga, Miguel Zhang, Ningyan Lineberger, Janet E Arnold, Beth A Toner, Timothy J Gu, Mingcheng Huang, Lingyi Vitelli, Salvatore Vo, Kim T Haytko, Peter Zhao, Jing Zhang Baleydier, Frederic L'Heureux, S Wang, Hongfang Gordon, Wendy R Thoryk, Elizabeth Andrawes, Marie Blanke Tiyanont, Kittichoat Stegmaier, Kimberly Roti, Giovanni Ross, Kenneth N Franlin, Laura L Wang, Hui Wang, Fubao Chastain, Michael Bett, Andrew J Audoly, Laurent P Aster, JC Blacklow, SC Huber, HE PLoS ONE 5:e9094 10964583 Pubmed 2000 Notch4 and Jagged-1 induce microvessel differentiation of rat brain endothelial cells Uyttendaele, H Closson, V Wu, G Roux, F Weinmaster, G Kitajewski, J Microvasc. Res. 60:91-103 12386158 Pubmed 2002 Identification of new human mastermind proteins defines a family that consists of positive regulators for notch signaling Lin, Sey-En Oyama, Toshinao Nagase, Takahiro Harigaya, Kenichi Kitagawa, Motoo J. Biol. Chem. 277:50612-20 20804727 Pubmed 2010 Transforming acidic coiled-coil protein-3 (Tacc3) acts as a negative regulator of Notch signaling through binding to CDC10/Ankyrin repeats Bargo, Sharon Raafat, Ahmed McCurdy, David Amirjazil, Idean Shu, Youmin Traicoff, June Plant, Joshua Vonderhaar, Barbara K Callahan, Robert Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 400:606-12 24667410 Pubmed 2014 Notch4 reveals a novel mechanism regulating Notch signal transduction James, A C Szot, J O Iyer, K Major, J A Pursglove, S E Chapman, G Dunwoodie, S L Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1843:1272-84 GO 0007219 GO biological process NOTCH4 Intracellular Domain Regulates Transcription NOTCH4 Intracellular Domain Regulates Transcription In the nucleus, NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment (NICD4) binds transcription factors RBPJ (CSL) and mastermind family members (MAML1, MAML2 or MAML3) to form the NOTCH4 co-activator complex (Lin et al. 2002). The NOTCH4 coactivator complex stimulates transcription of well-established NOTCH targets HES1, HES5, HEY1 and HEY2 in a cellular context-dependent manner (Lin et al. 2002, Raafat et al.2004, Tsunematsu et al. 2004, Bargo et al. 2010). NOTCH4 also stimulates transcription of the FLT4 (VEGFR3) gene, encoding vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (Shawber et al. 2007) and ACTA2 gene, encoding smooth muscle alpha actin (Tang et al. 2008).<br><br>NICD4 inhibits TGF-beta-induced SMAD-mediated transcription via binding of NICD4 to TGF-beta activated SMAD3 (Sun et al. 2005, Grabias and Konstantopoulos 2013). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 NICD4 binds RBPJ and MAML in the nucleus NICD4 binds RBPJ and MAML in the nucleus In the nucleus, NICD4 forms a complex with RBPJ (CBF1, CSL) and MAML (mastermind) proteins MAML1, MAML2 or MAML3 (possibly also MAMLD1). NICD4:RBPJ:MAML complex activates transcription from RBPJ-binding promoter elements (Lin et al. 2002).<br><br>Besides NICD4, RBPJ and MAML, NOTCH4 coactivator complex likely includes other proteins, shown as components of the NOTCH1 coactivator complex. Since disruption of the RBPJ:NCOR corepressor and MAML-mediated recruitment of transcriptional activators has not been studied in the context of NICD4, it is not shown here. More details are available in the pathway Signaling by NOTCH1.<br><br>NOTCH4 does not alter DNA binding specificity of RBPJ (Del Bianco et al. 2010). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 157945 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 3008668 1 UniProt:Q06330 RBPJ RBPJ IGKJRB RBPJK RBPSUH IGKJRB1 RBPJ FUNCTION Transcriptional regulator that plays a central role in Notch signaling, a signaling pathway involved in cell-cell communication that regulates a broad spectrum of cell-fate determinations. Acts as a transcriptional repressor when it is not associated with Notch proteins. When associated with some NICD product of Notch proteins (Notch intracellular domain), it acts as a transcriptional activator that activates transcription of Notch target genes. Probably represses or activates transcription via the recruitment of chromatin remodeling complexes containing histone deacetylase or histone acetylase proteins, respectively. Specifically binds to the immunoglobulin kappa-type J segment recombination signal sequence. Binds specifically to methylated DNA (PubMed:21991380). Binds to the oxygen responsive element of COX4I2 and activates its transcription under hypoxia conditions (4% oxygen) (PubMed:23303788). Negatively regulates the phagocyte oxidative burst in response to bacterial infection by repressing transcription of NADPH oxidase subunits (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with activated NOTCH1, NOTCH2 or NOTCH3. Interacts with MINT/SHARP. This interaction may mediate the recruitment of large corepressor complexes containing proteins such as HDAC1, HDAC2, NCOR2, SAP30, FHL1/KYOT2 and CIR1. Interacts with EP300, MAML1 and PTF1A. Interacts with Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2, EBNA3, EBNA4 and EBNA6. Interacts with RITA1/C12orf52, leading to nuclear export, prevent the interaction between RBPJ and NICD product and subsequent down-regulation of the Notch signaling pathway. Interacts with SNW1. Interacts with CHCHD2 and CXXC5 (PubMed:23303788). Interacts with BEND6 (via BEN domain). Interacts with NKAPL (By similarity). Interacts with ZMIZ1. Interacts with RBM15 (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the Su(H) family.CAUTION Despite some similarity with the 'phage' integrase family, it has no recombinase activity. UniProt Q06330 1 EQUAL 500 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 212357 1 MAML [nucleoplasm] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity MAML2 [nucleoplasm] MAML3 [nucleoplasm] MAML1 [nucleoplasm] UniProt Q8IZL2 UniProt Q96JK9 UniProt Q92585 Reactome DB_ID: 9013697 1 NOTCH4 coactivator complex [nucleoplasm] NOTCH4 coactivator complex Reactome DB_ID: 157945 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 3008668 1 1 EQUAL 500 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 212357 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9013697 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9013697 Reactome R-HSA-9013697 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9013697.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9013693 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9013693 Reactome R-HSA-9013693 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9013693.1 21124806 Pubmed 2010 Notch and MAML-1 complexation do not detectably alter the DNA binding specificity of the transcription factor CSL Del Bianco, Cristina Vedenko, Anastasia Choi, SH Berger, Michael F Shokri, Leila Bulyk, Martha L Blacklow, SC PLoS ONE 5:e15034 HES1 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 HES1 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 NOTCH4 expression correlates with increased HES1 gene transcription in different cell types (Raafat et al. 2004, Lai et al. 2013, Simoes et al. 2015). A recombinant human NICD4 stimulates transcription from the recombinant human HES1-luciferase reporter construct (Raafat et al. 2004). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 2197548 1 ENSEMBL:ENSG00000114315 HES1 HL HES1 BHLHB39 HRY ENSEMBL ENSG00000114315 Reactome DB_ID: 210825 1 UniProt:Q14469 HES1 HES1 HL HES1 BHLHB39 HRY FUNCTION Transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. May act as a negative regulator of myogenesis by inhibiting the functions of MYOD1 and ASH1. Binds DNA on N-box motifs: 5'-CACNAG-3' with high affinity and on E-box motifs: 5'-CANNTG-3' with low affinity (By similarity). May play a role in a functional FA core complex response to DNA cross-link damage, being required for the stability and nuclear localization of FA core complex proteins, as well as for FANCD2 monoubiquitination in response to DNA damage.SUBUNIT Transcription repression requires formation of a complex with a corepressor protein of the Groucho/TLE family. Interacts (via WPRW motif) with TLE1, and more weakly with TLE2. Interacts with HES6 (By similarity). Interacts with SIRT1. Interacts with an FA complex, composed of FANCA, FANCF, FANCG and FANCL, but not of FANCC, nor FANCE.DOMAIN Has a particular type of basic domain (presence of a helix-interrupting proline) that binds to the N-box (CACNAG), rather than the canonical E-box (CANNTG).DOMAIN The C-terminal WRPW motif is a transcriptional repression domain necessary for the interaction with Groucho/TLE family members, transcriptional corepressors recruited to specific target DNA by Hairy-related proteins.DOMAIN The bHLH, as well as cooperation between the central Orange domain and the C-terminal WRPW motif, is required for transcriptional repressor activity. UniProt Q14469 1 EQUAL 280 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9013711 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9013711 Reactome R-HSA-9013711 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9013711.1 23237809 Pubmed 2013 Active form Notch4 promotes the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes Lai, Peng-Yeh Tsai, Chong-Bin Tseng, Min-Jen Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 430:1132-9 15531924 Pubmed 2004 Mammary development and tumorigenesis in mice expressing a truncated human Notch4/Int3 intracellular domain (h-Int3sh) Raafat, Ahmed Bargo, Sharon Anver, Miriam R Callahan, Robert Oncogene 23:9401-7 GO 0045893 GO biological process ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604435 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604435 Reactome DB_ID: 9013697 HES5 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 HES5 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 The NOTCH4 co-activator complex, composed of NICD4 (NOTCH4 intracellular domain), RBPJ (CSL) and one of mastermind proteins, MAML1, MAML2 or MAML3, stimulates transcription from the HES5 gene promoter. The highest level of transcriptional activation of HES5 by NOTCH4 is seen when MAML2 is overexpressed, compared to the other two MAML proteins (Lin et al. 2002). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 2197557 1 ENSEMBL:ENSG00000197921 HES5 BHLHB38 HES5 ENSEMBL ENSG00000197921 Reactome DB_ID: 1606739 1 UniProt:Q5TA89 HES5 HES5 BHLHB38 HES5 FUNCTION Transcriptional repressor of genes that require a bHLH protein for their transcription. Plays an important role as neurogenesis negative regulator (By similarity).SUBUNIT Transcription repression requires formation of a complex with a corepressor protein of the Groucho/TLE family.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in fetal heart and brain tumors.DOMAIN Has a particular type of basic domain (presence of a helix-interrupting proline) that binds to the N-box (CACNAG), rather than the canonical E-box (CANNTG).DOMAIN The C-terminal WRPW motif is a transcriptional repression domain necessary for the interaction with Groucho/TLE family members, transcriptional corepressors recruited to specific target DNA by Hairy-related proteins. UniProt Q5TA89 1 EQUAL 166 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604446 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604446 Reactome R-HSA-9604446 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604446.1 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604457 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604457 Reactome DB_ID: 9013697 NOTCH4 binds FLT4 gene promoter NOTCH4 binds FLT4 gene promoter The NOTCH4 coactivator complex, composed of NICD4 (NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment), RBPJ (CSL) and one of mastermind proteins, MAML1, MAML2 or MAML3, binds to CSL response elements in the promoter of the FLT4 (VEGFR3) gene, encoding Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3 (Shawber et al. 2007). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 9013697 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9604466 1 ENSEMBL:ENSG00000037280 FLT4 VEGFR3 FLT4 ENSEMBL ENSG00000037280 Reactome DB_ID: 9604465 1 NOTCH4 coactivator complex:FLT4 gene [nucleoplasm] NOTCH4 coactivator complex:FLT4 gene Reactome DB_ID: 9013697 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9604466 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604465 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604465 Reactome R-HSA-9604465 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604465.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604451 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604451 Reactome R-HSA-9604451 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604451.1 FLT4 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 FLT4 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 Transcription of the FLT4 (VEGFR3) gene, encoding Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-3, is directly stimulated by the NOTCH4 co-activator complex (Shawber et al. 2007). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 9604466 1 Reactome DB_ID: 195359 1 UniProt:P35916 FLT4 FLT4 VEGFR3 FLT4 FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as a cell-surface receptor for VEGFC and VEGFD, and plays an essential role in adult lymphangiogenesis and in the development of the vascular network and the cardiovascular system during embryonic development. Promotes proliferation, survival and migration of endothelial cells, and regulates angiogenic sprouting. Signaling by activated FLT4 leads to enhanced production of VEGFC, and to a lesser degree VEGFA, thereby creating a positive feedback loop that enhances FLT4 signaling. Modulates KDR signaling by forming heterodimers. The secreted isoform 3 may function as a decoy receptor for VEGFC and/or VEGFD and play an important role as a negative regulator of VEGFC-mediated lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis. Binding of vascular growth factors to isoform 1 or isoform 2 leads to the activation of several signaling cascades; isoform 2 seems to be less efficient in signal transduction, because it has a truncated C-terminus and therefore lacks several phosphorylation sites. Mediates activation of the MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 signaling pathway, of MAPK8 and the JUN signaling pathway, and of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Phosphorylates SHC1. Mediates phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Promotes phosphorylation of MAPK8 at 'Thr-183' and 'Tyr-185', and of AKT1 at 'Ser-473'.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Binding of VEGFC or VEGFD leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by MAZ51.SUBUNIT Interacts with VEGFC and VEGFD. Monomer in the absence of bound VEGFC or VEGFD. Homodimer in the presence of bound VEGFC or VEGFD. Can also form a heterodimer with KDR. Interacts with PTPN14; the interaction is enhanced by stimulation with VEGFC. Interacts with CRK, GRB2, PTK2/FAK1, SHC1, PIK3R1 and PTPN11/SHP-2. Identified in a complex with SRC and ITGB1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Detected in endothelial cells (at protein level). Widely expressed. Detected in fetal spleen, lung and brain. Detected in adult liver, muscle, thymus, placenta, lung, testis, ovary, prostate, heart, and kidney.DOMAIN The first and second Ig-like C2-type (immunoglobulin-like) domains are sufficient for VEGFC binding (PubMed:23878260). The fourth and fifth Ig-like C2-type domains are sufficient for homodimerization (PubMed:23878260). The fifth and seventh Ig-like C2-type domains are required for autophosphorylation and further activation (PubMed:23878260).PTM Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon ligand binding. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans, i.e. one subunit of the dimeric receptor phosphorylates tyrosine residues on the other subunit. Phosphorylation in response to H(2)O(2) is mediated by a process that requires SRC and PRKCD activity. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1068 is required for autophosphorylation at additional tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1063 and Tyr-1337 is important for interaction with CRK and subsequent activation of MAPK8. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1230, Tyr-1231 and Tyr-1337 is important for interaction with GRB2 and subsequent activation of the AKT1 and MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1 signaling pathways. In response to endothelial cell adhesion onto collagen, can also be phosphorylated in the absence of FLT4 kinase activity by SRC at Tyr-830, Tyr-833, Tyr-853, Tyr-1063, Tyr-1333, and Tyr-1337.DISEASE Plays an important role in tumor lymphangiogenesis, in cancer cell survival, migration, and formation of metastases.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily. UniProt P35916 25 EQUAL 1363 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604471 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604471 Reactome R-HSA-9604471 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604471.1 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604473 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604473 Reactome DB_ID: 9604465 HEY1 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 HEY1 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 Increased NOTCH4 levels correlate with increased HEY1 gene expression (Tsunematsu et al. 2004, Simoes et al. 2015, Bonyadi Rad et al. 2016, Fukusumi et al. 2018). NOTCH4-mediated upregulation of HEY1 in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is associated with epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype (Fukusumi et al. 2018). In melanoma, however, HEY1 and HEY2 expression downstream of NOTCH4 is associated with mesenchymal-to-epithelial-like transition and reduced invasiveness (Bonyadi Rad et al. 2016). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 4396358 1 ENSEMBL:ENSG00000164683 HEY1 HERP2 HESR1 HEY1 BHLHB31 HRT1 CHF2 ENSEMBL ENSG00000164683 Reactome DB_ID: 1606744 1 UniProt:Q9Y5J3 HEY1 HEY1 HERP2 HESR1 HEY1 BHLHB31 HRT1 CHF2 FUNCTION Transcriptional repressor which binds preferentially to the canonical E box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3' (PubMed:11095750). Downstream effector of Notch signaling required for cardiovascular development. Specifically required for the Notch-induced endocardial epithelial to mesenchymal transition, which is itself criticial for cardiac valve and septum development. May be required in conjunction with HEY2 to specify arterial cell fate or identity. Promotes maintenance of neuronal precursor cells and glial versus neuronal fate specification. Represses transcription by the cardiac transcriptional activators GATA4 and GATA6 and by the neuronal bHLH factors ASCL1/MASH1 and NEUROD4/MATH3 (PubMed:15485867). Involved in the regulation of liver cancer cells self-renewal (PubMed:25985737).SUBUNIT Self-associates. Interacts with HES1 and HEYL. Interacts with HDAC1, NCOR1 and SIN3A. Interacts with GATA4 and GATA6. Interacts with CCDC89/BOIP.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in the somitic mesoderm, the central nervous system, the kidney, the heart, nasal epithelium, and limbs.SIMILARITY Belongs to the HEY family. UniProt Q9Y5J3 1 EQUAL 304 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604550 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604550 Reactome R-HSA-9604550 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604550.1 14672936 Pubmed 2004 Mouse Fbw7/Sel-10/Cdc4 is required for notch degradation during vascular development Tsunematsu, Ryosuke Nakayama, Keiko Oike, Yuichi Nishiyama, Masaaki Ishida, Noriko Hatakeyama, Shigetsugu Bessho, Yasumasa Kageyama, Ryoichiro Suda, Toshio Nakayama, Keiichi I J. Biol. Chem. 279:9417-23 26801977 Pubmed 2016 Notch4 Signaling Induces a Mesenchymal-Epithelial-like Transition in Melanoma Cells to Suppress Malignant Behaviors Bonyadi Rad, Ehsan Hammerlindl, Heinz Wels, Christian Popper, Ulrich Ravindran Menon, Dinoop Breiteneder, Heimo Kitzwoegerer, Melitta Hafner, Christine Herlyn, Meenhard Bergler, Helmut Schaider, Helmut Cancer Res. 76:1690-7 29146722 Pubmed 2018 The NOTCH4-HEY1 Pathway Induces Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma Fukusumi, Takahito Guo, Theresa W Sakai, Akihiro Ando, Mizuo Ren, Shuling Haft, Sunny Liu, Chao Amornphimoltham, Panomwat Gutkind, J Silvio Califano, Joseph A Clin. Cancer Res. 24:619-633 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604598 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604598 Reactome DB_ID: 9013697 HEY2 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 HEY2 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH4 Increased NOTCH4 levels and activity correlate with increased HEY2 gene expression (Bargo et al. 2010, Simoes et al. 2015, Bonyadi Rad et al. 2016). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 4396355 1 ENSEMBL:ENSG00000135547 HEY2 GRL HERP1 HEY2 BHLHB32 HRT2 HERP CHF1 ENSEMBL ENSG00000135547 Reactome DB_ID: 1606745 1 UniProt:Q9UBP5 HEY2 HEY2 GRL HERP1 HEY2 BHLHB32 HRT2 HERP CHF1 FUNCTION Downstream effector of Notch signaling which may be required for cardiovascular development. Transcriptional repressor which binds preferentially to the canonical E box sequence 5'-CACGTG-3'. Represses transcription by the cardiac transcriptional activators GATA4 and GATA6.SUBUNIT May self-associate (By similarity). Interacts with GATA4, HES1 and HEYL (By similarity). Interacts with HDAC1, NCOR1 and SIN3A (By similarity). Interacts with ARNT and GATA6.SIMILARITY Belongs to the HEY family. UniProt Q9UBP5 1 EQUAL 337 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604553 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604553 Reactome R-HSA-9604553 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604553.1 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604596 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604596 Reactome DB_ID: 9013697 ACTA2 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH1, NOTCH2 and NOTCH4 ACTA2 gene expression is stimulated by NOTCH1, NOTCH2 and NOTCH4 ACTA2 gene, encoding smooth muscle alpha actin, possesses several RBPJ (CSL) response elements in its promoter region. Transcription of ACTA2 is positively regulated by NOTCH1, NOTCH2 and NOTCH4 (Tang et al. 2008). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 8957900 1 ENSEMBL:ENSG00000107796 ACTA2 ACTA2 ACTSA ACTVS GIG46 ENSEMBL ENSG00000107796 Reactome DB_ID: 445792 1 UniProt:P62736 ACTA2 ACTA2 ACTA2 ACTSA ACTVS GIG46 FUNCTION Actins are highly conserved proteins that are involved in various types of cell motility and are ubiquitously expressed in all eukaryotic cells.SUBUNIT Polymerization of globular actin (G-actin) leads to a structural filament (F-actin) in the form of a two-stranded helix. Each actin can bind to 4 others.INDUCTION Up-regulated in response to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection.PTM Oxidation of Met-46 and Met-49 by MICALs (MICAL1, MICAL2 or MICAL3) to form methionine sulfoxide promotes actin filament depolymerization. MICAL1 and MICAL2 produce the (R)-S-oxide form. The (R)-S-oxide form is reverted by MSRB1 and MSRB2, which promotes actin repolymerization.PTM Monomethylation at Lys-86 (K84me1) regulates actin-myosin interaction and actomyosin-dependent processes. Demethylation by ALKBH4 is required for maintaining actomyosin dynamics supporting normal cleavage furrow ingression during cytokinesis and cell migration.PTM Methylated at His-75 by SETD3.PTM (Microbial infection) Monomeric actin is cross-linked by V.cholerae toxins RtxA and VgrG1 in case of infection: bacterial toxins mediate the cross-link between Lys-52 of one monomer and Glu-272 of another actin monomer, resulting in formation of highly toxic actin oligomers that cause cell rounding (PubMed:19015515). The toxin can be highly efficient at very low concentrations by acting on formin homology family proteins: toxic actin oligomers bind with high affinity to formins and adversely affect both nucleation and elongation abilities of formins, causing their potent inhibition in both profilin-dependent and independent manners (PubMed:26228148).DISEASE ACTA2 mutations predispose patients to a variety of diffuse and diverse vascular diseases, premature onset coronary artery disease (CAD), premature ischemic strokes and Moyamoya disease.MISCELLANEOUS In vertebrates 3 main groups of actin isoforms, alpha, beta and gamma have been identified. The alpha actins are found in muscle tissues and are a major constituent of the contractile apparatus. The beta and gamma actins coexist in most cell types as components of the cytoskeleton and as mediators of internal cell motility.SIMILARITY Belongs to the actin family. UniProt P62736 3 EQUAL 377 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604664 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604664 Reactome R-HSA-9604664 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604664.1 18239137 Pubmed 2008 Hairy-related transcription factors inhibit Notch-induced smooth muscle alpha-actin expression by interfering with Notch intracellular domain/CBF-1 complex interaction with the CBF-1-binding site Tang, Yuefeng Urs, Sumithra Liaw, Lucy Circ. Res. 102:661-8 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604662 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604662 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9604665 NOTCH1,NOTCH2,NOTCH4 coactivator complex [nucleoplasm] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity NOTCH4 binds SMAD3 NOTCH4 binds SMAD3 NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment (NICD4) binds phosphorylated SMAD3 upon activation of TGF-beta signaling. (Sun et al. 2005, Grabias and Konstantopoulos 2013). NICD4 may also bind SMAD2 and SMAD4 (Sun et al. 2005). NICD4 promotes ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of SMAD3 through and unknown mechanism (Grabias and Konstantopoulos 2013) and inhibits transcription mediated by the heterotrimer of SMAD3, SMAD2 and SMAD4, thus negatively regulating TGF-beta signaling (Sun et al. 2005, Grabias and Konstantopoulos 2013). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 171184 1 UniProt:P84022 SMAD3 SMAD3 MADH3 SMAD3 FUNCTION Receptor-regulated SMAD (R-SMAD) that is an intracellular signal transducer and transcriptional modulator activated by TGF-beta (transforming growth factor) and activin type 1 receptor kinases. Binds the TRE element in the promoter region of many genes that are regulated by TGF-beta and, on formation of the SMAD3/SMAD4 complex, activates transcription. Also can form a SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS complex at the AP-1/SMAD site to regulate TGF-beta-mediated transcription. Has an inhibitory effect on wound healing probably by modulating both growth and migration of primary keratinocytes and by altering the TGF-mediated chemotaxis of monocytes. This effect on wound healing appears to be hormone-sensitive. Regulator of chondrogenesis and osteogenesis and inhibits early healing of bone fractures. Positively regulates PDPK1 kinase activity by stimulating its dissociation from the 14-3-3 protein YWHAQ which acts as a negative regulator.SUBUNIT Monomer; in the absence of TGF-beta (PubMed:9670020). Homooligomer; in the presence of TGF-beta (PubMed:9670020). Heterotrimer; forms a heterotrimer in the presence of TGF-beta consisting of two molecules of C-terminally phosphorylated SMAD2 or SMAD3 and one of SMAD4 to form the transcriptionally active SMAD2/SMAD3-SMAD4 complex (PubMed:9670020, PubMed:11224571, PubMed:15799969, PubMed:15350224). Part of a complex consisting of AIP1, ACVR2A, ACVR1B and SMAD3 (PubMed:9892009). Forms a complex with SMAD2 and TRIM33 upon addition of TGF-beta (PubMed:16751102). Found in a complex composed of SMAD3, RAN and XPO4; within the complex interacts directly with XPO4 (PubMed:16449645). Component of the multimeric complex SMAD3/SMAD4/JUN/FOS which forms at the AP1 promoter site; required for synergistic transcriptional activity in response to TGF-beta (PubMed:9732876, PubMed:10995748). Interacts (via an N-terminal domain) with JUN (via its basic DNA binding and leucine zipper domains); this interaction is essential for DNA binding and cooperative transcriptional activity in response to TGF-beta (PubMed:9732876, PubMed:10995748). Identified in a complex that contains at least ZNF451, SMAD2, SMAD3 and SMAD4 (PubMed:24324267). Interacts with PPM1A; the interaction dephosphorylates SMAD3 in the C-terminal SXS motif leading to disruption of the SMAD2/3-SMAD4 complex, nuclear export and termination of TGF-beta signaling (PubMed:16751101). Interacts (via MH2 domain) with ZMIZ1 (via SP-RING-type domain); in the TGF-beta signaling pathway increases the activity of the SMAD3/SMAD4 transcriptional complex (PubMed:16777850). Interacts (when phosphorylated) with RNF111; RNF111 acts as an enhancer of the transcriptional responses by mediating ubiquitination and degradation of SMAD3 inhibitors (PubMed:9311995). Interacts (dephosphorylated form via the MH1 and MH2 domains) with RANBP3 (via its C-terminal R domain); the interaction results in the export of dephosphorylated SMAD3 out of the nucleus and termination of the TGF-beta signaling (PubMed:19289081). Interacts (via MH2 domain) with LEMD3; the interaction represses SMAD3 transcriptional activity through preventing the formation of the heteromeric complex with SMAD4 and translocation to the nucleus (PubMed:15601644, PubMed:15647271). Interacts (via the linker region) with EP300 (C-terminal); the interaction promotes SMAD3 acetylation and is enhanced by TGF-beta phosphorylation in the C-terminal of SMAD3 (PubMed:9843571, PubMed:15588252). This interaction can be blocked by competitive binding of adenovirus oncoprotein E1A to the same C-terminal site on EP300, which then results in partially inhibited SMAD3/SMAD4 transcriptional activity (PubMed:9843571, PubMed:15588252). Interacts with TGFBR1 (PubMed:9311995). Interacts with TGFB1I1 (PubMed:15561701). Interacts with PRDM16 (PubMed:19049980). Interacts with SNW1 (PubMed:11278756). Interacts (via MH2 domain) with ZFYVE9 (PubMed:9865696, PubMed:12154125). Interacts with HDAC1 (PubMed:19049980). Interacts with TGIF2 (PubMed:11427533). Interacts with SKOR1 (PubMed:17292623). Interacts with SKOR2 (PubMed:16200078). Interacts with DACH1; the interaction inhibits the TGF-beta signaling (PubMed:14525983). Interacts with RBPMS (PubMed:17099224). Interacts (via MH2 domain) with MECOM (PubMed:9665135, PubMed:15897867). Interacts with WWTR1 (via its coiled-coil domain) (PubMed:18568018). Interacts with SKI; the interaction represses SMAD3 transcriptional activity (PubMed:19049980). Interacts with MEN1 (PubMed:11274402). Interacts with IL1F7 (PubMed:20935647). Interaction with CSNK1G2 (PubMed:18794808). Interacts with PDPK1 (via PH domain) (PubMed:17327236). Interacts with DAB2; the interactions are enhanced upon TGF-beta stimulation (PubMed:11387212). Interacts with USP15 (PubMed:21947082). Interacts with PPP5C; the interaction decreases SMAD3 phosphorylation and protein levels (PubMed:22781750). Interacts with LDLRAD4 (via the SMAD interaction motif) (PubMed:24627487). Interacts with PMEPA1 (PubMed:20129061). Interacts with ZNF451 (PubMed:24324267). Interacts with ZFHX3 (PubMed:25105025). Interacts weakly with ZNF8 (PubMed:12370310). Interacts with STUB1, HSPA1A, HSPA1B, HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 (PubMed:24613385). Interacts with YAP1 (when phosphorylated at 'Ser-127') (By similarity). Interacts with AIP1 (By similarity). Interacts (via MH2 domain) with CITED2 (via C-terminus) (By similarity). Interacts with HGS (By similarity). Interacts with WWP1 (By similarity). Interacts with TTRAP (By similarity). Interacts with FOXL2 (By similarity). Interacts with PML (By similarity). Interacts with NEDD4L; the interaction requires TGF-beta stimulation (By similarity). Interacts with ZC3H3 (By similarity). Interacts with TGIF. Interacts with CREBBP. Interacts with ATF2.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with SARS-CoV nucleoprotein.DOMAIN The MH1 domain is required for DNA binding. Also binds zinc ions which are necessary for the DNA binding.DOMAIN The MH2 domain is required for both homomeric and heteromeric interactions and for transcriptional regulation. Sufficient for nuclear import.DOMAIN The linker region is required for the TGFbeta-mediated transcriptional activity and acts synergistically with the MH2 domain.PTM Phosphorylated on serine and threonine residues. Enhanced phosphorylation in the linker region on Thr-179, Ser-204 and Ser-208 on EGF and TGF-beta treatment. Ser-208 is the main site of MAPK-mediated phosphorylation. CDK-mediated phosphorylation occurs in a cell-cycle dependent manner and inhibits both the transcriptional activity and antiproliferative functions of SMAD3. This phosphorylation is inhibited by flavopiridol. Maximum phosphorylation at the G(1)/S junction. Also phosphorylated on serine residues in the C-terminal SXS motif by TGFBR1 and ACVR1. TGFBR1-mediated phosphorylation at these C-terminal sites is required for interaction with SMAD4, nuclear location and transactivational activity, and appears to be a prerequisite for the TGF-beta mediated phosphorylation in the linker region. Dephosphorylated in the C-terminal SXS motif by PPM1A. This dephosphorylation disrupts the interaction with SMAD4, promotes nuclear export and terminates TGF-beta-mediated signaling. Phosphorylation at Ser-418 by CSNK1G2/CK1 promotes ligand-dependent ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome degradation, thus inhibiting SMAD3-mediated TGF-beta responses. Phosphorylated by PDPK1.PTM Acetylation in the nucleus by EP300 in the MH2 domain regulates positively its transcriptional activity and is enhanced by TGF-beta.PTM Poly-ADP-ribosylated by PARP1 and PARP2. ADP-ribosylation negatively regulates SMAD3 transcriptional responses during the course of TGF-beta signaling.PTM Ubiquitinated. Monoubiquitinated, leading to prevent DNA-binding (PubMed:21947082). Deubiquitination by USP15 alleviates inhibition and promotes activation of TGF-beta target genes (PubMed:21947082). Ubiquitinated by RNF111, leading to its degradation: only SMAD3 proteins that are 'in use' are targeted by RNF111, RNF111 playing a key role in activating SMAD3 and regulating its turnover (By similarity). Undergoes STUB1-mediated ubiquitination and degradation (PubMed:24613385).SIMILARITY Belongs to the dwarfin/SMAD family. UniProt P84022 O-phospho-L-serine at 423 423 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 425 425 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 425 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 157636 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9605420 1 NICD4:p-S423,S425-SMAD3 [cytosol] NICD4:p-S423,S425-SMAD3 Reactome DB_ID: 171184 1 O-phospho-L-serine at 423 423 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 425 425 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 425 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 157636 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9605420 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9605420 Reactome R-HSA-9605420 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9605420.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9605414 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9605414 Reactome R-HSA-9605414 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9605414.1 16007227 Pubmed 2005 Notch4 intracellular domain binding to Smad3 and inhibition of the TGF-beta signaling Sun, Youping Lowther, William Kato, Katsuaki Bianco, Caterina Kenney, Nicholas Strizzi, L Raafat, Dina Hirota, Morihisa Khan, Nadia I Bargo, Sharon Jones, Brenda Salomon, David Callahan, Robert Oncogene 24:5365-74 23576639 Pubmed 2013 Notch4-dependent antagonism of canonical TGF-β1 signaling defines unique temporal fluctuations of SMAD3 activity in sheared proximal tubular epithelial cells Grabias, Bryan M Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 305:F123-33 GO 0030512 GO biological process Reactome Database ID Release 81 9013695 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9013695 Reactome R-HSA-9013695 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9013695.1 GO 0006355 GO biological process Negative regulation of NOTCH4 signaling Negative regulation of NOTCH4 signaling NOTCH4 signaling can be negatively regulated at the level of nuclear translocation of the NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment (NICD4). AKT-mediated phosphorylation of NICD4 promotes binding of NICD4 with 14-3-3-zeta (YWHAZ), leading to retention of NICD4 in the cytosol (Ramakrishnan et al. 2015).<br><br>The E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXW7, a component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, binds to and ubiquitinates phosphorylated NICD4, targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation (Wu et al. 2001). The level of NICD4 is significantly increased in Fbxw7 knockout mouse embryos, which die in utero and have impaired development of the vascular system (Tsunematsu et al. 2004).<br><br>Binding of NOTCH4 to ELOC (elongin C) is involved in proteasome-mediated degradation of NOTCH4, but the exact mechanism has not been elucidated (Cummins et al. 2011). MDM2, a TP53-induced ubiquitin ligase, was reported to ubiquitinate NICD4 and target it for degradation in response to TP53 activation (Sun et al. 2011).<br><br>NOTCH4 signaling is inhibited by binding of NICD4 to the transforming acidic coiled-coil protein-3, but he mechanism is not known (Bargo et al. 2010). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 2.7.11.1 AKT1 phosphorylates NOTCH4 AKT1 phosphorylates NOTCH4 Recombinant human AKT1 phosphorylates recombinant human NICD4 on four AKT-target sites conserved in primates: S1495, S1847, S1865 and S1917 (Ramakrishnan et al. 2015). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 157636 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 113592 4 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) Adenosine 5'-triphosphate atp ATP ChEBI 30616 Reactome DB_ID: 29370 4 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP trianion 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP ChEBI 456216 Reactome DB_ID: 9604329 1 O-phospho-L-serine at 1495 1495 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1847 1847 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1865 1865 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1917 1917 EQUAL 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 198356 UniProt:P31749 AKT1 AKT1 RAC PKB AKT1 FUNCTION AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface (By similarity). Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling (By similarity). Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (PubMed:11994271). AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity (By similarity). Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven (By similarity). AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase) (PubMed:11154276). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis (PubMed:11154276). AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1 (PubMed:12150915). AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization (PubMed:10358075). In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319' (PubMed:10358075). FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites (PubMed:10358075). AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein) (PubMed:9829964). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1 (PubMed:9829964). AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis (By similarity). Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis (By similarity). Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity (By similarity). The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (PubMed:12176338, PubMed:12964941). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly (PubMed:19934221). May be involved in the regulation of the placental development (By similarity). Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3 (PubMed:17726016). Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation (PubMed:20086174, PubMed:20231902). Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation (PubMed:19592491). Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity (PubMed:10576742). Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity (PubMed:10926925). Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53 (PubMed:23431171). Phosphorylates palladin (PALLD), modulating cytoskeletal organization and cell motility (PubMed:20471940). Phosphorylates prohibitin (PHB), playing an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation (PubMed:18507042). Phosphorylates CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization (PubMed:16982699). These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more specific role in cell motility and proliferation (PubMed:16139227). Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to ionizing radiation (PubMed:20682768). Phosphorylates PCK1 at 'Ser-90', reducing the binding affinity of PCK1 to oxaloacetate and changing PCK1 into an atypical protein kinase activity using GTP as donor (PubMed:32322062). Also acts as an activator of TMEM175 potassium channel activity in response to growth factors: forms the lysoK(GF) complex together with TMEM175 and acts by promoting TMEM175 channel activation, independently of its protein kinase activity (PubMed:32228865).ACTIVITY REGULATION Three specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-308) and the two other ones in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-473 and Tyr-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation. Inhibited by pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitors like aniline triazole and spiroindoline.SUBUNIT Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts (via the C-terminus) with CCDC88A (via its C-terminus). Interacts with GRB10; the interaction leads to GRB10 phosphorylation thus promoting YWHAE-binding (By similarity). Interacts with AGAP2 (isoform 2/PIKE-A); the interaction occurs in the presence of guanine nucleotides. Interacts with AKTIP. Interacts (via PH domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CDKN1B; the interaction phosphorylates CDKN1B promoting 14-3-3 binding and cell-cycle progression. Interacts with MAP3K5 and TRAF6. Interacts with BAD, PPP2R5B, STK3 and STK4. Interacts (via PH domain) with SIRT1. Interacts with SRPK2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Interacts with RAF1. Interacts with TRIM13; the interaction ubiquitinates AKT1 leading to its proteasomal degradation. Interacts with TNK2 and CLK2. Interacts (via the C-terminus) with THEM4 (via its C-terminus). Interacts with and phosphorylated by PDPK1. Interacts with PA2G4 (By similarity). Interacts with KIF14; the interaction is detected in the plasma membrane upon INS stimulation and promotes AKT1 phosphorylation (PubMed:24784001). Interacts with FAM83B; activates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade (PubMed:23676467). Interacts with WDFY2 (via WD repeats 1-3) (PubMed:16792529). Forms a complex with WDFY2 and FOXO1 (By similarity). Interacts with FAM168A (PubMed:23251525). Interacts with SYAP1 (via phosphorylated form and BSD domain); this interaction is enhanced in a mTORC2-mediated manner in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation and activates AKT1 (PubMed:23300339). Interacts with PKHM3 (By similarity). Interacts with FKBP5/FKBP51; promoting interaction between Akt/AKT1 and PHLPP1, thereby enhancing dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of Akt/AKT1 (PubMed:28147277). Interacts with TMEM175; leading to formation of the lysoK(GF) complex (PubMed:32228865). Acts as a negative regulator of the cGAS-STING pathway by mediating phosphorylation of CGAS during mitosis, leading to its inhibition (PubMed:26440888).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in prostate cancer and levels increase from the normal to the malignant state (at protein level). Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane. The PH domain mediates interaction with TNK2 and Tyr-176 is also essential for this interaction.DOMAIN The AGC-kinase C-terminal mediates interaction with THEM4.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-305 and Thr-312 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-308 via disrupting the interaction between AKT1 and PDPK1. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-473 also probably interferes with phosphorylation at this site.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity (PubMed:12149249, PubMed:14761976, PubMed:15047712, PubMed:16266983, PubMed:17013611, PubMed:20978158, PubMed:9736715, PubMed:23799035, PubMed:8978681, PubMed:28147277). Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA (PubMed:20333297). This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation (PubMed:9512493). Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1 (PubMed:21464307, PubMed:8978681). Phosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by IKBKE and TBK1 (PubMed:15718470, PubMed:18456494, PubMed:20481595, PubMed:8978681). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A) (PubMed:14761976). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells (PubMed:17013611). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by signaling through activated FLT3 (By similarity). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by PHLPP (PubMed:28147277). Dephosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). The phosphorylated form of PPP2R5B is required for bridging AKT1 with PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by CPPED1, leading to termination of signaling (PubMed:9512493).PTM Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation (PubMed:19713527). When ubiquitinated, it translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated (PubMed:20059950). When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:20059950). Also ubiquitinated by TRIM13 leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:21333377). Phosphorylated, undergoes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination preferentially at Lys-284 catalyzed by MUL1, leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:22410793). Ubiquitinated via 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by ZNRF1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity).PTM Acetylated on Lys-14 and Lys-20 by the histone acetyltransferases EP300 and KAT2B. Acetylation results in reduced phosphorylation and inhibition of activity. Deacetylated at Lys-14 and Lys-20 by SIRT1. SIRT1-mediated deacetylation relieves the inhibition.PTM Cleavage by caspase-3/CASP3 (By similarity). Cleaved at the caspase-3 consensus site Asp-462 during apoptosis, resulting in down-regulation of the AKT signaling pathway and decreased cell survival (PubMed:23152800).DISEASE Genetic variations in AKT1 may play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer.MISCELLANEOUS (2S)-2-(4-chlorobenzyl)-3-oxo-3-[4-(7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)piperazin-1-yl]propan-1-amine corresponds to compound 44.MISCELLANEOUS 5-(5-chloro-1H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-yl)-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridine corresponds to compound 8b.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION PUBMED:19940129 has been retracted because the same data were used to represent different experimental conditions.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt P31749 O-phospho-L-threonine at 308 308 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine [MOD:00047] O-phospho-L-serine at 473 473 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 480 EQUAL GO 0004674 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 450501 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=450501 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604328 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604328 Reactome R-HSA-9604328 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604328.2 GO 0045746 GO biological process p-4S-NICD4 binds YWHAZ p-4S-NICD4 binds YWHAZ AKT1-mediated phosphorylation of NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment NICD4 leads to binding of NICD4 to 14-3-3-zeta (YWHAZ). Binding to YWHAZ sequesters NICD4 to the cytosol, preventing its trafficking to the nucleus, and thus negatively regulates NOTCH4 signaling (Ramakrishnan et al. 2015). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 206751 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9604329 1 O-phospho-L-serine at 1495 1495 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1847 1847 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1865 1865 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine at 1917 1917 EQUAL 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9604390 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604387 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604387 Reactome R-HSA-9604387 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604387.1 Unknown kinase phosphorylates NICD4 Unknown kinase phosphorylates NICD4 Unknown protein kinase phosphorylates the C-terminus of NICD4 (NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment) (Wu et al. 2001). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 157945 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9604611 1 phosphorylated residue at unknown position phosphorylated residue [MOD:00696] 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9604605 Unknown protein kinase [nucleoplasm] Unknown protein kinase GO 0004672 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604609 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604609 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604606 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604606 Reactome R-HSA-9604606 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604606.1 11585921 Pubmed 2001 SEL-10 is an inhibitor of notch signaling that targets notch for ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation Wu, G Lyapina, S Das, I Li, J Gurney, M Pauley, A Chui, I Deshaies, RJ Kitajewski, J Mol Cell Biol 21:7403-15 FBXW7 promotes ubiquitination of p-NICD4 FBXW7 promotes ubiquitination of p-NICD4 The E3 ubiquitin ligase FBXW7, a component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex, binds to and ubiquitinates phosphorylated NICD4 (NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment), targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation (Wu et al. 2001). The level of NICD4 is significantly increased in Fbxw7 knockout mouse embryos, which die in utero and have impaired development of the vascular system (Tsunematsu et al. 2004). Notch4 level also increases when Fbxw7 is downregulated by RNA in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (Mao et al. 2004). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 9604611 1 phosphorylated residue at unknown position 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 68524 3 Ub [nucleoplasm] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity UBC(457-532) [nucleoplasm] UBC(305-380) [nucleoplasm] UBC(381-456) [nucleoplasm] UBA52(1-76) [nucleoplasm] UBC(609-684) [nucleoplasm] UBC(77-152) [nucleoplasm] UBB(1-76) [nucleoplasm] RPS27A(1-76) [nucleoplasm] UBC(153-228) [nucleoplasm] UBB(153-228) [nucleoplasm] UBC(533-608) [nucleoplasm] UBB(77-152) [nucleoplasm] UBC(1-76) [nucleoplasm] UBC(229-304) [nucleoplasm] UniProt P0CG48 UniProt P62987 UniProt P0CG47 UniProt P62979 Reactome DB_ID: 9604624 1 phosphorylated residue at unknown position ubiquitinylated lysine (polyubiquitin chain [nucleoplasm]) at unknown position ubiquitinylated lysine [MOD:01148] 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 1604469 FBXW7:SKP1:CUL1:RBX1 [nucleoplasm] FBXW7:SKP1:CUL1:RBX1 Reactome DB_ID: 187551 1 UniProt:Q13616 CUL1 CUL1 CUL1 FUNCTION Core component of multiple cullin-RING-based SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes, which mediate the ubiquitination of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription. SCF complexes and ARIH1 collaborate in tandem to mediate ubiquitination of target proteins (PubMed:27565346). In the SCF complex, serves as a rigid scaffold that organizes the SKP1-F-box protein and RBX1 subunits. May contribute to catalysis through positioning of the substrate and the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. The E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity of the complex is dependent on the neddylation of the cullin subunit and exchange of the substrate recognition component is mediated by TIP120A/CAND1. The functional specificity of the SCF complex depends on the F-box protein as substrate recognition component. SCF(BTRC) and SCF(FBXW11) direct ubiquitination of CTNNB1 and participate in Wnt signaling. SCF(FBXW11) directs ubiquitination of phosphorylated NFKBIA. SCF(BTRC) directs ubiquitination of NFKBIB, NFKBIE, ATF4, SMAD3, SMAD4, CDC25A, FBXO5 and probably NFKB2. SCF(BTRC) and/or SCF(FBXW11) direct ubiquitination of CEP68 (PubMed:25704143, PubMed:25503564). SCF(SKP2) directs ubiquitination of phosphorylated CDKN1B/p27kip and is involved in regulation of G1/S transition. SCF(SKP2) directs ubiquitination of ORC1, CDT1, RBL2, ELF4, CDKN1A, RAG2, FOXO1A, and probably MYC and TAL1. SCF(FBXW7) directs ubiquitination of CCNE1, NOTCH1 released notch intracellular domain (NICD), and probably PSEN1. SCF(FBXW2) directs ubiquitination of GCM1. SCF(FBXO32) directs ubiquitination of MYOD1. SCF(FBXO7) directs ubiquitination of BIRC2 and DLGAP5. SCF(FBXO33) directs ubiquitination of YBX1. SCF(FBXO1) directs ubiquitination of BCL6 and DTL but does not seem to direct ubiquitination of TP53. SCF(BTRC) mediates the ubiquitination of NFKBIA at 'Lys-21' and 'Lys-22'; the degradation frees the associated NFKB1-RELA dimer to translocate into the nucleus and to activate transcription. SCF(CCNF) directs ubiquitination of CCP110. SCF(FBXL3) and SCF(FBXL21) direct ubiquitination of CRY1 and CRY2. SCF(FBXO9) directs ubiquitination of TTI1 and TELO2. SCF(FBXO10) directs ubiquitination of BCL2.PATHWAY Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.SUBUNIT Component of multiple SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes formed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and a variable F-box domain-containing protein as substrate-specific subunit (PubMed:10230406, PubMed:15145941, PubMed:15531760, PubMed:16714087, PubMed:16797541, PubMed:17098746, PubMed:18203720, PubMed:20596027, PubMed:22405651, PubMed:22113614, PubMed:23263282, PubMed:23431138, PubMed:25503564, PubMed:11961546, PubMed:22748924). Component of the SCF(FBXW11) complex containing FBXW11. Component of the SCF(SKP2) complex containing SKP2, in which it interacts directly with SKP1, SKP2 and RBX1. Component of the SCF(FBXW2) complex containing FBXW2. Component of the SCF(FBXO32) complex containing FBXO32. Component of the probable SCF(FBXO7) complex containing FBXO7. Component of the SCF(FBXO10) complex containing FBXO10. Component of the SCF(FBXO11) complex containing FBXO11. Component of the SCF(FBXO25) complex containing FBXO25. Component of the SCF(FBXO33) complex containing FBXO33. Component of the probable SCF(FBXO4) complex containing FBXO4. Component of the SCF(FBXO44) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and FBXO44. Component of the SCF(BTRC) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and BTRC. This complex binds phosphorylated NFKBIA. Part of a SCF complex consisting of CUL1, RBX1, SKP1 and FBXO2. Component of a SCF(SKP2)-like complex containing CUL1, SKP1, TRIM21 and SKP2. Component of the SCF(FBXO17) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and FBXO17. Component of the SCF(FBXO27) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and FBXO27. Component of the SCF(CCNF) complex consisting of CUL1, RBX1, SKP1 and CCNF (PubMed:20596027). Interacts with CCNF (PubMed:26818844). Component of the SCF(FBXL3) complex composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXL3. Component of the SCF(FBXL21) complex composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXL21. Component of the SCF(FBXO9) composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXO9. Component of the SCF(FBXW7) composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXW7 (PubMed:22405651). Interacts with CHEK2; mediates CHEK2 ubiquitination and regulates its function. Part of a complex with TIP120A/CAND1 and RBX1. The unneddylated form interacts with TIP120A/CAND1 and the interaction mediates the exchange of the F-box substrate-specific subunit. Can self-associate. Interacts with FBXW8. Interacts with RNF7. Interacts with CUL7; the interaction seems to be mediated by FBXW8. Interacts with TRIM21. Interacts with COPS2. Interacts with UBE2M (PubMed:21940857). Identified in a complex with RBX1 and GLMN (PubMed:22405651, PubMed:22748924). Interacts with CEP68 as part of the SCF(FBXW11) complex; the interaction is probably mediated by FBXW11 and the complex also contains CDK5RAP2 and PCNT (PubMed:25503564). Interacts (when neddylated) with ARIH1; leading to activate the E3 ligase activity of ARIH1 (PubMed:24076655, PubMed:27565346). Interacts with COPS9 isoform 2 (PubMed:23776465). Interacts with UBXN1 (PubMed:28152074). Interacts with KAT7, probably as part of an SCF complex; the interaction mediates KAT7 ubiquitination (By similarity). Interacts with NOTCH2 (PubMed:29149593). Part of a complex that contains DCUN1D5, CUL1 and RBX1; this complex is bridged by CUL1 (PubMed:24192928). Interacts (unneddylated form) with DCUN1D1, DCUN1D2, DCUN1D3, DCUN1D4 and DCUN1D5; these interactions promote the cullin neddylation (PubMed:24192928, PubMed:26906416, PubMed:23201271, PubMed:21940857, PubMed:25349211, PubMed:28581483).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Epstein-Barr virus BPLF1.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Human adenovirus early E1A protein; this interaction inhibits RBX1-CUL1-dependent elongation reaction of ubiquitin chains by the SCF(FBXW7) complex.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with vaccinia virus protein C9L.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in lung fibroblasts.PTM Neddylated; which enhances the ubiquitination activity of SCF and prevents binding of the inhibitor CAND1. Deneddylated via its interaction with the COP9 signalosome (CSN) complex (PubMed:10597293, PubMed:10713156, PubMed:15537541, PubMed:18805092).PTM (Microbial infection) Deneddylated by Epstein-Barr virus BPLF1 leading to a S-phase-like environment that is required for efficient replication of the viral genome (PubMed:20190741).SIMILARITY Belongs to the cullin family. UniProt Q13616 1 EQUAL 776 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 1234142 1 UniProt:P62877 RBX1 RBX1 RNF75 ROC1 RBX1 FUNCTION E3 ubiquitin ligase component of multiple cullin-RING-based E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (CRLs) complexes which mediate the ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of target proteins, including proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction, transcription and transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair (PubMed:10230407, PubMed:10579999, PubMed:15983046, PubMed:16678110, PubMed:19112177, PubMed:19679664, PubMed:23455478, PubMed:27565346, PubMed:29769719, PubMed:11961546, PubMed:22748924). CRLs complexes and ARIH1 collaborate in tandem to mediate ubiquitination of target proteins, ARIH1 mediating addition of the first ubiquitin on CRLs targets (PubMed:27565346). The functional specificity of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes depends on the variable substrate recognition components. As a component of the CSA complex promotes the ubiquitination of ERCC6 resulting in proteasomal degradation. Recruits the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme CDC34 to the complex and brings it into close proximity to the substrate. Probably also stimulates CDC34 autoubiquitination. May be required for histone H3 and histone H4 ubiquitination in response to ultraviolet and for subsequent DNA repair. Promotes the neddylation of CUL1, CUL2, CUL4 and CUL4 via its interaction with UBE2M. Involved in the ubiquitination of KEAP1, ENC1 and KLHL41. In concert with ATF2 and CUL3, promotes degradation of KAT5 thereby attenuating its ability to acetylate and activate ATM.PATHWAY Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.SUBUNIT Part of a SCF complex consisting of CUL1, RBX1, SKP1 and SKP2 (PubMed:11961546). Part of a SCF-like complex consisting of CUL7, RBX1, SKP1 and FBXW8. Part of CBC(VHL) complexes with elongin BC complex (ELOB and ELOC), CUL2 or CUL5 and VHL. Part of the CSA complex (DCX(ERCC8) complex), a DCX E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex containing ERCC8, RBX1, DDB1 and CUL4A; the CSA complex interacts with RNA polymerase II; upon UV irradiation it interacts with the COP9 signalosome and preferentially with the hyperphosphorylated form of RNA polymerase II. Part of multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes with elongin BC complex (ELOB and ELOC), CUL2 and MED8; elongin BC complex (ELOB and ELOC), CUL5 and MUF1. Part of multisubunit complexes with elongin BC complex (ELOB and ELOC), elongin A/ELOA or SOCS1 or WSB1 and CUL5. Interacts directly with CUL1 and probably also with CUL2, CUL3, CUL4A, CUL4B, CUL5 and CUL7. Interacts with CDC34 (PubMed:22748924). Interacts with GLMN. GLMN competes for the binding site of the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme CDC34 and disrupts CDC34 binding (PubMed:22748924). Interacts with COPS6. Component of the DCX DET1-COP1 ubiquitin ligase complex at least composed of RBX1, DET1, DDB1, CUL4A and COP1. Part of an E3 ligase complex composed of RBX1, DDB1, DDB2 and CUL4A or CUL4B. Interacts with UBE2M. Part of a SCF complex consisting of CUL1, FBXO3, RBX1 and SKP1; this complex interacts with PML via FBXO3. Component of the SCF(Cyclin F) complex consisting of CUL1, RBX1, SKP1 and CCNF. Identified in a SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex together with HINT1 and CDC34. Component of multiple BCR (BTB-CUL3-RBX1) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes formed of CUL3, RBX1 and a variable BTB domain-containing protein. Part of the BCR(ENC1) complex containing ENC1. Part of the BCR(GAN) complex containing GAN. Part of the BCR(KLHL41) complex containing KLHL41. Part of the BCR(KEAP1) complex containing KEAP1. Interacts with SESN1 and SESN2 (PubMed:23274085). Interacts with NOTCH2 (PubMed:29149593). Component of the BCR(KLHL22) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, at least composed of CUL3, KLHL22 and RBX1 (PubMed:23455478). Interacts with DCUN1D1, DCUN1D2, DCUN1D3, DCUN1D4 and DCUN1D5 (PubMed:26906416, PubMed:24192928, PubMed:25349211). Component of a BCR3 (BTB-CUL3-RBX1) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, also named Cul3-RING ubiquitin ligase complex CUL3(KBTBD6/7), composed of CUL3, RBX1, KBTBD6 and KBTBD7 (PubMed:25684205).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with human adenovirus 5 protein E1A; this interaction inhibits RBX1-CUL1-dependent elongation reaction of ubiquitin chains by the SCF(FBW7) complex.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed.DOMAIN The RING-type zinc finger domain is essential for ubiquitin ligase activity (PubMed:10230407). It coordinates an additional third zinc ion (PubMed:11961546, PubMed:22748924).SIMILARITY Belongs to the RING-box family. UniProt P62877 2 EQUAL 108 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 1602299 1 FBXW7alpha/gamma [nucleoplasm] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity FBXW7alpha [nucleoplasm] UniProt Q969H0-1 Reactome DB_ID: 187538 1 UniProt:P63208 SKP1 SKP1 TCEB1L OCP2 EMC19 SKP1A SKP1 FUNCTION Essential component of the SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box protein) ubiquitin ligase complex, which mediates the ubiquitination of proteins involved in cell cycle progression, signal transduction and transcription. In the SCF complex, serves as an adapter that links the F-box protein to CUL1. The functional specificity of the SCF complex depends on the F-box protein as substrate recognition component. SCF(BTRC) and SCF(FBXW11) direct ubiquitination of CTNNB1 and participate in Wnt signaling. SCF(FBXW11) directs ubiquitination of phosphorylated NFKBIA. SCF(BTRC) directs ubiquitination of NFKBIB, NFKBIE, ATF4, SMAD3, SMAD4, CDC25A, FBXO5, CEP68 and probably NFKB2 (PubMed:25704143). SCF(SKP2) directs ubiquitination of phosphorylated CDKN1B/p27kip and is involved in regulation of G1/S transition. SCF(SKP2) directs ubiquitination of ORC1, CDT1, RBL2, ELF4, CDKN1A, RAG2, FOXO1A, and probably MYC and TAL1. SCF(FBXW7) directs ubiquitination of cyclin E, NOTCH1 released notch intracellular domain (NICD), and probably PSEN1. SCF(FBXW2) directs ubiquitination of GCM1. SCF(FBXO32) directs ubiquitination of MYOD1. SCF(FBXO7) directs ubiquitination of BIRC2 and DLGAP5. SCF(FBXO33) directs ubiquitination of YBX1. SCF(FBXO11) directs ubiquitination of BCL6 and DTL but does not seem to direct ubiquitination of TP53. SCF(BTRC) mediates the ubiquitination of NFKBIA at 'Lys-21' and 'Lys-22'; the degradation frees the associated NFKB1-RELA dimer to translocate into the nucleus and to activate transcription. SCF(CCNF) directs ubiquitination of CCP110. SCF(FBXL3) and SCF(FBXL21) direct ubiquitination of CRY1 and CRY2. SCF(FBXO9) directs ubiquitination of TTI1 and TELO2. SCF(FBXO10) directs ubiquitination of BCL2.PATHWAY Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.SUBUNIT Interacts with KDM2B, forming heterodimers (PubMed:27568929). The KDM2B-SKP1 heterodimeric complex interacts with the PCGF1-BCORL heterodimeric complex to form a homotetrameric polycomb repression complex 1 (PRC1.1) (PubMed:27568929). Component of multiple SCF (SKP1-CUL1-F-box) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes formed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and a variable F-box domain-containing protein as substrate-specific subunit. Component of the SCF(FBXW11) complex containing FBXW11. Component of the SCF(SKP2) complex containing SKP2, in which it interacts directly with SKP1, SKP2 and RBX1. Component of the SCF(FBXW2) complex containing FBXw2. Component of the SCF(FBXO32) complex containing FBXO32. Component of the probable SCF(FBXO7) complex containing FBXO7. Component of the SCF(FBXO10) complex containing FBXO10. Component of the SCF(FBXO11) complex containing FBXO11. Component of the SCF(FBXO25) complex containing FBXO25. Component of the SCF(FBXO33) complex containing FBXO33. Component of the probable SCF(FBXO4) complex containing FBXO4. Component of the SCF(FBXO44) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and FBXO44. Component of the SCF(BTRC) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and BTRC. This complex binds phosphorylated NFKBIA. Part of a SCF complex consisting of CUL1, RBX1, SKP1 and FBXO2. Component of a SCF(SKP2)-like complex containing CUL1, SKP1, TRIM21 and SKP2. Component of the SCF(FBXO17) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and FBXO17. Component of the SCF(FBXO27) complex, composed of SKP1, CUL1 and FBXO27. Component of the SCF(CCNF) complex consisting of CUL1, RBX1, SKP1 and CCNF. Component of the SCF(FBXL3) complex composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXL3. Component of the SCF(FBXL21) complex composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXL21. Component of the SCF(FBXO9) composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXO9. Component of the SCF(FBXW7) composed of CUL1, SKP1, RBX1 and FBXW7 (PubMed:28727686). Interacts with CEP68 (PubMed:25503564). Interacts with NOTCH2 (PubMed:29149593). Interacts with FBXW15 (By similarity). The SKP1-KDM2A and SKP1-KDM2B complexes interact with UBB (PubMed:30033217).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with vaccinia virus protein C9L.PTM Undergoes autophagy-mediated degradation in the liver in a time-dependent manner.SIMILARITY Belongs to the SKP1 family. UniProt P63208 2 EQUAL 163 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 1604469 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1604469 Reactome R-HSA-1604469 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1604469.1 GO 0061630 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604630 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604630 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604629 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604629 Reactome R-HSA-9604629 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604629.1 15592418 Pubmed 2004 Fbxw7/Cdc4 is a p53-dependent, haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene Mao, Jian-Hua Perez-Losada, Jesus Wu, Di Delrosario, Reyno Tsunematsu, Ryosuke Nakayama, Keiichi I Brown, Ken Bryson, Sheila Balmain, Allan Nature 432:775-9 Proteasome degrades ubiquitinated NICD4 Proteasome degrades ubiquitinated NICD4 FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination targets NICD4 (NOTCH4 intracellular domain fragment) for proteasome-mediated degradation (Wu et al. 2001). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 9604624 1 phosphorylated residue at unknown position ubiquitinylated lysine (polyubiquitin chain [nucleoplasm]) at unknown position 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 68524 3 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 177750 26S proteasome [nucleoplasm] 26S proteasome Reactome DB_ID: 174318 1 UniProt:P48556 PSMD8 PSMD8 PSMD8 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD8, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components. Interacts with DDI2 (PubMed:29290612). Interacts with TASOR (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S14 family.CAUTION It is uncertain whether Met-1 or Met-64 is the initiator. UniProt P48556 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174310 1 UniProt:P61289 PSME3 PSME3 PSME3 FUNCTION Subunit of the 11S REG-gamma (also called PA28-gamma) proteasome regulator, a doughnut-shaped homoheptamer which associates with the proteasome. 11S REG-gamma activates the trypsin-like catalytic subunit of the proteasome but inhibits the chymotrypsin-like and postglutamyl-preferring (PGPH) subunits. Facilitates the MDM2-p53/TP53 interaction which promotes ubiquitination- and MDM2-dependent proteasomal degradation of p53/TP53, limiting its accumulation and resulting in inhibited apoptosis after DNA damage. May also be involved in cell cycle regulation. Mediates CCAR2 and CHEK2-dependent SIRT1 inhibition (PubMed:25361978).SUBUNIT Homoheptamer; the stability of the heptamer is essential for the specific activation of the trypsine-like subunit and inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like and postglutamyl-preferring (PGPH) subunits of the proteasome. Interacts with p53/TP53 and MDM2. Interacts with MAP3K3 (By similarity). Associates with the proteasome. Interacts with CCAR2. Interacts with PSME3IP1 (via C-terminus); the interaction is direct and promotes the association of PSME3 with the 20S proteasome (PubMed:29934401). Interacts with COIL; the interaction is inhibited by PSME3IP1 (PubMed:29934401).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with human cytomegalovirus UL27.INDUCTION Up-regulated in thyroid carcinoma cells.DOMAIN The C-terminal sequences affect heptamer stability and proteasome affinity.PTM Phosphorylated by MAP3K3 (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-247 promotes its association with CCAR2.PTM Acetylation at the major site Lys-195 is important for oligomerization and ability to degrade its target substrates. Deacetylated by SIRT1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PA28 family. UniProt P61289 2 EQUAL 254 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174331 1 UniProt:Q99436 PSMB7 PSMB7 PSMB7 Z FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Within the 20S core complex, PSMB7 displays a trypsin-like activity.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat protein.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at a low level in colonic mucosa. Up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt Q99436 44 EQUAL 277 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174339 1 UniProt:O00232 PSMD12 PSMD12 PSMD12 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP) (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD12, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). Interacts with ERCC6 (PubMed:26030138).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit p55 family. UniProt O00232 2 EQUAL 456 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174322 1 UniProt:O75832 PSMD10 PSMD10 PSMD10 FUNCTION Acts as a chaperone during the assembly of the 26S proteasome, specifically of the PA700/19S regulatory complex (RC). In the initial step of the base subcomplex assembly is part of an intermediate PSMD10:PSMC4:PSMC5:PAAF1 module which probably assembles with a PSMD5:PSMC2:PSMC1:PSMD2 module. Independently of the proteasome, regulates EGF-induced AKT activation through inhibition of the RHOA/ROCK/PTEN pathway, leading to prolonged AKT activation. Plays an important role in RAS-induced tumorigenesis.FUNCTION Acts as an proto-oncoprotein by being involved in negative regulation of tumor suppressors RB1 and p53/TP53. Overexpression is leading to phosphorylation of RB1 and proteasomal degradation of RB1. Regulates CDK4-mediated phosphorylation of RB1 by competing with CDKN2A for binding with CDK4. Facilitates binding of MDM2 to p53/TP53 and the mono- and polyubiquitination of p53/TP53 by MDM2 suggesting a function in targeting the TP53:MDM2 complex to the 26S proteasome. Involved in p53-independent apoptosis. Involved in regulation of NF-kappa-B by retaining it in the cytoplasm. Binds to the NF-kappa-B component RELA and accelerates its XPO1/CRM1-mediated nuclear export.SUBUNIT Part of transient complex containing PSMD10, PSMC4, PSMC5 and PAAF1 formed during the assembly of the 26S proteasome. Stays associated throughout the assembly of the PA700/19S RC and is released upon association with the 20S core. Interacts with PSMC4. Interacts with RB1. Interacts with CDK4. Interacts with MDM2. Interacts with RELA. Associates with a CDK4:CCND2 serine/threonine kinase complex. Interacts with ARHGDIA and increases the interaction between ARHGDIA and RHOA, hence promotes ARHGDIA inactivation of RHOA and ROCK.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Tends to be up-regulated in cancer cells with RAS mutations, including lung cancers and adenocarconimas (at protein level).CAUTION Was initially identified as a genuine component of the 26S proteasome. UniProt O75832 1 EQUAL 226 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174316 1 UniProt:Q15008 PSMD6 PSMD6 PSMD6 KIAA0107 PFAAP4 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD6, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S10 family. UniProt Q15008 1 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174321 1 UniProt:O00233 PSMD9 PSMD9 PSMD9 FUNCTION Acts as a chaperone during the assembly of the 26S proteasome, specifically of the base subcomplex of the PA700/19S regulatory complex (RC). During the base subcomplex assembly is part of an intermediate PSMD9:PSMC6:PSMC3 module, also known as modulator trimer complex; PSMD9 is released during the further base assembly process.SUBUNIT Interacts with PSMC3. Part of a transient complex (modulator) containing PSMD9, PSMC6 and PSMC3 formed during the assembly of the 26S proteasome.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in all tissues tested, highly expressed in liver and kidney.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit p27 family.CAUTION Was initially identified as a component of the 26S proteasome. UniProt O00233 1 EQUAL 223 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174350 1 UniProt:Q9UL46 PSME2 PSME2 PSME2 FUNCTION Implicated in immunoproteasome assembly and required for efficient antigen processing. The PA28 activator complex enhances the generation of class I binding peptides by altering the cleavage pattern of the proteasome.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of PSME1 and PSME2, which forms a hexameric ring.INDUCTION By IFNG/IFN-gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PA28 family. UniProt Q9UL46 2 EQUAL 239 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174335 1 UniProt:P49721 PSMB2 PSMB2 PSMB2 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 protein Tat.INDUCTION Up-regulated in ovarian cancer cell lines.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P49721 1 EQUAL 201 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174349 1 UniProt:P40306 PSMB10 PSMB10 LMP10 MECL1 PSMB10 FUNCTION The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This subunit is involved in antigen processing to generate class I binding peptides.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Component of the immunoproteasome, where it displaces the equivalent housekeeping subunit PSMB7. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma (at protein level). Up-regulated by IRF1. Up-regulated by TNF (at protein level). Up-regulated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in glial cells. Up-regulated in Crohn's bowel disease (CD). Up-regulated by CD40L via the NFKB1 pathway in cancer cells.PTM Autocleaved. The resulting N-terminal Thr residue of the mature subunit is responsible for the nucleophile proteolytic activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P40306 40 EQUAL 273 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174327 1 UniProt:O00231 PSMD11 PSMD11 PSMD11 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. In the complex, PSMD11 is required for proteasome assembly. Plays a key role in increased proteasome activity in embryonic stem cells (ESCs): its high expression in ESCs promotes enhanced assembly of the 26S proteasome, followed by higher proteasome activity.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD11, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Expression decreases as ESCs differentiate.INDUCTION By FOXO4; expression in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is mediated by FOXO4.PTM Phosphorylated by AMPK.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S9 family. UniProt O00231 2 EQUAL 422 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174346 1 UniProt:Q16401 PSMD5 PSMD5 PSMD5 KIAA0072 FUNCTION Acts as a chaperone during the assembly of the 26S proteasome, specifically of the base subcomplex of the PA700/19S regulatory complex (RC). In the initial step of the base subcomplex assembly is part of an intermediate PSMD5:PSMC2:PSMC1:PSMD2 module which probably assembles with a PSMD10:PSMC4:PSMC5:PAAF1 module followed by dissociation of PSMD5.SUBUNIT Interacts with PSMC1, PSMC2, PSMD1 and PSMD6. Part of transient complex containing PSMD5, PSMC2, PSMC1 and PSMD2 formed during the assembly of the 26S proteasome.DOMAIN Rich in dileucine repeats, which have been implicated in trafficking of a variety of transmembrane proteins.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S5B/HSM3 family.CAUTION Was initially identified as a genuine component of the 26S proteasome. UniProt Q16401 2 EQUAL 504 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174309 1 UniProt:P51665 PSMD7 PSMD7 MOV34L PSMD7 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD7, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Within the complex, PSMD7 interacts with subunit PSMD4 through their respective MPN domain. Interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707).MISCELLANEOUS Does not bind a metal ion.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase M67A family. UniProt P51665 1 EQUAL 324 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174326 1 UniProt:Q9UNM6 PSMD13 PSMD13 PSMD13 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD13, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S11 family. UniProt Q9UNM6 1 EQUAL 376 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174334 1 UniProt:P28065 PSMB9 PSMB9 LMP2 PSMB6i RING12 PSMB9 FUNCTION The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This subunit is involved in antigen processing to generate class I binding peptides. Replacement of PSMB6 by PSMB9 increases the capacity of the immunoproteasome to cleave model peptides after hydrophobic and basic residues.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Component of the immunoproteasome, where it displaces the equivalent housekeeping subunit PSMB6. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated by interferon gamma (at protein level). Up-regulated by IRF1. Up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (at protein level). Up-regulated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in glial cells. Up-regulated in Crohn's bowel disease (CD). Up-regulated by heat shock treatment. Up-regulated by CD40L via the NFKB1 pathway in cancer cells.PTM Autocleaved. The resulting N-terminal Thr residue of the mature subunit is responsible for the nucleophile proteolytic activity.MISCELLANEOUS Encoded in the MHC class II region.MISCELLANEOUS A model for self-activation in which residue Thr-21 serves as nucleophile and Lys-53 as proton donor/acceptor has been proposed. Subunit processing of mammalian beta-subunits proceeds via a novel ordered two-step mechanism involving autocatalysis.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28065 21 EQUAL 219 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174319 1 UniProt:P62333 PSMC6 PSMC6 PSMC6 SUG2 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC6 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC6 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family.CAUTION Alternative initiation from an upstream conserved methionine cannot be fully excluded but is not experimentally supported while initiation from the displayed methionine is supported by PubMed:17323924. UniProt P62333 1 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174342 1 UniProt:P28072 PSMB6 PSMB6 PSMB6 LMPY Y FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Within the 20S core complex, PSMB6 displays a peptidylglutamyl-hydrolizing activity also termed postacidic or caspase-like activity, meaning that the peptides bond hydrolysis occurs directly after acidic residues.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 protein Tat.INDUCTION Down-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma (at protein level). Up-regulated in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28072 35 EQUAL 239 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174311 1 UniProt:Q13200 PSMD2 PSMD2 TRAP2 PSMD2 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.FUNCTION Binds to the intracellular domain of tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor. The binding domain of TRAP1 and TRAP2 resides outside the death domain of TNFR1.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components including PSMD2 (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with RPGRIP1L (By similarity). Interacts with CRY1 in a KDM8-dependent manner (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Found in skeletal muscle, liver, heart, brain, kidney, pancreas, lung and placenta.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S2 family. UniProt Q13200 1 EQUAL 908 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174348 1 UniProt:Q99460 PSMD1 PSMD1 PSMD1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components including PSMD1 (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with ADRM1 (PubMed:16990800, PubMed:16906146). Interacts with ZFAND1 (PubMed:29804830).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S1 family. UniProt Q99460 1 EQUAL 953 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174330 1 UniProt:P55036 PSMD4 PSMD4 MCB1 PSMD4 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMD4 acts as an ubiquitin receptor subunit through ubiquitin-interacting motifs and selects ubiquitin-conjugates for destruction. Displays a preferred selectivity for longer polyubiquitin chains.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components including PSMD4 (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with NUB1 (PubMed:11585840). Interacts with SQSTM1 (PubMed:15340068). Interacts with UBQLN4 (PubMed:15280365). Interacts with UBE3A (PubMed:22645313). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via ubiquitin-like domain) (PubMed:15147878). Interacts with DDI2 (PubMed:29290612).DOMAIN The 2 UIM motifs are involved in the binding to a multi-ubiquitin chain in a cooperative way.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S5A family. UniProt P55036 1 EQUAL 377 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174314 1 UniProt:P60900 PSMA6 PSMA6 PSMA6 PROS27 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. Interacts with ALKBH4 (PubMed:23145062).SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P60900 1 EQUAL 246 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174340 1 UniProt:P28066 PSMA5 PSMA5 PSMA5 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. PSMA5 interacts directly with the PSMG1-PSMG2 heterodimer which promotes 20S proteasome assembly.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in fetal brain (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated in colon cancer cell lines. Up-regulated in fetal Down syndrome (DS) brain (at protein level). May be the target of the transcriptional activator NFE2L2.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P28066 1 EQUAL 241 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174343 1 UniProt:P28070 PSMB4 PSMB4 PSMB4 PROS26 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). SMAD1/OAZ1/PSMB4 complex mediates the degradation of the CREBBP/EP300 repressor SNIP1.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. Forms a ternary complex with SMAD1 and OAZ1 before PSMB4 is incorporated into the 20S proteasome. Interacts with PRPF19 (PubMed:11571290, PubMed:12097147).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HTLV-1 Tax protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Nef and Tat proteins.INDUCTION Up-regulated in fibrolamellar carcinomas.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family.CAUTION A report observed N-glycosylation at Asn-83 (PubMed:19139490). However, as the protein does not localize in an extracellular compartment of the cell, additional evidence is required to confirm this result. UniProt P28070 46 EQUAL 264 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174333 1 UniProt:P25786 PSMA1 PSMA1 PSMA1 HC2 NU PSC2 PROS30 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. Interacts with NOTCH3. Interacts with ZFAND1 (PubMed:29804830).INDUCTION Induced in breast cancer tissue (at protein level). Up-regulated in liver tumor tissues.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25786 1 EQUAL 263 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174320 1 UniProt:Q06323 PSME1 PSME1 PSME1 IFI5111 FUNCTION Implicated in immunoproteasome assembly and required for efficient antigen processing. The PA28 activator complex enhances the generation of class I binding peptides by altering the cleavage pattern of the proteasome.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of PSME1 and PSME2, which forms a hexameric ring. PSME1 can form homoheptamers.INDUCTION By IFNG/IFN-gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PA28 family. UniProt Q06323 1 EQUAL 249 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174332 1 UniProt:P35998 PSMC2 PSMC2 MSS1 PSMC2 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC2 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP) (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC2 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with NDC80/HEC; this interaction is detected only during M phase (PubMed:9295362, PubMed:10409732). Interacts and SQSTM1 (PubMed:15340068). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487). Directly interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat.INDUCTION Expression is not cell cycle-dependent and occurs throughout the cell cycle.PTM Monoubiquitinated by RNF181.SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P35998 2 EQUAL 433 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174345 1 UniProt:P25787 PSMA2 PSMA2 PSMA2 PSC3 HC3 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.INDUCTION Down-regulated by antioxidants BO-653 and probucol. Down-regulated in response to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection (at protein level).PTM Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues; which may be important for nuclear import.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25787 2 EQUAL 234 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174324 1 UniProt:P25789 PSMA4 PSMA4 PSMA4 PSC9 HC9 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interaction with HTLV-1 TAX protein favors NFKB1 activation.INDUCTION Down-regulated by antioxidants BO-653 and probucol.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25789 1 EQUAL 261 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 8866665 1 UniProt:P60896 SEM1 SEM1 SEM1 C7orf76 SHFDG1 SHFM1 DSS1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair (PubMed:15117943). Component of the TREX-2 complex (transcription and export complex 2), composed of at least ENY2, GANP, PCID2, SEM1, and either centrin CETN2 or CETN3 (PubMed:22307388). The TREX-2 complex functions in docking export-competent ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) to the nuclear entrance of the nuclear pore complex (nuclear basket). TREX-2 participates in mRNA export and accurate chromatin positioning in the nucleus by tethering genes to the nuclear periphery. Binds and stabilizes BRCA2 and is thus involved in the control of R-loop-associated DNA damage and thus transcription-associated genomic instability. R-loop accumulation increases in SEM1-depleted cells.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including SEM1, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Belongs to the TREX-2 complex (transcription and export complex 2), composed of at least ENY2, GANP, PCID2, SEM1, and either centrin CETN2 or CETN3 (PubMed:22307388). Component of the homologous recombination repair (HR) complex composed of ERCC5/XPG, BRCA2, PALB2, DSS1 and RAD51 (PubMed:26833090). Interacts with the C-terminal of BRCA2 (PubMed:10373512, PubMed:21719596).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in limb bud, craniofacial primordia and skin.SIMILARITY Belongs to the DSS1/SEM1 family. UniProt P60896 1 EQUAL 70 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174341 1 UniProt:P49720 PSMB3 PSMB3 PSMB3 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.INDUCTION Up-regulated in asthenozoospermic sperm.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P49720 2 EQUAL 205 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174336 1 UniProt:P28062 PSMB8 PSMB8 PSMB5i RING10 Y2 LMP7 PSMB8 FUNCTION The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This subunit is involved in antigen processing to generate class I binding peptides. Replacement of PSMB5 by PSMB8 increases the capacity of the immunoproteasome to cleave model peptides after hydrophobic and basic residues. Involved in the generation of spliced peptides resulting from the ligation of two separate proteasomal cleavage products that are not contiguous in the parental protein (PubMed:27049119). Acts as a major component of interferon gamma-induced sensitivity. Plays a key role in apoptosis via the degradation of the apoptotic inhibitor MCL1. May be involved in the inflammatory response pathway. In cancer cells, substitution of isoform 1 (E2) by isoform 2 (E1) results in immunoproteasome deficiency. Required for the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Component of the immunoproteasome, where it displaces the equivalent housekeeping subunit PSMB5. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis. Directly interacts with POMP. Interacts with TAP1.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma and IRF1 (at protein level). Up-regulated by TNF (at protein level). Up-regulated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in glial cells. Up-regulated in Crohn's bowel disease (CD). Down-regulated by the selective inhibitor PR-957. Down-regulated in mature dendritic cells by HSV-1 infection. Up-regulated by heat shock treatment.PTM Autocleaved. The resulting N-terminal Thr residue of the mature subunit is responsible for the nucleophile proteolytic activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28062 73 EQUAL 276 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174313 1 UniProt:P17980 PSMC3 PSMC3 PSMC3 TBP1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC3 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC3 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat.PTM Sumoylated by UBE2I in response to MEKK1-mediated stimuli.SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P17980 1 EQUAL 439 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174308 1 UniProt:Q92530 PSMF1 PSMF1 PSMF1 FUNCTION Plays an important role in control of proteasome function. Inhibits the hydrolysis of protein and peptide substrates by the 20S proteasome. Also inhibits the activation of the proteasome by the proteasome regulatory proteins PA700 and PA28.SUBUNIT Monomer and homodimer. Interacts with FBXO7. Interacts with the 20S proteasome.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome inhibitor PI31 family. UniProt Q92530 1 EQUAL 271 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174328 1 UniProt:O43242 PSMD3 PSMD3 PSMD3 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD3, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via ubiquitin-like domain) (PubMed:15147878). Interacts with ERCC6 (PubMed:26030138).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S3 family. UniProt O43242 1 EQUAL 534 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174323 1 UniProt:P25788 PSMA3 PSMA3 PSMA3 HC8 PSC8 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Binds to the C-terminus of CDKN1A and thereby mediates its degradation. Negatively regulates the membrane trafficking of the cell-surface thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) isoform 2.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. Interacts with AURKB. Interacts with CDKN1A (PubMed:11350925). Interacts with MDM2 and RB1 (PubMed:16337594). Interacts with the C-terminus of TBXA2R isoform 2 (PubMed:17499743). Interacts with DNAJB2 (PubMed:15936278).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) F protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3 proteins.INDUCTION Down-regulated by antioxidants BO-653 and probucol. Up-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and TNF.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25788 2 EQUAL 255 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174351 1 UniProt:O14818 PSMA7 PSMA7 PSMA7 HSPC FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Inhibits the transactivation function of HIF-1A under both normoxic and hypoxia-mimicking conditions. The interaction with EMAP2 increases the proteasome-mediated HIF-1A degradation under the hypoxic conditions. Plays a role in hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Mediates nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor (AR) and thereby enhances androgen-mediated transactivation. Promotes MAVS degradation and thereby negatively regulates MAVS-mediated innate immune response.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. PSMA7 interacts directly with the PSMG1-PSMG2 heterodimer which promotes 20S proteasome assembly (PubMed:16251969). Interacts with HIF1A. Interacts with RAB7A (PubMed:14998988). Interacts with PRKN (PubMed:15987638). Interacts with ABL1 and ABL2 (PubMed:16678104). Interacts with EMAP2 (PubMed:19362550). Interacts with MAVS (PubMed:19734229).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX).INDUCTION Down-regulated by the ribozyme Rz3'X. Up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues.PTM Phosphorylation by ABL1 or ABL2 leads to an inhibition of proteasomal activity and cell cycle transition blocks.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt O14818 1 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174344 1 UniProt:P28074 PSMB5 PSMB5 PSMB5 X LMPX MB1 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Within the 20S core complex, PSMB5 displays a chymotrypsin-like activity.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. Directly interacts with POMP (PubMed:15944226). Interacts with ABCB1 and TAP1 (PubMed:15488952).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.INDUCTION Down-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma (at protein level). Induced in breast cancer tissue. Up-regulated by sulforaphane in breast cancer cells.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28074 60 EQUAL 263 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174312 1 UniProt:P62195 PSMC5 PSMC5 PSMC5 SUG1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC5 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC5 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Component of a complex with USP49 and RUVBL1 (PubMed:23824326). Interacts with PRPF19. Interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707). Interacts with NDC80 (PubMed:9295362, PubMed:10409732). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487). Interacts, in vitro, with the thyroid hormone receptor (in a thyroid hormone T3-dependent manner) and with retinoid X receptor (RXR) (By similarity). Interacts with ERCC6 (PubMed:26030138).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P62195 2 EQUAL 406 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174329 1 UniProt:O00487 PSMD14 PSMD14 PSMD14 POH1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. The PSMD14 subunit is a metalloprotease that specifically cleaves 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains within the complex. Plays a role in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs): acts as a regulator of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) by cleaving 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin, thereby promoting retention of JMJD2A/KDM4A on chromatin and restricting TP53BP1 accumulation. Also involved in homologous recombination repair by promoting RAD51 loading.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD4, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Within the complex, PSMD4 interacts with subunit PSMD7 through their respective MPN domain. Interacts with TXNL1 (PubMed:19349277).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed. Highest levels in heart and skeletal muscle.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase M67A family. PSMD14 subfamily. UniProt O00487 1 EQUAL 310 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174347 1 UniProt:P20618 PSMB1 PSMB1 PSC5 PSMB1 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. Interacts with SERPINB2. Interacts with RFPL4A (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 protein Tat.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P20618 29 EQUAL 241 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174338 1 UniProt:P62191 PSMC1 PSMC1 PSMC1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC1 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC1 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with SCA7 (PubMed:11734547). Interacts with NGLY1 (PubMed:15358861). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P62191 2 EQUAL 440 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 174315 1 UniProt:P43686 PSMC4 PSMC4 TBP7 PSMC4 MIP224 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC4 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC4 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). Interacts with NR1I3. Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487). Interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707). Interacts with ZFAND1 (PubMed:29804830).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P43686 1 EQUAL 418 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 177750 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=177750 Reactome R-HSA-177750 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-177750.2 GO 0004175 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 81 174087 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=174087 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604642 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604642 Reactome R-HSA-9604642 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604642.1 NICD4 binds to TACC3 NICD4 binds to TACC3 Based on studies in mice, the intracellular domain of NOTCH4, NICD4, binds to transforming acidic coiled-coil protein-3 (TACC3). TACC3 is implicated as a negative regulator of NOTCH4 signaling and may compete with NICD4 binding to RBPJ (Bargo et al. 2010). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-04-05 Reviewed: Haw, Robin, 2018-05-01 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-05-09 Reactome DB_ID: 157636 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 2160956 1 UniProt:Q9Y6A5 TACC3 TACC3 TACC3 ERIC1 FUNCTION Plays a role in the microtubule-dependent coupling of the nucleus and the centrosome. Involved in the processes that regulate centrosome-mediated interkinetic nuclear migration (INM) of neural progenitors (By similarity). Acts as component of the TACC3/ch-TOG/clathrin complex proposed to contribute to stabilization of kinetochore fibers of the mitotic spindle by acting as inter-microtubule bridge. The TACC3/ch-TOG/clathrin complex is required for the maintenance of kinetochore fiber tension (PubMed:21297582, PubMed:23532825). May be involved in the control of cell growth and differentiation. May contribute to cancer (PubMed:14767476).SUBUNIT Interacts with microtubules. Interacts with CKAP5 independently of clathrin. Interacts with CKAP5 and clathrin forming the TACC3/ch-TOG/clathrin complex located at spindle inter-microtubules bridges; TACC3 (phosphorylated at Ser-558 by AURKA) and CLTC are proposed to form a composite microtubule interaction surface (PubMed:21297582, PubMed:23918938, PubMed:25596274). Interacts with CCDC100/CEP120. The coiled coil C-terminal region interacts with AH receptor nuclear translocator protein (ARNT) and ARNT2 (By similarity). Interacts with GCN5L2 and PCAF (PubMed:14767476).INDUCTION Up-regulated in various cancer cell lines.SIMILARITY Belongs to the TACC family. UniProt Q9Y6A5 1 EQUAL 838 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9604678 1 NICD4:TACC3 [cytosol] NICD4:TACC3 Reactome DB_ID: 157636 1 1467 EQUAL 2003 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 2160956 1 1 EQUAL 838 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604678 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604678 Reactome R-HSA-9604678 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604678.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604675 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604675 Reactome R-HSA-9604675 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604675.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9604323 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9604323 Reactome R-HSA-9604323 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9604323.1 22001063 Pubmed 2011 Elongin C is a mediator of Notch4 activity in human renal tubule cells Cummins, Timothy D Mendenhall, Michael D Lowry, Michelle N Korte, Erik A Barati, Michelle T Khundmiri, Syed J Salyer, Sarah A Klein, Jon B Powell, David W Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1814:1748-57 21402876 Pubmed 2011 Trp53 regulates Notch 4 signaling through Mdm2 Sun, Youping Klauzinska, Malgorzata Lake, Robert J Lee, Joseph M Santopietro, Stefania Raafat, Ahmed Salomon, David Callahan, Robert Artavanis-Tsakonas, S J. Cell. Sci. 124:1067-76 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9013694 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9013694 Reactome R-HSA-9013694 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9013694.2 18836481 Pubmed 2009 Rbpj conditional knockout reveals distinct functions of Notch4/Int3 in mammary gland development and tumorigenesis Raafat, A Lawson, S Bargo, S Klauzinska, M Strizzi, L Goldhar, A S Buono, K Salomon, D Vonderhaar, B K Callahan, R Oncogene 28:219-30 11119607 Pubmed 2001 An Epstein-Barr virus protein interacts with Notch Kusano, S Raab-Traub, N J. Virol. 75:384-95 25511451 Pubmed 2015 Notch4 promotes gastric cancer growth through activation of Wnt1/β-catenin signaling Qian, Cuijuan Liu, Fuqiang Ye, Bei Zhang, Xin Liang, Yong Yao, J Mol. Cell. Biochem. 401:165-74 8681805 Pubmed 1996 Notch4/int-3, a mammary proto-oncogene, is an endothelial cell-specific mammalian Notch gene Uyttendaele, H Marazzi, G Wu, G Yan, Q Sassoon, D Kitajewski, J Development 122:2251-9 29057904 Pubmed 2017 The ANK repeats of Notch-4/Int3 activate NF-κB canonical pathway in the absence of Rbpj and causes mammary tumorigenesis Raafat, Ahmed Bargo, Sharon McCurdy, David Callahan, Robert Sci Rep 7:13690 14701863 Pubmed 2004 Notch4 inhibits endothelial apoptosis via RBP-Jkappa-dependent and -independent pathways MacKenzie, Farrell Duriez, Patrick Wong, Fred Noseda, Michela Karsan, Aly J. Biol. Chem. 279:11657-63 16878155 Pubmed 2007 Kit and PDGFR-alpha activities are necessary for Notch4/Int3-induced tumorigenesis Raafat, A Zoltan-Jones, A Strizzi, L Bargo, S Kimura, K Salomon, D Callahan, R Oncogene 26:662-72 25041739 Pubmed 2015 Dengue virus up-regulates expression of notch ligands Dll1 and Dll4 through interferon-β signalling pathway Li, Yuye Wu, Siyu Pu, Jieying Huang, Xi Zhang, Ping Immunology 144:127-38 11344305 Pubmed 2001 Vascular patterning defects associated with expression of activated Notch4 in embryonic endothelium Uyttendaele, H Ho, J Rossant, J Kitajewski, J Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98:5643-8 3023708 Pubmed 1987 Mammary tumorigenesis in feral mice: identification of a new int locus in mouse mammary tumor virus (Czech II)-induced mammary tumors Gallahan, D Callahan, R J. Virol. 61:66-74 1312643 Pubmed 1992 Mouse mammary tumor gene int-3: a member of the notch gene family transforms mammary epithelial cells Robbins, J Blondel, B J Gallahan, D Callahan, R J. Virol. 66:2594-9