BioPAX pathway converted from "Metabolism of proteins" in the Reactome database. Metabolism of proteins Metabolism of proteins This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Translation Translation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> tRNA Aminoacylation tRNA Aminoacylation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation Cytosolic tRNA aminoacylation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3.6.1.1 PPA1 hydrolyzes pyrophosphate to orthophosphate PPA1 hydrolyzes pyrophosphate to orthophosphate pyrophosphate + H2O => 2 orthophosphate [cytosolic] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 cytosol GO 0005829 water [ChEBI:15377] water Reactome http://www.reactome.org ChEBI 15377 Reactome DB_ID: 111294 1 diphosphate(3-) [ChEBI:33019] diphosphate(3-) ChEBI 33019 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 2 hydrogenphosphate [ChEBI:43474] hydrogenphosphate [PO3(OH)](2-) HYDROGENPHOSPHATE ION hydrogen phosphate [P(OH)O3](2-) HPO4(2-) phosphate INORGANIC PHOSPHATE GROUP ChEBI 43474 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9753659 PPA1 dimer [cytosol] PPA1 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9753657 2 UniProt:Q9D819 Ppa1 Mus musculus NCBI Taxonomy 10090 UniProt Q9D819 Chain Coordinates 1 EQUAL 289 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9753659 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9753659 Reactome R-MMU-71726 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-71726.1 GO 0004427 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9753660 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9753660 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9753662 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9753662 Reactome R-MMU-71732 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-71732.1 Cytosolic PPA1 (pyrophosphatase (inorganic) 1) catalyzes the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to yield two molecules of orthophosphate. The enzyme, a homodimer, requires Mg++ for activity (Fisher et al. 1974; Pynes and Younathan 1967; Thuiller et al. 1978). 656444 Pubmed 1978 Purification and kinetic properties of human erythrocyte Mg2+-dependent inorganic pyrophosphatase Thuillier, L Biochim Biophys Acta 524:198-206 6022858 Pubmed 1967 Purification and some properties of inorganic pyrophosphatase from human erythrocytes Pynes, GD Younathan, ES J Biol Chem 242:2119-23 4130389 Pubmed 1974 Studies on human erythrocyte inorganic pyrophosphatase. Fisher, RA Turner, BM Dorkin, HL Harris, H Ann Hum Genet 37:341-53 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 78 352997 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=352997 Reactome R-GGA-352997 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-352997.1 Reactome DB_ID: 29926 magnesium(2+) [ChEBI:18420] magnesium(2+) ChEBI 18420 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860124 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860124 Reactome R-MMU-379716 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-379716.1 GO 0006418 GO biological process Cytosolic tRNA synthetases catalyze the reactions of tRNAs encoded in the nuclear genome, their cognate amino acids, and ATP to form aminoacyl-tRNAs, AMP, and pyrophosphate. Eight of the tRNA synthetases, those specific for arginine, aspartate, glutamate and proline, glutamine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, and methionine, associate to form a complex with three accessory proteins. Each of the component synthetases is active in vitro as a purified protein; complex formation is thought to channel aminoacylated tRNAs more efficiently to the site of protein synthesis in mRNA:ribosome complexes (Quevillon et al. 1999; Wolfe et al. 2003, 2005). 9878398 Pubmed 1999 Macromolecular assemblage of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases: identification of protein-protein interactions and characterization of a core protein Quevillon, S Robinson, JC Berthonneau, E Siatecka, M Mirande, M J Mol Biol 285:183-95 14500886 Pubmed 2003 Isolation and characterization of human nuclear and cytosolic multisynthetase complexes and the intracellular distribution of p43/EMAPII Wolfe, CL Warrington, JA Davis, S Green, S Norcum, MT Protein Sci 12:2282-90 16169847 Pubmed 2005 A three-dimensional working model of the multienzyme complex of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases based on electron microscopic placements of tRNA and proteins Wolfe, CL Warrington, JA Treadwell, L Norcum, MT J Biol Chem 280:38870-8 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation Mitochondrial tRNA aminoacylation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3.6.1.1 pyrophosphate + H2O => 2 orthophosphate [mitochondrial] pyrophosphate + H2O => 2 orthophosphate [mitochondrial] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 159450 1 mitochondrial matrix GO 0005759 Reactome DB_ID: 113521 1 Reactome DB_ID: 113548 2 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9785312 PPA2 dimer [mitochondrial matrix] PPA2 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9785310 2 UniProt:Q91VM9 Ppa2 UniProt Q91VM9 33 EQUAL 334 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9785312 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9785312 Reactome R-MMU-449923 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-449923.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9785313 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9785313 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9785315 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9785315 Reactome R-MMU-449937 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-449937.1 Mitochondrial PPA2 (pyrophosphatase (inorganic) 2) catalyzes the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate to yield two molecules of orthophosphate. The enzyme requires Mg++ for activity (Curbo et al. 2006). The enzyme is inferred to be a homodimer by analogy to its cytosolic isoform. 16300924 Pubmed 2006 Human mitochondrial pyrophosphatase: cDNA cloning and analysis of the gene in patients with mtDNA depletion syndromes Curbo, S Lagier-Tourenne, C Carrozzo, R Palenzuela, L Lucioli, S Hirano, M Santorelli, F Arenas, J Karlsson, A Johansson, M Genomics 87:410-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 78 354222 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=354222 Reactome R-GGA-354222 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-354222.1 Reactome DB_ID: 109496 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9861872 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9861872 Reactome R-MMU-379726 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-379726.1 Mitochondrial tRNA synthetases act in the mitochondrial matrix to catalyze the reactions of tRNAs encoded in the mitochondrial genome, their cognate amino acids, and ATP to form aminoacyl-tRNAs, AMP, and pyrophosphate (Schneider et al. 2000). The synthetase enzymes that catalyze these reactions are all encoded in the nuclear genome. In three cases, glycine, lysine, and glutamine, a single gene encodes two enzyme isoforms, one cytosolic and one mitochondrial. All other mitochondrial tRNA synthetases are encoded by genes different from the ones encoding the corresponding cytosolic enzymes. 11121736 Pubmed 2000 Mitochondrial tRNA import: are there distinct mechanisms? Schneider, A Marechal-Drouard, L Trends Cell Biol 10:509-13 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860126 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860126 Reactome R-MMU-379724 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-379724.1 tRNA synthetases catalyze the ligation of tRNAs to their cognate amino acids in an ATP-dependent manner. The reaction proceeds in two steps. First, amino acid and ATP form an aminoacyl adenylate molecule, releasing pyrophosphate. The aminoacyl adenylate remains associated with the synthetase enzyme where, in the second step it reacts with tRNA to form aminoacyl tRNA and AMP. The rapid hydrolysis of pyrophosphate makes these reactions essentially irreversible under physiological conditions (Fersht and Kaethner 1976a). Specificity of the tRNA charging reactions is achieved both by specific recognition of amino acid and tRNA substrates by the synthetase, and by an editing process in which incorrect aminoacyl adenylate molecules (e.g., valyl adenylate associated with isoleucyl tRNA synthetase) are hydrolyzed rather than conjugated to tRNAs in the second step of the reaction (Baldwin and Berg 1966a,b; Fersht and Kaethner 1976b). The tRNA synthetases can be divided into two structural classes based on conserved amino acid sequence features (Burnbaum and Schimmel 1991).<p>A single synthetase mediates the charging of all of the tRNA species specific for any one amino acid but, with three exceptions, glycine, lysine, and glutamine, the synthetase that catalyzes aminoacylation of mitochondrial tRNAs is encoded by a different gene than the one that acts on mitochondrial tRNAs. Both mitochondrial and cytosolic tRNA synthetase enzymes are encoded by genes in the nuclear genome.<p>A number of tRNA synthetases are known to have functions distinct from tRNA charging (reviewed by Park et al. 2005). Additionally, mutations in several of the tRNA synthetases, often affecting protein domains that are dispensable in vitro for aminoacyl tRNA synthesis, are associated with a diverse array of neurological and other diseases (Antonellis and Green 2008; Park et al. 2008). These findings raise interest into the role of these enzymes in human development and disease.<p> 16125937 Pubmed 2005 Functional expansion of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and their interacting factors: new perspectives on housekeepers Park, SG Ewalt, KL Kim, S Trends Biochem Sci 30:569-74 18767960 Pubmed 2008 The role of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in genetic diseases Antonellis, Anthony Green, ED Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 9:87-107 5324173 Pubmed 1966 Transfer ribonucleic acid-induced hydrolysis of valyladenylate bound to isoleucyl ribonucleic acid synthetase Baldwin, AN Berg, P J Biol Chem 241:839-45 1894595 Pubmed 1991 Structural relationships and the classification of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases Burbaum, JJ Schimmel, P J Biol Chem 266:16965-8 5324172 Pubmed 1966 Purification and properties of isoleucyl ribonucleic acid synthetase from Escherichia coli Baldwin, AN Berg, P J Biol Chem 241:831-8 182209 Pubmed 1976 Enzyme hyperspecificity. Rejection of threonine by the valyl-tRNA synthetase by misacylation and hydrolytic editing Fersht, AR Kaethner, MM Biochemistry 15:3342-6 18682559 Pubmed 2008 Aminoacyl tRNA synthetases and their connections to disease Park, SG Schimmel, P Kim, S Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11043-9 764868 Pubmed 1976 Mechanism of aminoacylation of tRNA. Proof of the aminoacyl adenylate pathway for the isoleucyl- and tyrosyl-tRNA synthetases from Escherichia coli K12 Fersht, AR Kaethner, MM Biochemistry 15:818-23 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Eukaryotic Translation Initiation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Cap-dependent Translation Initiation Cap-dependent Translation Initiation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Formation of a pool of free 40S subunits Formation of a pool of free 40S subunits This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Release of 40S and 60S subunits from the 80S ribosome Release of 40S and 60S subunits from the 80S ribosome This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9755053 1 80S ribosome [cytosol] 80S ribosome Reactome DB_ID: 9755051 1 60S ribosomal complex [cytosol] 60S ribosomal complex Reactome DB_ID: 9754934 1 UniProt:P35980 Rpl18 Rpl18 Rpl18 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL18 family. UniProt P35980 2 EQUAL 188 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633470 1 UniProt:P35979 Rpl12 Rpl12 Rpl12 FUNCTION Binds directly to 26S ribosomal RNA.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL11 family. UniProt P35979 1 EQUAL 165 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755025 1 RPL3,RPL3L [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Rpl3 [cytosol] UniProt P27659 Reactome DB_ID: 9754961 1 UniProt:Q6ZWV7 Rpl35 Rpl35 Rpl35 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL29 family. UniProt Q6ZWV7 2 EQUAL 123 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754939 1 UniProt:O09167 Rpl21 Rpl21 Rpl21 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL21 family. UniProt O09167 2 EQUAL 160 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633567 1 UniProt:P47955 Rplp1 Rplp1 Rplp1 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the elongation step of protein synthesis.SUBUNIT Heterodimer with RPLP2 at the lateral ribosomal stalk of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein P1/P2 family. UniProt P47955 2 EQUAL 114 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633465 1 UniProt:P62830 Rpl23 Rpl23 Rpl23 SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL14 family. UniProt P62830 1 EQUAL 140 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754965 1 UniProt:P47964 Rpl36 Rpl36 Rpl36 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL36 family. UniProt P47964 2 EQUAL 105 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754931 1 UniProt:Q9CPR4 Rpl17 Rpl17 Rpl17 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL22 family. UniProt Q9CPR4 2 EQUAL 184 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754979 1 UniProt:P62984 Uba52 Uba52 Uba52 Ubcep2 SUBUNIT Ribosomal protein L40 is part of the 60S ribosomal subunit. Interacts with UBQLN1 (via UBA domain).MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. Uba52 and Rps27a genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.SIMILARITY In the N-terminal section; belongs to the ubiquitin family.SIMILARITY In the C-terminal section; belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL40 family. UniProt P62984 77 EQUAL 128 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754971 1 UniProt:P61514 Rpl37a Rpl37a Rpl37a SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL43 family. UniProt P61514 2 EQUAL 92 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754950 1 UniProt:P47915 Rpl29 Rpl29 Rpl43 Rpl29 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL29 family. UniProt P47915 2 EQUAL 159 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633527 1 UniProt:P14869 Rplp0 Rplp0 Arbp Rplp0 FUNCTION Ribosomal protein P0 is the functional equivalent of E.coli protein L10.SUBUNIT P0 forms a pentameric complex by interaction with dimers of P1 and P2. Identified in a IGF2BP1-dependent mRNP granule complex containing untranslated mRNAs. Interacts with APEX1. Interacts with FMR1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL10 family. UniProt P14869 1 EQUAL 317 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633588 1 UniProt:P84099 Rpl19 Rpl19 Rpl19 PTM Citrullinated by PADI4.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL19 family. UniProt P84099 1 EQUAL 196 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633568 1 UniProt:P41105 Rpl28 Rpl28 Rpl28 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL28 family. UniProt P41105 2 EQUAL 137 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633542 1 UniProt:Q8BP67 Rpl24 Rpl24 Rpl24 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL24 family. UniProt Q8BP67 1 EQUAL 157 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754968 1 UniProt:Q9D823 Rpl37 Rpl37 Rpl37 FUNCTION Binds to the 23S rRNA.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL37 family. UniProt Q9D823 2 EQUAL 97 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755049 1 RPL39,RPL39L [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Rpl39 [cytosol] UniProt P62892 Reactome DB_ID: 9633491 1 UniProt:P61358 Rpl27 Rpl27 Rpl27 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit (By similarity). Required for proper rRNA processing and maturation of 28S and 5.8S rRNAs (By similarity).SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit (By similarity). Interacts with RRP1B (By similarity). Interacts with DHX33 (PubMed:26100019).SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL27 family. UniProt P61358 1 EQUAL 136 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633537 1 UniProt:P62751 Rpl23a Rpl23a Rpl23a FUNCTION Component of the ribosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell. Binds a specific region on the 26S rRNA (By similarity). May promote p53/TP53 degradation possibly through the stimulation of MDM2-mediated TP53 polyubiquitination (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with LYAR and GNL2. Interacts with MDM2; this interaction may promote MDM2-mediated p53/TP53 polyubiquitination.PTM N-terminus is methylated by METTL11A/NTM1.PTM Citrullinated by PADI4.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL23 family. UniProt P62751 2 EQUAL 156 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754981 1 Ghost homologue of RPL41 [cytosol] Ghost homologue of RPL41 Reactome DB_ID: 9633556 1 UniProt:P99027 Rplp2 Rplp2 Rplp2 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the elongation step of protein synthesis.SUBUNIT Heterodimer with RPLP1 at the lateral ribosomal stalk of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein P1/P2 family. UniProt P99027 1 EQUAL 115 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754977 1 UniProt:Q9D8E6 Rpl4 Rpl4 Rpl4 SUBUNIT May bind IPO9 with low affinity. Interacts with RBM3 (By similarity).PTM Citrullinated by PADI4.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL4 family. UniProt Q9D8E6 2 EQUAL 427 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633585 1 UniProt:P51410 Rpl9 Rpl9 Rpl9 SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL6 family. UniProt P51410 1 EQUAL 192 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633593 1 UniProt:Q9CXW4 Rpl11 Rpl11 Rpl11 FUNCTION Component of the ribosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell. The small ribosomal subunit (SSU) binds messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and translates the encoded message by selecting cognate aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. The large subunit (LSU) contains the ribosomal catalytic site termed the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), which catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds, thereby polymerizing the amino acids delivered by tRNAs into a polypeptide chain. The nascent polypeptides leave the ribosome through a tunnel in the LSU and interact with protein factors that function in enzymatic processing, targeting, and the membrane insertion of nascent chains at the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. As part of the 5S RNP/5S ribonucleoprotein particle it is an essential component of the LSU, required for its formation and the maturation of rRNAs. It also couples ribosome biogenesis to p53/TP53 activation. As part of the 5S RNP it accumulates in the nucleoplasm and inhibits MDM2, when ribosome biogenesis is perturbed, mediating the stabilization and the activation of TP53 (PubMed:21804542). Promotes nucleolar location of PML (PubMed:15195100).SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU). Part of a LSU subcomplex, the 5S RNP which is composed of the 5S RNA, RPL5 and RPL11 (By similarity). Interacts with PML (PubMed:15195100). Interacts with MDM2; negatively regulates MDM2-mediated TP53 ubiquitination and degradation (PubMed:15195100, PubMed:21804542). Interacts with NOP53; retains RPL11 into the nucleolus (PubMed:21804542).SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL5 family. UniProt Q9CXW4 2 EQUAL 178 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633557 1 UniProt:P47962 Rpl5 Rpl5 Rpl5 FUNCTION Component of the ribosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell. The small ribosomal subunit (SSU) binds messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and translates the encoded message by selecting cognate aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. The large subunit (LSU) contains the ribosomal catalytic site termed the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), which catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds, thereby polymerizing the amino acids delivered by tRNAs into a polypeptide chain. The nascent polypeptides leave the ribosome through a tunnel in the LSU and interact with protein factors that function in enzymatic processing, targeting, and the membrane insertion of nascent chains at the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. As part of the 5S RNP/5S ribonucleoprotein particle it is an essential component of the LSU, required for its formation and the maturation of rRNAs. It also couples ribosome biogenesis to p53/TP53 activation. As part of the 5S RNP it accumulates in the nucleoplasm and inhibits MDM2, when ribosome biogenesis is perturbed, mediating the stabilization and the activation of TP53. Interacts with RRP1B.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU). Part of a LSU subcomplex, the 5S RNP which is composed of the 5S RNA, RPL5 and RPL11. Interacts with NVL in an ATP-dependent manner.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL18 family. UniProt P47962 2 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754988 1 UniProt:P14148 Rpl7 Rpl7 Rpl7 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit (By similarity). Binds to G-rich structures in 28S rRNA and in mRNAs. Plays a regulatory role in the translation apparatus; inhibits cell-free translation of mRNAs (By similarity).SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit. Homodimer. Interacts with DHX33 (PubMed:26100019).SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL30 family. UniProt P14148 1 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755040 1 RPL36A,RPL36AL [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Rpl36a [cytosol] UniProt P83882 Reactome DB_ID: 9633555 1 UniProt:P62717 Rpl18a Rpl18a Rpl18a SUBUNIT Binds IPO9 with high affinity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL20 family. UniProt P62717 1 EQUAL 176 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754925 1 UniProt:Q9CR57 Rpl14 Rpl14 Rpl14 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL14 family. UniProt Q9CR57 2 EQUAL 215 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633487 1 UniProt:P61255 Rpl26 Rpl26 Rpl26 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit (Probable). Interacts with DHX33 (PubMed:26100019).INDUCTION Up-regulated in silica-treated macrophages.PTM Ufmylated by UFL1 in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress, promoting reticulophagy of endoplasmic reticulum sheets.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL24 family. UniProt P61255 1 EQUAL 145 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633507 1 UniProt:P47963 Rpl13 Rpl13 Rpl13 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL13 family. UniProt P47963 1 EQUAL 211 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754958 1 UniProt:Q9D1R9 Rpl34 Rpl34 Rpl34 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL34 family. UniProt Q9D1R9 2 EQUAL 117 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633591 1 UniProt:O55142 Rpl35a Rpl35a Rpl35a FUNCTION Required for the proliferation and viability of hematopoietic cells. Plays a role in 60S ribosomal subunit formation. The protein was found to bind to both initiator and elongator tRNAs and consequently was assigned to the P site or P and A site.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL33 family. UniProt O55142 1 EQUAL 110 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633563 1 UniProt:P53026 Rpl10a Rpl10a Nedd6 Nedd-6 Rpl10a FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL1 family. UniProt P53026 2 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754946 1 UniProt:P14115 Rpl27a Rpl27a Rpl27a PTM Hydroxylated on His-39 by MINA.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL15 family. UniProt P14115 2 EQUAL 148 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754928 1 UniProt:Q9CZM2 Rpl15 Rpl15 Rpl15 SUBUNIT Interacts with IFIT1 (via TPR repeats 1-4).SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL15 family. UniProt Q9CZM2 1 EQUAL 204 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633581 1 UniProt:P62889 Rpl30 Rpl30 Rpl30 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL30 family. UniProt P62889 1 EQUAL 115 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754991 1 UniProt:P12970 Rpl7a Rpl7a Rpl7a Surf-3 Surf3 SUBUNIT Interacts with CRY1 (PubMed:19129230). Interacts with DICER1, AGO2, TARBP2, MOV10 and EIF6; they form a large RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL8 family. UniProt P12970 2 EQUAL 266 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754985 1 UniProt:P47911 Rpl6 Rpl6 Rpl6 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit (By similarity). May bind IPO9 with low affinity (PubMed:11823430).SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL6 family. UniProt P47911 2 EQUAL 288 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754974 1 UniProt:Q9JJI8 Rpl38 Rpl38 Rpl38 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL38 family. UniProt Q9JJI8 2 EQUAL 70 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754999 1 Ghost homologue of 5.8S rRNA [cytosol] Ghost homologue of 5.8S rRNA Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755009 1 RPL10,RPL10L [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Rpl10 [cytosol] UniProt Q6ZWV3 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755015 1 RPL22,RPL22L1 [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Rpl22 [cytosol] UniProt P67984 Reactome DB_ID: 9754955 1 UniProt:P62911 Rpl32 Rpl32 Rpl32 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL32 family. UniProt P62911 2 EQUAL 135 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633578 1 UniProt:P19253 Rpl13a Rpl13a Tstap198-7 P198 Rpl13a FUNCTION Associated with ribosomes but is not required for canonical ribosome function and has extra-ribosomal functions (By similarity). Component of the GAIT (gamma interferon-activated inhibitor of translation) complex which mediates interferon-gamma-induced transcript-selective translation inhibition in inflammation processes. Upon interferon-gamma activation and subsequent phosphorylation dissociates from the ribosome and assembles into the GAIT complex which binds to stem loop-containing GAIT elements in the 3'-UTR of diverse inflammatory mRNAs (such as ceruplasmin) and suppresses their translation. In the GAIT complex interacts with m7G cap-bound eIF4G at or near the eIF3-binding site and blocks the recruitment of the 43S ribosomal complex.SUBUNIT Component of the 60S ribosome. Component of the GAIT complex. Interacts with EIF4G1 (By similarity).PTM Phosphorylation at Ser-77 upon interferon-gamma treatment in macrophages involves a DAPK1-DAPK3 kinase cascade and is causing release from the ribosome, association with the GAIT complex and subsequent involvement in transcript-selective translation inhibition.PTM Citrullinated by PADI4.POLYMORPHISM The antigenic allele of P198 differs from the normal allele by a single mutation. The TUM- mutation P198 generates a new epitope recognized by syngeneic T-cells.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL13 family. UniProt P19253 2 EQUAL 203 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633571 1 UniProt:P62900 Rpl31 Rpl31 Rpl31 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL31 family. UniProt P62900 1 EQUAL 125 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754994 1 UniProt:P62918 Rpl8 Rpl8 Rpl8 FUNCTION Component of the large ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the large ribosomal subunit (By similarity). Interacts with CRY1 (PubMed:19129230).PTM Hydroxylated on His-216 by RIOX1. The modification is impaired by hypoxia.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uL2 family. UniProt P62918 2 EQUAL 257 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9755001 1 Ghost homologue of 28S rRNA [cytosol] Ghost homologue of 28S rRNA Reactome DB_ID: 9754997 1 Ghost homologue of 5S rRNA [cytosol] Ghost homologue of 5S rRNA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755051 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755051 Reactome R-MMU-72499 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72499.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754743 1 40S ribosomal complex [cytosol] 40S ribosomal complex Reactome DB_ID: 9754705 1 Ghost homologue of FAU [cytosol] Ghost homologue of FAU Reactome DB_ID: 9633577 1 UniProt:P62849 Rps24 Rps24 Rps24 FUNCTION Required for processing of pre-rRNA and maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits.INDUCTION Down-regulated during adipocyte differentiation and up-regulated during cellular transformation.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS24 family. UniProt P62849 1 EQUAL 133 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754698 1 Ghost homologue of RPS27A(77-156) [cytosol] Ghost homologue of RPS27A(77-156) Reactome DB_ID: 9633584 1 UniProt:P62908 Rps3 Rps3 Rps3 FUNCTION Involved in translation as a component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit (By similarity). Has endonuclease activity and plays a role in repair of damaged DNA (PubMed:7775413). Cleaves phosphodiester bonds of DNAs containing altered bases with broad specificity and cleaves supercoiled DNA more efficiently than relaxed DNA (By similarity). Displays high binding affinity for 7,8-dihydro-8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), a common DNA lesion caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) (By similarity). Has also been shown to bind with similar affinity to intact and damaged DNA (By similarity). Stimulates the N-glycosylase activity of the base excision protein OGG1 (By similarity). Enhances the uracil excision activity of UNG1 (By similarity). Also stimulates the cleavage of the phosphodiester backbone by APEX1 (By similarity). When located in the mitochondrion, reduces cellular ROS levels and mitochondrial DNA damage (By similarity). Has also been shown to negatively regulate DNA repair in cells exposed to hydrogen peroxide (By similarity). Plays a role in regulating transcription as part of the NF-kappa-B p65-p50 complex where it binds to the RELA/p65 subunit, enhances binding of the complex to DNA and promotes transcription of target genes (By similarity). Represses its own translation by binding to its cognate mRNA (By similarity). Binds to and protects TP53/p53 from MDM2-mediated ubiquitination (By similarity). Involved in spindle formation and chromosome movement during mitosis by regulating microtubule polymerization (By similarity). Involved in induction of apoptosis through its role in activation of CASP8 (PubMed:14988002). Induces neuronal apoptosis by interacting with the E2F1 transcription factor and acting synergistically with it to up-regulate pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2L11/BIM and HRK/Dp5 (By similarity). Interacts with TRADD following exposure to UV radiation and induces apoptosis by caspase-dependent JNK activation (By similarity).SUBUNIT Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit. Identified in a IGF2BP1-dependent mRNP granule complex containing untranslated mRNAs. Interacts with HNRPD. Interacts with PRMT1; the interaction methylates RPS3. Interacts with SUMO1; the interaction sumoylates RPS3. Interacts with UBC9. Interacts with CDK1; the interaction phosphorylates RPS3. Interacts with PRKCD; the interaction phosphorylates RPS3. Interacts with PKB/AKT; the interaction phosphorylates RPS3. Interacts with E2F1; the interaction occurs in the absence of nerve growth factor and increases transcription of pro-apoptotic proteins BCL2L11/BIM and HRK/Dp5. Interacts with the base excision repair proteins APEX1 and OGG1; interaction with OGG1 increases OGG1 N-glycosylase activity. Interacts with UNG; the interaction increases the uracil excision activity of UNG1. Interacts with HSP90; the interaction prevents the ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of RPS3 and is suppressed by increased ROS levels. Interacts with TOM70; the interaction promotes translocation of RPS3 to the mitochondrion. Interacts (via N-terminus) with RELA (via N-terminus); the interaction enhances the DNA-binding activity of the NF-kappa-B p65-p50 complex. Interacts with NFKBIA; the interaction is direct and may bridge the interaction between RPS3 and RELA. Interacts with IKKB; the interaction phosphorylates RPS3 and enhances its translocation to the nucleus. Interacts (via KH domain) with MDM2 and TP53. Interacts with TRADD. Interacts with CRY1.PTM Methylation by PRMT1 is required for import into the nucleolus and for ribosome assembly.PTM Sumoylation by SUMO1 enhances protein stability through increased resistance to proteolysis. Sumoylation occurs at one or more of the three consensus sites, Lys-18, Lys-214 and Lys-230.PTM Phosphorylation at Thr-221 by CDK1 occurs mainly in G2/M phase. Phosphorylation by PRKCD occurs on a non-ribosomal-associated form which results in translocation of RPS3 to the nucleus and enhances its endonuclease activity. Phosphorylated on Ser-209 by IKKB in response to activation of the NF-kappa-B p65-p50 complex which enhances the association of RPS3 with importin-alpha and mediates the nuclear translocation of RPS3. Phosphorylation by MAPK is required for translocation to the nucleus following exposure of cells to DNA damaging agents such as hydrogen peroxide. Phosphorylation by PKB/AKT mediates RPS3 nuclear translocation, enhances RPS3 endonuclease activity and suppresses RPS3-induced neuronal apoptosis.PTM Ubiquitinated. This is prevented by interaction with HSP90 which stabilizes the protein. Monoubiquitinated at Lys-214 by ZNF598 when a ribosome has stalled during translation of poly(A) sequences, leading to preclude synthesis of a long poly-lysine tail and initiate the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway to degrade the potentially detrimental aberrant nascent polypeptide.PTM Ufmylated by UFL1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS3 family. UniProt P62908 2 EQUAL 243 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633529 1 UniProt:P62852 Rps25 Rps25 Rps25 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS25 family. UniProt P62852 1 EQUAL 125 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633500 1 UniProt:P62843 Rps15 Rps15 Rps15 Rig SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS19 family. UniProt P62843 2 EQUAL 145 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754683 1 UniProt:P62245 Rps15a Rps15a Rps15a FUNCTION Structural component of the ribosome. Required for proper erythropoiesis.SUBUNIT Component of the 40S ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS8 family. UniProt P62245 2 EQUAL 130 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633498 1 UniProt:P14206 Rpsa Rpsa P40-8 Rpsa Lamr1 FUNCTION Required for the assembly and/or stability of the 40S ribosomal subunit. Required for the processing of the 20S rRNA-precursor to mature 18S rRNA in a late step of the maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits. Also functions as a cell surface receptor for laminin. Plays a role in cell adhesion to the basement membrane and in the consequent activation of signaling transduction pathways. May play a role in cell fate determination and tissue morphogenesis. Also acts as a receptor for several other ligands, including the pathogenic prion protein, viruses, and bacteria. Acts as a PPP1R16B-dependent substrate of PPP1CA (By similarity). Enables malignant tumor cells to penetrate laminin tissue and vessel barriers. Activates precursor thymic anti-OFA/iLRP specific cytotoxic T-cell. May induce CD8 T-suppressor cells secreting IL-10.SUBUNIT Monomer (37LRP) and homodimer (67LR) (By similarity). Component of the small ribosomal subunit. Mature ribosomes consist of a small (40S) and a large (60S) subunit. The 40S subunit contains about 33 different proteins and 1 molecule of RNA (18S). The 60S subunit contains about 49 different proteins and 3 molecules of RNA (28S, 5.8S and 5S). Interacts with RPS21 (By similarity). Interacts with several laminins including at least LAMB1. Interacts with MDK. Interacts with PRNP. The mature dimeric form interacts with PPP1R16B (via its fourth ankyrin repeat). Interacts with PPP1CA only in the presence of PPP1R16B (By similarity).PTM Acylated. Acylation may be a prerequisite for conversion of the monomeric 37 kDa laminin receptor precursor (37LRP) to the mature dimeric 67 kDa laminin receptor (67LR), and may provide a mechanism for membrane association.PTM Cleaved by stromelysin-3 (ST3) at the cell surface. Cleavage by stromelysin-3 may be a mechanism to alter cell-extracellular matrix interactions.MISCELLANEOUS This protein appears to have acquired a second function as a laminin receptor specifically in the vertebrate lineage.MISCELLANEOUS It is thought that in vertebrates 37/67 kDa laminin receptor acquired a dual function during evolution. It developed from the ribosomal protein SA, playing an essential role in the protein biosynthesis lacking any laminin binding activity, to a cell surface receptor with laminin binding activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS2 family. UniProt P14206 2 EQUAL 295 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9754726 1 RPS27,RPS27L [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Rps27 [cytosol] UniProt Q6ZWU9 Reactome DB_ID: 9754691 1 UniProt:P62267 Rps23 Rps23 Rps23 FUNCTION Component of the ribosome, a large ribonucleoprotein complex responsible for the synthesis of proteins in the cell. The small ribosomal subunit (SSU) binds messenger RNAs (mRNAs) and translates the encoded message by selecting cognate aminoacyl-transfer RNA (tRNA) molecules. The large subunit (LSU) contains the ribosomal catalytic site termed the peptidyl transferase center (PTC), which catalyzes the formation of peptide bonds, thereby polymerizing the amino acids delivered by tRNAs into a polypeptide chain. The nascent polypeptides leave the ribosome through a tunnel in the LSU and interact with protein factors that function in enzymatic processing, targeting, and the membrane insertion of nascent chains at the exit of the ribosomal tunnel. Plays an important role in translational accuracy.SUBUNIT Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit.PTM Hydroxylation at Pro-62 affects translation termination efficiency.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS12 family. UniProt P62267 2 EQUAL 143 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633546 1 UniProt:P63325 Rps10 Rps10 Rps10 FUNCTION Component of the 40S ribosomal subunit.SUBUNIT Component of the small ribosomal subunit. Interacts with PRMT5. The methylated form interacts with NPM1 (By similarity).PTM Methylated by PRMT5. Methylation is necessary for its interaction with NPS1, its localization in the granular component (GC) region of the nucleolus, for the proper assembly of ribosomes, protein synthesis and optimal cell proliferation (By similarity).PTM Monoubiquitinated by ZNF598 when a ribosome has stalled during translation of poly(A) sequences, leading to preclude synthesis of a long poly-lysine tail and initiate the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway to degrade the potentially detrimental aberrant nascent polypeptide.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS10 family. UniProt P63325 1 EQUAL 165 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754696 1 UniProt:P62855 Rps26 Rps26 Rps26 SUBUNIT Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS26 family. UniProt P62855 2 EQUAL 115 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754669 1 UniProt:P62264 Rps14 Rps14 Rps14 SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS11 family. UniProt P62264 2 EQUAL 151 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633547 1 UniProt:P97461 Rps5 Rps5 Rps5 SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS7 family. UniProt P97461 1 EQUAL 204 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754666 1 UniProt:P62301 Rps13 Rps13 Rps13 SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS15 family. UniProt P62301 2 EQUAL 151 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633582 1 UniProt:P62281 Rps11 Rps11 Rps11 PTM Citrullinated by PADI4.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS17 family. UniProt P62281 2 EQUAL 158 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754673 1 UniProt:P14131 Rps16 Rps16 Rps16 SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS9 family. UniProt P14131 2 EQUAL 146 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754702 1 UniProt:P62274 Rps29 Rps29 Rps29 SUBUNIT Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS14 family. UniProt P62274 2 EQUAL 56 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754715 1 UniProt:Q6ZWN5 Rps9 Rps9 Rps9 SUBUNIT Identified in a IGF2BP1-dependent mRNP granule complex containing untranslated mRNAs.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS4 family. UniProt Q6ZWN5 2 EQUAL 194 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633468 1 UniProt:P62270 Rps18 Rps18 Rps18 FUNCTION Located at the top of the head of the 40S subunit, it contacts several helices of the 18S rRNA.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS13 family. UniProt P62270 2 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633595 1 UniProt:Q9CQR2 Rps21 Rps21 Rps21 SUBUNIT Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS21 family. UniProt Q9CQR2 1 EQUAL 83 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754708 1 UniProt:P97351 Rps3a Rps3a Rps3a1 Rps3a FUNCTION May play a role during erythropoiesis through regulation of transcription factor DDIT3.SUBUNIT Component of the small ribosomal subunit. Mature ribosomes consist of a small (40S) and a large (60S) subunit. The 40S subunit contains about 33 different proteins and 1 molecule of RNA (18S). The 60S subunit contains about 49 different proteins and 3 molecules of RNA (28S, 5.8S and 5S). Identified in a IGF2BP1-dependent mRNP granule complex containing untranslated mRNAs. Binds with high affinity to IPO4. Interacts with DDIT3.PTM ADP-ribosylated at Tyr-155 by PARP1 in presence of HPF1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS1 family. UniProt P97351 2 EQUAL 264 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633488 1 UniProt:P62754 Rps6 Rps6 Rps6 FUNCTION Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit (By similarity). Plays an important role in controlling cell growth and proliferation through the selective translation of particular classes of mRNA (By similarity).PTM Ribosomal protein S6 is the major substrate of protein kinases in eukaryote ribosomes. The phosphorylation is stimulated by growth factors, tumor promoting agents, and mitogens. It is dephosphorylated at growth arrest. Phosphorylated at Ser-235 and Ser-236 by RPS6KA1 and RPS6KA3; phosphorylation at these sites facilitates the assembly of the pre-initiation complex.PTM Specifically hydroxylated (with R stereochemistry) at C-3 of Arg-137 by KDM8.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS6 family. UniProt P62754 1 EQUAL 249 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754676 1 UniProt:P63276 Rps17 Rps17 Rps17 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS17 family. UniProt P63276 2 EQUAL 135 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754680 1 UniProt:Q9CZX8 Rps19 Rps19 Rps19 FUNCTION Required for pre-rRNA processing and maturation of 40S ribosomal subunits.SUBUNIT Interacts with RPS19BP1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS19 family. UniProt Q9CZX8 2 EQUAL 145 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754686 1 UniProt:P25444 Rps2 Rps2 Llrep3 Rps4 Rps2 PTM Citrullinated by PADI4 in the Arg/Gly-rich region.PTM Asymmetric arginine dimethylation by PRMT3 occurs at multiple sites in the Arg/Gly-rich region.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS5 family. UniProt P25444 1 EQUAL 293 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633550 1 UniProt:P62858 Rps28 Rps28 Rps28 SUBUNIT Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS28 family. UniProt P62858 1 EQUAL 69 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633574 1 UniProt:P62242 Rps8 Rps8 Rps8 SUBUNIT Identified in a IGF2BP1-dependent mRNP granule complex containing untranslated mRNAs.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS8 family. UniProt P62242 2 EQUAL 208 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754718 1 Ghost homologue of 18S rRNA [cytosol] Ghost homologue of 18S rRNA Reactome DB_ID: 9633471 1 UniProt:P62082 Rps7 Rps7 Rps7 FUNCTION Required for rRNA maturation.SUBUNIT Binds IPO9 with high affinity. Interacts with NEK6. Interacts with DESI2.PTM Phosphorylated by NEK6.PTM Ubiquitinated. Deubiquitinated by DESI2, leading to its stabilization.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS7 family. UniProt P62082 1 EQUAL 194 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633573 1 UniProt:P60867 Rps20 Rps20 Rps20 SUBUNIT Component of the 40S small ribosomal subunit.PTM Monoubiquitinated by ZNF598 when a ribosome has stalled during translation of poly(A) sequences, leading to preclude synthesis of a long poly-lysine tail and initiate the ribosome quality control (RQC) pathway to degrade the potentially detrimental aberrant nascent polypeptide.PTM Ufmylated by UFL1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the universal ribosomal protein uS10 family. UniProt P60867 2 EQUAL 119 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9754741 1 RPS4X,RPS4Y1,RPS4Y2 [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Gm15013 [cytosol] Rps4x [cytosol] UniProt V9GWY0 UniProt P62702 Reactome DB_ID: 9633505 1 UniProt:P63323 Rps12 Rps12 Rps12 SIMILARITY Belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS12 family. UniProt P63323 2 EQUAL 132 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754743 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754743 Reactome R-MMU-72392 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72392.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755053 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755053 Reactome R-MMU-72500 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72500.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 UniProt:Q8BMJ3 Eif1ax UniProt Q8BMJ3 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9755051 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754743 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755071 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755071 Reactome R-MMU-72673 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72673.1 80S monosomes dissociate into 40S and 60S ribosomal subunits. eIF1A promotes this dissociation. 9780879696184 ISBN 2001 Pathway and mechanism of initiation of protein synthesis. Hershey, John W B Merrick, William C Translational Control of Gene Expression (Book): 33-88 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA eIF3 and eIF1A bind to the 40S subunit eIF3 and eIF1A bind to the 40S subunit This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754803 1 eIF3 subunits complex [cytosol] eIF3 subunits complex Reactome DB_ID: 9754769 1 UniProt:Q8JZQ9 Eif3b UniProt Q8JZQ9 1 EQUAL 814 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754761 1 UniProt:Q9Z1D1 Eif3g UniProt Q9Z1D1 2 EQUAL 320 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754801 1 UniProt:Q99JX4 Eif3m UniProt Q99JX4 2 EQUAL 374 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754797 1 UniProt:Q8QZY1 Eif3l UniProt Q8QZY1 2 EQUAL 564 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754785 1 UniProt:Q8R1B4 Eif3c UniProt Q8R1B4 1 EQUAL 913 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754757 1 UniProt:Q9QZD9 Eif3i UniProt Q9QZD9 1 EQUAL 325 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754773 1 UniProt:Q91WK2 Eif3h UniProt Q91WK2 1 EQUAL 352 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754789 1 UniProt:P60229 Eif3e UniProt P60229 2 EQUAL 445 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9754753 1 Homologues of EIF3J [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Eif3j2 [cytosol] Eif3j1 [cytosol] UniProt Q66JS6 UniProt Q3UGC7 Reactome DB_ID: 9754793 1 UniProt:Q9DBZ5 Eif3k UniProt Q9DBZ5 2 EQUAL 218 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754765 1 UniProt:Q9DCH4 Eif3f UniProt Q9DCH4 2 EQUAL 357 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754777 1 UniProt:P23116 Eif3a UniProt P23116 2 EQUAL 1382 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754781 1 UniProt:O70194 Eif3d UniProt O70194 1 EQUAL 548 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754803 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754803 Reactome R-MMU-72555 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72555.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754743 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755073 1 40S:eIF3:eIF1A [cytosol] 40S:eIF3:eIF1A Reactome DB_ID: 9754803 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754743 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755073 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755073 Reactome R-MMU-72570 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72570.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755075 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755075 Reactome R-MMU-72676 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72676.1 eIF3 and eIF1A bind to the 40S ribosomal subunit. 641056 Pubmed 1978 The mechanism of action of protein synthesis initiation factors from rabbit reticulocytes. Benne, R Hershey, John W J Biol Chem 253:3078-87 592399 Pubmed 1978 Initiation of mammalian protein synthesis. II. The assembly of the initiation complex with purified initiation factors. Trachsel, H Erni, B Schreier, MH Staehelin, T J Mol Biol 116:755-67 12493757 Pubmed 2003 Mammalian translation initiation factor eIF1 functions with eIF1A and eIF3 in the formation of a stable 40 S preinitiation complex. Majumdar, R Bandyopadhyay, A Maitra, U J Biol Chem 278:6580-7 6901506 Pubmed 1980 The role of eIF-4C in protein synthesis initiation complex formation. Goumans, H Thomas, A Verhoeven, A Voorma, HO Benne, R Biochim Biophys Acta 608:39-46 429297 Pubmed 1979 Binding and release of radiolabeled eukaryotic initiation factors 2 and 3 during 80 S initiation complex formation. Peterson, DT Merrick, William C Safer, B J Biol Chem 254:2509-16 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860160 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860160 Reactome R-MMU-72689 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72689.1 The 80S ribosome dissociates into free 40S (small) and 60S (large) ribosomal subunits. Each ribosomal subunit is constituted by several individual ribosomal proteins and rRNA. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Formation of the ternary complex, and subsequently, the 43S complex Formation of the ternary complex, and subsequently, the 43S complex This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> De novo formation of eIF2:GTP De novo formation of eIF2:GTP This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 GTP(4-) [ChEBI:37565] GTP(4-) GTP gtp guanosine 5'-triphosphate(4-) ChEBI 37565 Reactome DB_ID: 9754814 1 EIF2S1:EIF2S2:EIF2S3 [cytosol] EIF2S1:EIF2S2:EIF2S3 Reactome DB_ID: 9633482 1 UniProt:Q6ZWX6 Eif2s1 Eif2s1 Eif2s1 Eif2a FUNCTION Functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA (PubMed:15277680, PubMed:19131336). This complex binds to a 40S ribosomal subunit, followed by mRNA binding to form a 43S pre-initiation complex (PubMed:15277680, PubMed:19131336). Junction of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S initiation complex is preceded by hydrolysis of the GTP bound to eIF-2 and release of an eIF-2-GDP binary complex (PubMed:15277680, PubMed:19131336). In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must exchange with GTP by way of a reaction catalyzed by eIF-2B (PubMed:15277680, PubMed:19131336). EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha is a key component of the integrated stress response (ISR), required for adaptation to various stress: phosphorylation by metabolic-stress sensing protein kinases (EIF2AK1/HRI, EIF2AK2/PKR, EIF2AK3/PERK and EIF2AK4/GCN2) in response to stress converts EIF2S1/eIF-2-alpha in a global protein synthesis inhibitor, leading to a attenuation of cap-dependent translation, while concomitantly initiating the preferential translation of ISR-specific mRNAs, such as the transcriptional activators ATF4 and QRICH1, and hence allowing ATF4- and QRICH1-mediated reprogramming (PubMed:15277680, PubMed:21285359).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activity is regulated by phosphorylation at Ser-49 and Ser-52, which stabilizes the eIF-2/GDP/eIF-2B complex and prevents the eIF-2B-mediated exchange of GDP for GTP, thereby preventing the formation of the 43S pre-initiation complex (PIC) (PubMed:11106749, PubMed:12176355, PubMed:15277680, PubMed:19131336, PubMed:21285359). This results in the global attenuation of 5' cap-dependent protein synthesis and concomitant translation of ISR-specific mRNAs that contain a short upstream open reading frame (uORF) in their 5' UTR, such as ATF4, ATF5, DDIT3/CHOP and PPP1R15A/GADD34 (PubMed:15277680, PubMed:19131336, PubMed:21285359).SUBUNIT Heterotrimer composed of an alpha, a beta and a gamma chain (By similarity). Component of an EIF2 complex at least composed of CELF1/CUGBP1, CALR, CALR3, EIF2S1, EIF2S2, HSP90B1 and HSPA5 (PubMed:16931514). Interaction with METAP2 protects EIF2S1 from inhibitory phosphorylation (By similarity). Interacts with ABCF1 (By similarity). Associates with ribosomes (By similarity). Interacts with DDX3X in an RNA-independent manner (By similarity).PTM Phosphorylation at Ser-49 and Ser-52 stabilizes the eIF-2/GDP/eIF-2B complex and prevents GDP/GTP exchange reaction, thus impairing the recycling of eIF-2 between successive rounds of initiation and leading to global inhibition of translation, while concomitantly initiating the preferential translation of integrated stress response (ISR)-specific mRNAs (PubMed:10504407, PubMed:11106749, PubMed:12176355, PubMed:15213227, PubMed:15277680, PubMed:16054071, PubMed:19131336, PubMed:21285359). Substrate for at least 4 kinases: EIF2AK1/HRI, EIF2AK2/PKR, EIF2AK3/PERK and EIF2AK4/GCN2 (PubMed:10504407, PubMed:11106749, PubMed:12176355, PubMed:15213227, PubMed:15277680, PubMed:16054071). Phosphorylated; phosphorylation on Ser-52 by the EIF2AK4/GCN2 protein kinase occurs in response to amino acid starvation and UV irradiation (PubMed:10504407, PubMed:12176355, PubMed:15213227, PubMed:16054071).SIMILARITY Belongs to the eIF-2-alpha family.CAUTION This gene should not be confused with EIF2A, with which it shares the alias EIF2A. Although both of these proteins function in binding initiator tRNA to the 40S ribosomal subunit, the eIF2 complex requires GTP, whereas the EIF2A protein does so in a codon-dependent manner. UniProt Q6ZWX6 1 EQUAL 315 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633494 1 UniProt:Q9Z0N1 Eif2s3x Eif2s3x Eif2s3x FUNCTION As a subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF-2), involved in the early steps of protein synthesis. In the presence of GTP, eIF-2 forms a ternary complex with initiator tRNA Met-tRNAi and then recruits the 40S ribosomal complex and initiation factors eIF-1, eIF-1A and eIF-3 to form the 43S pre-initiation complex (43S PIC), a step that determines the rate of protein translation. The 43S PIC binds to mRNA and scans downstream to the initiation codon, where it forms a 48S initiation complex by codon-anticodon base pairing. This leads to the displacement of eIF-1 to allow GTPase-activating protein (GAP) eIF-5-mediated hydrolysis of eIF2-bound GTP. Hydrolysis of GTP and release of Pi, which makes GTP hydrolysis irreversible, causes the release of the eIF-2-GDP binary complex from the 40S subunit, an event that is essential for the subsequent joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form an elongation-competent 80S ribosome. In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must be exchanged with GTP by way of a reaction catalyzed by GDP-GTP exchange factor (GEF) eIF-2B (By similarity). Along with its paralog on chromosome Y, may contribute to spermatogenesis up to the round spermatid stage (PubMed:26823431).SUBUNIT The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 complex/eIF2 is a heterotrimer composed of an alpha subunit, also called subunit 1 (encoded by EIF2S1), a beta subunit, also called subunit 2 (encoded by EIF2S2) and a gamma subunit, also called subunit 3 (encoded by 2 homologous genes Eif2s3x and Eif2s3y).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed. In the brain, high mRNA levels are observed in specific regions, including the habenula, anterodorsal thalamic nucleus, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and cerebellum. Also expressed in the embryonic brain. There is a differential expression between males and females, wich is tissue-specific. Females tend to have higher expression levels than males in the brain (cortex, hippocampus and paraventricular nucleus, but not in the habenula), as well as in other tissues. The up-regulation observed in females at the mRNA level may be due to the presence of 2 active copies of the gene.MISCELLANEOUS Encoded by an chromosome X-linked gene which escapes inactivation. Has a homolog on chromosome Y (Eif2s3y).SIMILARITY Belongs to the TRAFAC class translation factor GTPase superfamily. Classic translation factor GTPase family. EIF2G subfamily. UniProt Q9Z0N1 2 EQUAL 472 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754811 1 UniProt:Q99L45 Eif2s2 Eif2s2 Eif2s2 FUNCTION eIF-2 functions in the early steps of protein synthesis by forming a ternary complex with GTP and initiator tRNA. This complex binds to a 40S ribosomal subunit, followed by mRNA binding to form a 43S preinitiation complex. Junction of the 60S ribosomal subunit to form the 80S initiation complex is preceded by hydrolysis of the GTP bound to eIF-2 and release of an eIF-2-GDP binary complex. In order for eIF-2 to recycle and catalyze another round of initiation, the GDP bound to eIF-2 must exchange with GTP by way of a reaction catalyzed by eIF-2B (By similarity).SUBUNIT Heterotrimer composed of an alpha, a beta and a gamma chain (By similarity). Component of an EIF2 complex at least composed of CELF1/CUGBP1, CALR, CALR3, EIF2S1, EIF2S2, HSP90B1 and HSPA5.SIMILARITY Belongs to the eIF-2-beta/eIF-5 family. UniProt Q99L45 2 EQUAL 333 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754814 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754814 Reactome R-MMU-72515 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72515.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754816 1 eIF2:GTP [cytosol] eIF2:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754814 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754816 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754816 Reactome R-MMU-72531 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72531.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754886 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754886 Reactome R-MMU-72663 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72663.1 Activation of eIF2 through direct binding of GTP. 1104615 Pubmed 1976 Binding of MET-TRNAf and GTP to homogeneous initiation factor MP. Safer, B Adams, SL Anderson, WF Merrick, William C J Biol Chem 250:9076-82 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Met-tRNAi binds to eIF2:GTP to form the ternary complex Met-tRNAi binds to eIF2:GTP to form the ternary complex This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 72393 1 Met-tRNAi [cytosol] Met-tRNAi methionyl initiator tRNA Met-tRNAf fMet-tRNA Reactome DB_ID: 9754816 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754818 1 ternary complex [cytosol] ternary complex Reactome DB_ID: 72393 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754816 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754818 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754818 Reactome R-MMU-72532 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72532.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754888 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754888 Reactome R-MMU-72669 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72669.1 The ternary complex forms upon binding of the initiator methionyl-tRNA to the active eIF2:GTP complex. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 78 72779 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=72779 Reactome R-HSA-72779 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-72779.1 Reactome DB_ID: 29438 Formation of the 43S pre-initiation complex Formation of the 43S pre-initiation complex This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754818 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755073 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754820 1 43S complex [cytosol] 43S complex Reactome DB_ID: 9754818 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754803 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754743 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754820 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754820 Reactome R-MMU-72571 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72571.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755077 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755077 Reactome R-MMU-72691 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72691.1 The ternary complex (Met-tRNAi:eIF2:GTP) binds to the complex formed by the 40S subunit, eIF3 and eIF1A, to form the 43S complex. eIF1A promotes binding of the ternary complex to the 40S subunit within 43S. The initiator methionyl-tRNA from the ternary complex is positioned at the ribosomal P site. 9783642751394 ISBN 1990 New insights into an old problem: ternary complex (Met-tRNAf.eIF.GTP) formation in animal cells. Gupta, S Roy, AL Nag, MK Kinzy, Terri Goss MacMillan, S Hileman, RE Dever, TE Wu, S Merrick, William C Hershey, John W B Post-Transcriptional Control of Gene Expression (Book): 521-526 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860156 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860156 Reactome R-MMU-72695 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72695.1 Binding of the methionyl-tRNA initiator to the active eIF2:GTP complex results in the formation of the ternary complex. Subsequently, this Met-tRNAi:eIF2:GTP (ternary) complex binds to the complex formed by the 40S subunit, eIF3 and eIF1A, to form the 43S complex. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Activation of the mRNA upon binding of the cap-binding complex and eIFs, and subsequent binding to 43S Activation of the mRNA upon binding of the cap-binding complex and eIFs, and subsequent binding to 43S This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Release of eIF4E from the inactive eIF4E:4E-BP complex Release of eIF4E from the inactive eIF4E:4E-BP complex This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754871 1 eIF4E:4E-BP [cytosol] eIF4E:4E-BP Reactome DB_ID: 9754869 1 UniProt:Q60876 Eif4ebp1 UniProt Q60876 2 EQUAL 118 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754836 1 UniProt:P63073 Eif4e UniProt P63073 2 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754871 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754871 Reactome R-MMU-72581 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72581.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754869 1 2 EQUAL 118 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754836 1 2 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754873 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754873 Reactome R-MMU-72622 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72622.1 eIF4E gets released from the inactive eIF4E:4EBP complex. 7935836 Pubmed 1994 Insulin-dependent stimulation of protein synthesis by phosphorylation of a regulator of 5'-cap function. Pause, A Belsham, GJ Gingras, AC Donzé, O Lin, TA Lawrence, JC Sonenberg, Nahum Nature 371:762-7 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Formation of the cap-binding eIF4F complex Formation of the cap-binding eIF4F complex This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754836 1 2 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754832 1 eIF4A subunits complex [cytosol] eIF4A subunits complex Reactome DB_ID: 9754826 1 UniProt:P60843 Eif4a1 UniProt P60843 2 EQUAL 406 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754830 1 UniProt:P10630 Eif4a2 UniProt P10630 1 EQUAL 407 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754832 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754832 Reactome R-MMU-72576 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72576.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754840 1 UniProt:Q6NZJ6 Eif4g1 UniProt Q6NZJ6 1 EQUAL 1599 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754842 1 eIF4F [cytosol] eIF4F Reactome DB_ID: 9754836 1 2 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754832 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754840 1 1 EQUAL 1599 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754842 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754842 Reactome R-MMU-72587 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72587.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754875 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754875 Reactome R-MMU-72631 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72631.1 eIF4A interacts with eIF4G, and eIF4E interacts with the amino-terminal domain of eIF4G to form the cap-binding complex eIF4F. 8449919 Pubmed 1993 The p46 subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF)-4F exchanges with eIF-4A. Yoder-Hill, J Pause, A Sonenberg, Nahum Merrick, William C J Biol Chem 268:5566-73 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.6.4.13 Cap-bound mRNA is activated by helicases Cap-bound mRNA is activated by helicases This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754850 1 UniProt:Q9WUK2 Eif4h UniProt Q9WUK2 2 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 113592 1 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) Adenosine 5'-triphosphate atp ATP ChEBI 30616 Reactome DB_ID: 9754879 1 eIF4F:mRNP [cytosol] eIF4F:mRNP Reactome DB_ID: 9754877 1 mRNP [cytosol] mRNP Reactome DB_ID: 9754822 1 Ghost homologue of mRNA [cytosol] Ghost homologue of mRNA Reactome DB_ID: 72595 1 RNA-binding protein in RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes [cytosol] RNA-binding protein in RNP (ribonucleoprotein) complexes Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754877 Reactome R-MMU-72596 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72596.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754842 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754879 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754879 Reactome R-MMU-72597 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72597.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754846 1 UniProt:Q8BGD9 Eif4b UniProt Q8BGD9 1 EQUAL 611 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754832 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754881 1 mRNA:eIF4F:eIF4B:eIF4H [cytosol] mRNA:eIF4F:eIF4B:eIF4H Reactome DB_ID: 9754850 1 2 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754822 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754842 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754846 1 1 EQUAL 611 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754881 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754881 Reactome R-MMU-72593 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72593.1 Reactome DB_ID: 72595 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29370 1 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP trianion 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP ChEBI 456216 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754832 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9754832 GO 0003724 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754882 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754882 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754884 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754884 Reactome R-MMU-72647 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72647.1 The DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4A, together with the RNA-binding proteins eIF4B or eIF4H, is thought to unwind RNA secondary structures near the 5'-end of the mRNA and in the presence of ATP. 6853548 Pubmed 1983 New initiation factor activity required for globin mRNA translation. Grifo, JA Tahara, SM Morgan, MA Shatkin, AJ Merrick, William C J Biol Chem 258:5804-10 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Translation initiation complex formation Translation initiation complex formation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Formation of translation initiation complexes containing mRNA that does not circularize Formation of translation initiation complexes containing mRNA that does not circularize This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754820 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754881 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754852 1 48S complex [cytosol] 48S complex Reactome DB_ID: 9754850 1 2 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754822 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754842 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754820 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754846 1 1 EQUAL 611 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754852 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754852 Reactome R-MMU-72594 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72594.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761090 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761090 Reactome R-MMU-157849 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-157849.1 The translation initiation complex forms when the 43S complex binds the mRNA that is associated with eIF4F, eIF4B and eIF4H. eIF4G in the eIF4F complex can directly contact eIF3 in the 43S complex. eIF1A is necessary for the formation of this complex. 9732867 Pubmed 1999 Eukaryotic ribosomes require initiation factors 1 and 1A to locate initiation codons. Pestova, TV Borukhov, SI Hellen, CU Nature 394:854-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Formation of translation initiation complexes yielding circularized Ceruloplasmin mRNA in a 'closed-loop' conformation Formation of translation initiation complexes yielding circularized Ceruloplasmin mRNA in a 'closed-loop' conformation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754820 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761035 1 UniProt:P29341 Pabpc1 UniProt P29341 1 EQUAL 636 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761031 1 Ceruloplasmin mRNA:eIF4F:eIF4B:eIF4H [cytosol] Ceruloplasmin mRNA:eIF4F:eIF4B:eIF4H Reactome DB_ID: 9754850 1 2 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754842 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761029 1 Ghost homologue of Ceruloplasmin mRNA [cytosol] Ghost homologue of Ceruloplasmin mRNA Reactome DB_ID: 9754846 1 1 EQUAL 611 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761031 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761031 Reactome R-MMU-156809 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156809.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761037 1 43S: Ceruloplasmin mRNA:eIF4F:eIF4B:eIF4H:PABP [cytosol] 43S: Ceruloplasmin mRNA:eIF4F:eIF4B:eIF4H:PABP Reactome DB_ID: 9754850 1 2 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754842 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754820 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761029 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761035 1 1 EQUAL 636 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754846 1 1 EQUAL 611 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761037 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761037 Reactome R-MMU-156804 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156804.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761039 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761039 Reactome R-MMU-156808 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156808.1 The precise order of events leading to the circularization of poly (A) mRNA during translation initiation is unknown. Here the association of PABP with the poly (A) mRNA and the association of PABP with eIF4F are represented as occuring simultaneously after formation of the initiation complex. However, it is also possible that these interactions occur during the formation of the translation initiation complex. The binding of eIF4F to the cap and binding of PABP to the poly (A) tail, for example, may occur at the same time. In fact, the eIF4G-PABP interaction helps eIF4F to bind tighter to the cap (Borman et al. 2000.) In addition, eIF4B and eIF4H bind more transiently to the mRNA and may not be part of an initial complex in which PABP has not yet touched eIF4G. 9857202 Pubmed 1998 A newly identified N-terminal amino acid sequence of human eIF4G binds poly(A)-binding protein and functions in poly(A)-dependent translation Imataka, H Gradi, A Sonenberg, Nahum EMBO J 17:7480-9 11058101 Pubmed 2000 Biochemical characterisation of cap-poly(A) synergy in rabbit reticulocyte lysates: the eIF4G-PABP interaction increases the functional affinity of eIF4E for the capped mRNA 5'-end Borman, AM Michel, YM Kean, KM Nucleic Acids Res 28:4068-75 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860662 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860662 Reactome R-MMU-72649 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72649.1 The translation initiation complex forms when the 43S complex binds the mRNA that is associated with eIF4F, eIF4B and eIF4H. eIF4G in the eIF4F complex can directly contact eIF3 in the 43S complex. eIF1A is necessary for the formation of this complex. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860154 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860154 Reactome R-MMU-72662 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72662.1 The cap-binding complex is constituted by the initiation factors eIF4A, eIF4G and eIF4E. First, eIF4E must be released from the inactive eIF4E:4E-BP complex. Then eIF4A interacts with eIF4G, and eIF4E binds to the amino-terminal domain of eIF4G, resulting in the formation of the cap-binding complex eIF4F. eIF4A together with eIF4B or eIF4H is thought to unwind RNA secondary structures near the 5'-end of the mRNA. The translation initiation complex is formed when the 43S complex binds the cap-bound mRNA. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Ribosomal scanning and start codon recognition Ribosomal scanning and start codon recognition This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Ribosomal scanning Ribosomal scanning This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 113592 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754852 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754852 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29370 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 72617 eIF1 [cytosol] eIF1 translation initiation factor 1 eIF-1 GO 0003743 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 72620 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=72620 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754865 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754865 Reactome R-MMU-72621 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72621.1 The mRNA-bound ribosomal complex moves along the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of the mRNA from its initial site to the initiation codon to form a 48S complex, in which the initiation codon (AUG) is base paired to the anticodon of the Met-tRNAi. It is not known whether eIF4A (or another ATPase, such as DED1) facilitates scanning by melting mRNA secondary structures or by actively propelling the ribosome. 7000367 Pubmed 1981 Evaluation of the "scanning model" for initiation of protein synthesis in eucaryotes. Kozak, M Cell 22:7-8 8943342 Pubmed 1997 Functional dissection of eukaryotic initiation factor 4F: the 4A subunit and the central domain of the 4G subunit are sufficient to mediate internal entry of 43S preinitiation complexes. Pestova, TV Shatsky, IN Hellen, CU Mol Cell Biol 16:6870-8 10364207 Pubmed 1999 Ded1p, a DEAD-box protein required for translation initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is an RNA helicase. Iost, I Dreyfus, M Linder, P J Biol Chem 274:17677-83 9045610 Pubmed 1997 Requirement of the DEAD-Box protein ded1p for messenger RNA translation. Chuang, RY Weaver, PL Liu, Z Chang, TH Science 275:1468-71 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 78 72781 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=72781 Reactome R-HSA-72781 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-72781.1 Reactome DB_ID: 113592 Start codon recognition Start codon recognition This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754852 1 Reactome DB_ID: 72617 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754814 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754856 1 UniProt:P59325 Eif5 UniProt P59325 1 EQUAL 431 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754852 1 Reactome DB_ID: 72617 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754814 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754856 1 1 EQUAL 431 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 72617 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755079 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755079 Reactome R-MMU-72697 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72697.1 The AUG initiation codon in the mRNA is recognized by base pairing with the anticodon of the Met-tRNAi. This reaction requires eIF1, eIF1A, eIF2 and eIF5. 9780879696184 ISBN 2001 Genetic approaches to translation initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Donahue, TF Translational Control of Gene Expression (Book): 487-502 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860152 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860152 Reactome R-MMU-72702 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72702.1 The 80S ribosome bound to the mRNA moves along the mRNA molecule from its initial site to the initiation codon and forms a 48S complex, in which the initiation codon is base paired to the anticodon of the Met-tRNAi. Proper recognition of the AUG initiation codon depends on base pairing with the anticodon of the Met-tRNAi and requires eIF1, eIF1A, eIF2 and eIF5. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA GTP hydrolysis and joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit GTP hydrolysis and joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> eIF2:GTP is hydrolyzed, eIFs are released eIF2:GTP is hydrolyzed, eIFs are released This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754852 1 Reactome DB_ID: 72617 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754856 1 1 EQUAL 431 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754850 1 2 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754860 1 eIF2:GDP [cytosol] eIF2:GDP Reactome DB_ID: 9754814 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29420 1 GDP(3-) [ChEBI:58189] GDP(3-) guanosine 5'-diphosphate(3-) 5'-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]guanosine guanosine 5'-diphosphate trianion GDP GDP trianion guanosine 5'-diphosphate ChEBI 58189 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754860 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754860 Reactome R-MMU-72530 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72530.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754803 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754858 1 40S:Met-tRNAi:mRNA [cytosol] 40S:Met-tRNAi:mRNA Reactome DB_ID: 72393 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754822 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754743 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754858 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754858 Reactome R-MMU-72508 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72508.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754836 1 2 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754856 1 1 EQUAL 431 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754807 1 1 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29372 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754846 1 1 EQUAL 611 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754832 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754840 1 1 EQUAL 1599 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754862 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754862 Reactome R-MMU-72619 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72619.1 Once the Met-tRNAi has recognized the AUG, eIF2-bound GTP is hydrolyzed. The reaction is catalyzed by eIF5 (or eIF5B) and is thought to cause dissociation of all other initiation factors and allow joining of the large 60S ribosomal subunit. Release of the initiation factors from 40S leaves the Met-tRNAi in the ribosomal P-site base-paired to the start codon on the mRNA. 10659855 Pubmed 2000 The joining of ribosomal subunits in eukaryotes requires eIF5B. Pestova, TV Lomakin, IB Lee, JH Choi, SK Dever, TE Hellen, CU Nature 403:332-5 592398 Pubmed 1978 Initiation of mammalian protein synthesis. I. Purification and characterization of seven initiation factors. Schreier, MH Erni, B Staehelin, T J Mol Biol 116:727-53 1095581 Pubmed 1975 Purification and characterization of homogeneous initiation factor M2A from rabbit reticulocytes. Merrick, William C Kemper, WM Anderson, WF J Biol Chem 250:5556-62 11018020 Pubmed 2000 A multifactor complex of eukaryotic initiation factors, eIF1, eIF2, eIF3, eIF5, and initiator tRNA(Met) is an important translation initiation intermediate in vivo. Asano, K Clayton, J Shalev, A Hinnebusch, Alan G Genes Dev 14:2534-46 1856230 Pubmed 1991 Function of eukaryotic initiation factor 5 in the formation of an 80 S ribosomal polypeptide chain initiation complex. Chakrabarti, A Maitra, U J Biol Chem 266:14039-45 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754863 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754863 Reactome DB_ID: 9754856 1 EQUAL 431 EQUAL eIF5B:GTP is hydrolyzed and released eIF5B:GTP is hydrolyzed and released This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9755061 1 80S:Met-tRNAi:mRNA:eIF5B:GTP [cytosol] 80S:Met-tRNAi:mRNA:eIF5B:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 72393 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754822 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755053 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755059 1 eIF5B:GTP [cytosol] eIF5B:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 9755057 1 UniProt:Q05D44 Eif5b UniProt Q05D44 1 EQUAL 1220 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755059 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755059 Reactome R-MMU-72503 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72503.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755061 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755061 Reactome R-MMU-72504 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72504.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755063 1 eIF5B:GDP [cytosol] eIF5B:GDP Reactome DB_ID: 9755057 1 1 EQUAL 1220 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29420 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755063 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755063 Reactome R-MMU-72502 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72502.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755065 1 80S:Met-tRNAi:mRNA [cytosol] 80S:Met-tRNAi:mRNA Reactome DB_ID: 72393 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754822 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755053 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755065 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755065 Reactome R-MMU-72505 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72505.1 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755067 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755067 Reactome R-MMU-72671 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72671.1 Once the 60S subunit joins the translation initiation complex, eIF5B hydrolyzes its GTP and is released from the now 80S monosome. The fully assembled 80s ribosome is now ready to start elongation of the polypeptide chain. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA The 60S subunit joins the translation initiation complex The 60S subunit joins the translation initiation complex This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9755051 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754858 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755059 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755061 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755069 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755069 Reactome R-MMU-72672 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72672.1 Joining of the 60S subunit to form the 80S ribosome is catalyzed by the presence of GTP-bound eIF5B. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860146 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860146 Reactome R-MMU-72706 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72706.1 Hydrolysis of eIF2-GTP occurs after the Met-tRNAi has recognized the AUG. This reaction is catalyzed by eIF5 (or eIF5B) and is thought to cause dissociation of all other initiation factors and allow joining of the large 60S ribosomal subunit. The 60S subunit joins - a reaction catalyzed by eIF5 or eIF5B - resulting in a translation-competent 80S ribosome. Following 60S subunit joining, eIF5B hydrolyzes its GTP and is released from the 80S ribosome, which is now ready to start elongating the polypeptide chain. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Recycling of eIF2:GDP Recycling of eIF2:GDP This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Formation of eIF2:GDP:eIF2B intermediate Formation of eIF2:GDP:eIF2B intermediate This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754860 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754910 1 eIF2B subunits complex [cytosol] eIF2B subunits complex Reactome DB_ID: 9754892 1 UniProt:Q99LC8 Eif2b1 UniProt Q99LC8 1 EQUAL 305 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754904 1 UniProt:Q8CHW4 Eif2b5 UniProt Q8CHW4 2 EQUAL 721 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754896 1 UniProt:Q99LD9 Eif2b2 UniProt Q99LD9 1 EQUAL 351 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754908 1 UniProt:B1AUN2 Eif2b3 UniProt B1AUN2 1 EQUAL 452 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754900 1 UniProt:Q61749 Eif2b4 UniProt Q61749 1 EQUAL 523 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754910 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754910 Reactome R-MMU-72526 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72526.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754912 1 eIF2:GDP: eIF2B [cytosol] eIF2:GDP: eIF2B Reactome DB_ID: 9754910 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754814 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29420 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754912 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754912 Reactome R-MMU-72529 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72529.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9754914 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9754914 Reactome R-MMU-72670 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72670.1 Inactive eIF2:GDP binds eIF2B to form an eIF2:GDP:eIF2B intermediate. 3356695 Pubmed 1988 The catalytic mechanism of guanine nucleotide exchange factor action and competitive inhibition by phosphorylated eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Rowlands, AG Panniers, R Henshaw, EC J Biol Chem 263:5526-33 2491852 Pubmed 1989 Mechanism of the nucleotide exchange reaction in eukaryotic polypeptide chain initiation. Characterization of the guanine nucleotide exchange factor as a GTP-binding protein. Dholakia, JN Wahba, AJ J Biol Chem 264:546-50 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA eIF2 activation eIF2 activation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9754912 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754816 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754910 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29420 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9754910 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755080 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755080 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9755082 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9755082 Reactome R-MMU-72722 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72722.1 eIF2B is a guanine nucleotide releasing factor that is required to cause GDP release so that a new GTP molecule can bind and activate eIF2, so that it can be reused. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860158 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860158 Reactome R-MMU-72731 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72731.1 The active eIF2:GTP complex may be formed by direct binding of GTP to free eIF2 or by GDP-GTP exchange on the eIF2:GDP:eIF2B complex. The eIF2:GDP complex binds eIF2B forming an eIF2:GDP:eIF2B intermediate complex. eIF2B is a guanine nucleotide releasing factor required to cause GDP release so that a new GTP molecule can bind and activate eIF2. Phosphorylated eIF2:GDP sequesters all eIF2B as an inactive complex, and thus, reuse of eIF2 is inhibited as a consequence of the tight bond it forms with eIF2B, which prevents nucleotide exchange. Therefore, in the absence of free eIF2B, excess eIF2 remains in its inactive GDP-bound form and protein synthesis slows dramatically. 7063012 Pubmed 1982 Phosphorylation inhibits guanine nucleotide exchange on eukaryotic initiation factor 2. Clemens, MJ Pain, VM Wong, ST Henshaw, EC Nature 296:93-5 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860148 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860148 Reactome R-MMU-72737 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72737.1 Translation initiation is a complex process in which the Met-tRNAi initiator, 40S, and 60S ribosomal subunits are assembled by eukaryotic initiation factors (eIFs) into an 80S ribosome at the start codon of an mRNA. The basic mechanism for this process can be described as a series of five steps: 1) formation of a pool of free 40S subunits, 2) formation of the ternary complex (Met-tRNAi/eIF2/GTP), and subsequently, the 43S complex (comprising the 40S subunit, Met-tRNAi/eIF2/GTP, eIF3 and eIF1A), 3) activation of the mRNA upon binding of the cap-binding complex eIF4F, and factors eIF4A, eIF4B and eIF4H, with subsequent binding to the 43S complex, 4) ribosomal scanning and start codon recognition, and 5) GTP hydrolysis and joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA L13a-mediated translational silencing of Ceruloplasmin expression L13a-mediated translational silencing of Ceruloplasmin expression This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Dissociation of L13a from the 60s ribosomal subunit Dissociation of L13a from the 60s ribosomal subunit This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9755051 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9633578 1 2 EQUAL 203 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761048 1 60s ribosomal complex lacking L13a subunit [cytosol] 60s ribosomal complex lacking L13a subunit Reactome DB_ID: 9754934 1 2 EQUAL 188 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633470 1 1 EQUAL 165 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755025 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754961 1 2 EQUAL 123 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754939 1 2 EQUAL 160 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633567 1 2 EQUAL 114 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633465 1 1 EQUAL 140 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754965 1 2 EQUAL 105 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754931 1 2 EQUAL 184 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754979 1 77 EQUAL 128 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754971 1 2 EQUAL 92 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754950 1 2 EQUAL 159 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633527 1 1 EQUAL 317 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633588 1 1 EQUAL 196 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633568 1 2 EQUAL 137 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633542 1 1 EQUAL 157 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754968 1 2 EQUAL 97 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755049 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9633491 1 1 EQUAL 136 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633537 1 2 EQUAL 156 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754981 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9633556 1 1 EQUAL 115 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754977 1 2 EQUAL 427 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633585 1 1 EQUAL 192 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633593 1 2 EQUAL 178 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633557 1 2 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754988 1 1 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755040 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9633555 1 1 EQUAL 176 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754925 1 2 EQUAL 215 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633487 1 1 EQUAL 145 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633507 1 1 EQUAL 211 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754958 1 2 EQUAL 117 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633591 1 1 EQUAL 110 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633563 1 2 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754946 1 2 EQUAL 148 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754928 1 1 EQUAL 204 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633581 1 1 EQUAL 115 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754991 1 2 EQUAL 266 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754985 1 2 EQUAL 288 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754974 1 2 EQUAL 70 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754999 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755009 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9755015 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754955 1 2 EQUAL 135 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9633571 1 1 EQUAL 125 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9754994 1 2 EQUAL 257 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9755001 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9754997 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761048 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761048 Reactome R-MMU-156817 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156817.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761050 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761050 Reactome R-MMU-156826 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156826.1 The L13a subunit of the 60s ribosome is phosphorylated about 16 hours after INF gamma induction by an unknown kinase. At this time, L13a is also released from the 60s subunit (Mazumder et al.,2003). It is unclear, however, whether phosphorylation occurs before or after the release of L13a. Here, phosphorylation is shown as occurring after release. 14567916 Pubmed 2003 Regulated release of L13a from the 60S ribosomal subunit as a mechanism of transcript-specific translational control Mazumder, B Sampath, P Seshadri, V Maitra, RK DiCorleto, PE Fox, PL Cell 115:187-98 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Association of phospho-L13a with GAIT element of Ceruloplasmin mRNA Association of phospho-L13a with GAIT element of Ceruloplasmin mRNA This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9761037 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761042 1 phosphorylated residue at unknown position phosphorylated residue [MOD:00696] 2 EQUAL 203 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761044 1 phospho-L13a associated wth the 3' UTR GAIT element of ceruloplasmin mRNA within the translation initiation complex [cytosol] phospho-L13a associated wth the 3' UTR GAIT element of ceruloplasmin mRNA within the translation initiation complex Reactome DB_ID: 9761037 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761042 1 phosphorylated residue at unknown position 2 EQUAL 203 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761044 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761044 Reactome R-MMU-156824 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156824.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761046 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761046 Reactome R-MMU-156823 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156823.1 Although the mechanism through which L13a prevents translation initiation has not been determined, Mazumder et al. (2003) have described four alternatives. L13a could (1) inhibit the function of eIF4F, (2) block the recruitment of the 43S preinitiation complex, (3) prevent scanning of the 43S complex to the initiation codon, or 4) interfere with joining of the 60S ribosomal subunit. 12588972 Pubmed 2003 Transcript-selective translational silencing by gamma interferon is directed by a novel structural element in the ceruloplasmin mRNA 3' untranslated region Sampath, P Mazumder, B Seshadri, V Fox, PL Mol Cell Biol 23:1509-19 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860664 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860664 Reactome R-MMU-156827 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156827.1 While circularization of mRNA during translation initiation is thought to contribute to an increase in the efficiency of translation, it also appears to provide a mechanism for translational silencing. This might be achieved by bringing inhibitory 3' UTR-binding proteins into a position in which they interfere either with the function of the translation initiation complex or with the assembly of the ribosome (Mazumder et al 2001). Translational silencing of Ceruloplasmin (Cp) occurs 16 hrs after its induction by INF-gamma (Mazumder et al., 1997). Although the mechanism by which silencing occurs has not yet been determined, this process is mediated by the L13a subunit of the 60s ribosome and thought to require circularization of the Cp mRNA (Sampath et al., 2003; Mazumder et al., 2001; Mazumder et al., 2003). Between 14 and 16 hrs after INF gamma induction, the L13a subunit of the 60s ribosome is phosphorylated and released from the 60s subunit. Phosphorylated L13a then associates with the GAIT element in the 3' UTR of the Cp mRNA inhibiting its translation. 9257859 Pubmed 1997 Induction of ceruloplasmin synthesis by IFN-gamma in human monocytic cells Mazumder, B Mukhopadhyay, CK Prok, A Cathcart, MK Fox, PL J Immunol 159:1938-44 11533233 Pubmed 2001 Translational silencing of ceruloplasmin requires the essential elements of mRNA circularization: poly(A) tail, poly(A)-binding protein, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G Mazumder, B Seshadri, V Imataka, H Sonenberg, Nahum Fox, PL Mol Cell Biol 21:6440-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860150 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860150 Reactome R-MMU-72613 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72613.1 GO 0006413 GO biological process Initiation of translation in the majority of eukaryotic cellular mRNAs depends on the 5'-cap (m7GpppN) and involves ribosomal scanning of the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) for an initiating AUG start codon. Therefore, this mechanism is often called cap-dependent translation initiation. Proximity to the cap, as well as the nucleotides surrounding an AUG codon, influence the efficiency of the start site recognition during the scanning process. However, if the recognition site is poor enough, scanning ribosomal subunits will ignore and skip potential starting AUGs, a phenomenon called leaky scanning. Leaky scanning allows a single mRNA to encode several proteins that differ in their amino-termini. Merrick (2010) provides an overview of this process and hghlights several features of it that remain incompletely understood.<p>Several eukaryotic cell and viral mRNAs initiate translation by an alternative mechanism that involves internal initiation rather than ribosomal scanning. These mRNAs contain complex nucleotide sequences, called internal ribosomal entry sites, where ribosomes bind in a cap-independent manner and start translation at the closest downstream AUG codon.<br> Initiation on several viral and cellular mRNAs is cap-independent and is mediated by binding of the ribosome to internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements. These elements are often found in characteristically long structured regions on the 5'-UTR of an mRNA that may or may not have regulatory upstream open reading frames (uORFs). Both of these features on the 5'-end of the mRNA hinder ribosomal scanning, and thus promote a cap-independent translation initiation mechanism. IRESs act as specific translational enhancers that allow translation initiation to occur in response to specific stimuli and under the control of different trans-acting factors, as for example when cap-dependent protein synthesis is shut off during viral infection. Such regulatory elements have been identified in the mRNAs of growth factors, protooncogenes, angiogenesis factors, and apoptosis regulators, which are translated under a variety of stress conditions, including hypoxia, serum deprivation, irradiation and apoptosis. Thus, cap-independent translational control might have evolved to regulate cellular responses in acute but transient stress conditions that would otherwise lead to cell death, while the same mechanism is of major importance for viral mRNAs to bypass the shutting-off of host protein synthesis after infection. Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) and hepatitis C virus exemplify two distinct mechanisms of IRES-mediated initiation. In contrast to cap-dependent initiation, the eIF4A and eIF4G subunits of eIF4F bind immediately upstream of the EMCV initiation codon and promote binding of a 43S complex. Accordingly, EMCV initiation does not involve scanning and does not require eIF1, eIF1A, and the eIF4E subunit of eIF4F. Nonetheless, initiation on some EMCV-like IRESs requires additional non-canonical initiation factors, which alter IRES conformation and promote binding of eIF4A/eIF4G. Initiation on the hepatitis C virus IRES is simpler: a 43S complex containing only eIF2 and eIF3 binds directly to the initiation codon as a result of specific interaction of the IRES and the 40S subunit. 20444697 Pubmed 2010 Eukaryotic protein synthesis: still a mystery Merrick, William C J Biol Chem 285:21197-201 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA SRP-dependent cotranslational protein targeting to membrane SRP-dependent cotranslational protein targeting to membrane This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Nascent polypeptide:mRNA:ribosome complex binds signal recognition particle (SRP) Nascent polypeptide:mRNA:ribosome complex binds signal recognition particle (SRP) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9803820 1 Signal Recognition Particle [cytosol] Signal Recognition Particle Reactome DB_ID: 9803796 1 UniProt:P16254 Srp14 UniProt P16254 2 EQUAL 136 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9803816 1 UniProt:Q8BMA6 Srp68 UniProt Q8BMA6 1 EQUAL 627 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9803804 1 UniProt:P14576 Srp54 UniProt P14576 1 EQUAL 504 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9803800 1 UniProt:Q9D7A6 Srp19 UniProt Q9D7A6 2 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9803812 1 UniProt:P49962 Srp9 UniProt P49962 2 EQUAL 86 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9803808 1 UniProt:F8VQC1 Srp72 UniProt F8VQC1 2 EQUAL 671 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9803818 1 Ghost homologue of 7SL RNA [cytosol] Ghost homologue of 7SL RNA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9803820 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9803820 Reactome R-MMU-264932 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-264932.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9803822 1 ribosome:mRNA:polypeptide+signal [cytosol] ribosome:mRNA:polypeptide+signal Reactome DB_ID: 9754822 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9755053 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1799333 1 nascent polypeptide with signal sequence [cytosol] nascent polypeptide with signal sequence Reactome Database ID Release 78 9803822 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9803822 Reactome R-MMU-1799327 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1799327.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9803824 1 SRP:polypeptide+signal:ribosome [cytosol] SRP:polypeptide+signal:ribosome Reactome DB_ID: 9803820 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9803822 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9803824 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9803824 Reactome R-MMU-1799337 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1799337.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9803826 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9803826 Reactome R-MMU-1799332 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1799332.1 The Ribosome Nascent Complex containing the ribosome and protruding signal peptide of preprolactin is bound by the Signal Recognition Particle Complex. Translation is paused during this step. 16469117 Pubmed 2006 Human autoantibodies against the 54 kDa protein of the signal recognition particle block function at multiple stages Römisch, K Miller, FW Dobberstein, B High, S Arthritis Res Ther 8:R39 18455985 Pubmed 2008 SRP keeps polypeptides translocation-competent by slowing translation to match limiting ER-targeting sites Lakkaraju, AK Mary, C Scherrer, A Johnson, AE Strub, K Cell 133:440-51 12853463 Pubmed 2003 Structure, function and evolution of the signal recognition particle Nagai, K Oubridge, C Kuglstatter, A Menichelli, E Isel, C Jovine, L EMBO J 22:3479-85 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862288 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862288 Reactome R-MMU-1799339 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1799339.1 GO 0006614 GO biological process The process for translation of a protein destined for the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) branches from the canonical cytoslic translation process at the point when a nascent polypeptide containing a hydrophobic signal sequence is exposed on the surface of the cytosolic ribosome:mRNA:peptide complex. The signal sequence mediates the interaction of this complex with a cytosolic signal recognition particle (SRP) to form a complex which in turn docks with an SRP receptor complex on the ER membrane. There the ribosome complex is transferred from the SRP complex to a translocon complex embedded in the ER membrane and reoriented so that the nascent polypeptide protrudes through a pore in the translocon into the ER lumen. Translation, which had been halted by SRP binding, now resumes, the signal peptide is cleaved from the polypeptide, and elongation proceeds, with the growing polypeptide oriented into the ER lumen. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Eukaryotic Translation Elongation Eukaryotic Translation Elongation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Peptide chain elongation Peptide chain elongation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> GTP-binding activates eEF2 GTP-binding activates eEF2 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9761084 1 UniProt:P58252 Eef2 UniProt P58252 dipthamide at 715 (in Homo sapiens) 715 EQUAL dipthamide 2 EQUAL 858 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761086 1 eEF2:GTP [cytosol] eEF2:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 9761084 1 dipthamide at 715 (in Homo sapiens) 715 EQUAL 2 EQUAL 858 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761086 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761086 Reactome R-MMU-156916 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156916.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761088 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761088 Reactome R-MMU-156930 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156930.1 At the beginning of this reaction, 1 molecule of 'eEF2', and 1 molecule of 'GTP' are present. At the end of this reaction, 1 molecule of 'eEF2:GTP' is present.<br><br> This reaction takes place in the 'cytosol' (Guillot et al. 2013).<br> 8407925 Pubmed 1993 GTP binding to elongation factor eEF-2 unmasks a tryptophan residue required for biological activity Guillot, D Penin, F Di Pietro, A Sontag, B Lavergne, J P Reboud, J P J. Biol. Chem. 268:20911-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860668 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860668 Reactome R-MMU-156902 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156902.1 The mechanism of a peptide bond requires the movement of three protons. First the deprotonation of the ammonium ion generates a reactive amine, allowing a nucleophilic attack on the carbonyl group. This is followed by the loss of a proton from the reaction intermediate, only to be taken up by the oxygen on the leaving group (from the end of the amino acid chain bound to the tRNA in the P-site). The peptide bond formation results in the net loss of one water molecule, leaving a deacylated-tRNA in the P-site, and a nascent polypeptide chain one amino acid larger in the A-site.<br>For the purpose of illustration, the figures used in the section show one amino acid being added to a peptidyl-tRNA with a growing peptide chain.<br> 12297040 Pubmed 2002 The path to perdition is paved with protons Green, R Lorsch, JR Cell 110:665-8 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Regeneration of eEF1A:GTP by eEF1B activity Regeneration of eEF1A:GTP by eEF1B activity This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9761070 1 eEF1B complex [cytosol] eEF1B complex Reactome DB_ID: 9761060 1 UniProt:O70251 Eef1b UniProt O70251 2 EQUAL 225 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761068 1 UniProt:Q9D8N0 Eef1g UniProt Q9D8N0 2 EQUAL 437 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761064 1 UniProt:P57776 Eef1d UniProt P57776 2 EQUAL 281 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761070 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761070 Reactome R-MMU-156920 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156920.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761074 1 eEF1A:GDP [cytosol] eEF1A:GDP Reactome DB_ID: 9761054 1 UniProt:P10126 Eef1a1 UniProt P10126 1 EQUAL 462 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29420 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761074 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761074 Reactome R-MMU-156929 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156929.1 Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761056 1 eEF1A:GTP [cytosol] eEF1A:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 9761054 1 1 EQUAL 462 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761056 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761056 Reactome R-MMU-156921 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156921.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761076 1 eEF1B:GDP exchange complex [cytosol] eEF1B:GDP exchange complex Reactome DB_ID: 9761070 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29420 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761076 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761076 Reactome R-MMU-156917 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156917.1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9761070 GO 0005085 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761077 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761077 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761079 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761079 Reactome R-MMU-156913 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156913.1 The eEF1B complex binds to eEF1A and regulates its activity by catalyzing the release of GDP. Subsequently, GTP is able to bind eEF1A allowing the formation of the ternary complex (eEF1A-GTP-aa-tRNA).In metazoans eEF1 protein family is composed of four subunits: eEF1A and eEF1B alpha, beta, and gamma (formerly EF-1alpha, EF-1beta, EF-1delta, and EF-1gamma, respectively). Both eEF1B alpha and eEF1B beta function as nucleotide exchange proteins. eEF1B gamma associates with eEF1B alpha and stimulates its exchange activity.<br>This process is illustrated below with a GTP molecule in white and eEF1A protein in yellow.The three subunits of eEF1B are also shown. 2207149 Pubmed 1990 Elongation factor 1 beta of artemia: localization of functional sites and homology to elongation factor 1 delta van, Damme HT Amons, R Karssies, R Timmers, CJ Janssen, GM Moller, W Biochim Biophys Acta 1050:241-7 3276514 Pubmed 1988 Elongation factor 1 beta gamma from Artemia. Purification and properties of its subunits. Janssen, GM Moller, W Eur J Biochem 171:119-29 10368288 Pubmed 1999 The solution structure of the guanine nucleotide exchange domain of human elongation factor 1beta reveals a striking resemblance to that of EF-Ts from Escherichia coli Perez, JM Siegal, G Kriek, J Hard, K Dijk, J Canters, GW Moller, W Structure Fold Des 7:217-26 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Formation of eEF1B complex Formation of eEF1B complex This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9761060 1 2 EQUAL 225 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761068 1 2 EQUAL 437 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761064 1 2 EQUAL 281 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9761070 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9761072 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9761072 Reactome R-MMU-156910 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156910.1 At the beginning of this reaction, 1 molecule of 'eEF1B alpha', 1 molecule of 'eEF1B gamma', and 1 molecule of 'eEF1B beta' are present. At the end of this reaction, 1 molecule of 'eEF1B complex' is present. This reaction takes place in the 'cytosol' (Veremieva et al. 2011). 20964681 Pubmed 2011 Unbalanced expression of the translation complex eEF1 subunits in human cardioesophageal carcinoma Veremieva, Marina Khoruzhenko, Antonina Zaicev, Sergej Negrutskii, Boris El'skaya, Anna Eur. J. Clin. Invest. 41:269-76 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860666 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860666 Reactome R-MMU-156842 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156842.1 GO 0006414 GO biological process The translation elongation cycle adds one amino acid at a time to a growing polypeptide according to the sequence of codons found in the mRNA. The next available codon on the mRNA is exposed in the aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) binding site (A site) on the 30S subunit.<br>A: Ternary complexes of aa -tRNA:eEF1A:GTP enter the ribosome and enable the anticodon of the tRNA to make a codon/anticodon interaction with the A-site codon of the mRNA. B: Upon cognate recognition, the eEF1A:GTP is brought into the GTPase activating center of the ribosome, GTP is hydrolyzed and eEF1A:GDP leaves the ribosome. C: The peptidyl transferase center of ribosome catalyses the formation of a peptide bond between the incoming amino acid and the peptide found in the peptidyl-tRNA binding site (P site). D: In the pre-translocation state of the ribosome, the eEF2:GTP enters the ribosome, physically translocating the peptidyl-tRNA out of the A site to P site and leaves the ribosome eEF2:GDP. This action of eEF2:GTP accounts for the precise movement of the mRNA by 3 nucleotides.Consequently, deacylated tRNA is shifted to the E site. A ribosome associated ATPase activity is proposed to stimulate the release of deacylated tRNA from the E site subsequent to translocation (Elskaya et al., 1991). In this post-translocation state, the ribosome is now ready to receive a new ternary complex.<br>This process is illustrated below with: an amino acyl-tRNA with an amino acid, a peptidyl-tRNA with a growing peptide, a deacylated tRNA with an -OH, and a ribosome with A,P and E sites to accommodate these three forms of tRNA. 15189156 Pubmed 2004 The molecular mechanics of eukaryotic translation Kapp, LD Lorsch, JR Annu Rev Biochem 73:657-704 9265629 Pubmed 1997 Three tRNA binding sites in rabbit liver ribosomes and role of the intrinsic ATPase in 80S ribosomes from higher eukaryotes El'skaya, AV Ovcharenko, GV Palchevskii, SS Petrushenko, ZM Triana-Alonso, FJ Nierhaus, KH Biochemistry 36:10492-7 9780879696184 ISBN 2000 The Protein Biosynthesis Elongation Cycle Merrick, William C Nyborg, J Translational Control of Gene Expression (Book): 89-127 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Eukaryotic Translation Termination Eukaryotic Translation Termination This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> N6AMT1:TRMT112 transfers CH3 group from AdoMet to ETF1 dimer N6AMT1:TRMT112 transfers CH3 group from AdoMet to ETF1 dimer This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9838474 1 ETF1 dimer:eRF3:GTP [cytosol] ETF1 dimer:eRF3:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 9838470 1 eRF3:GTP [cytosol] eRF3:GTP Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9789331 1 eRF3 [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Gspt1 [cytosol] Gspt2 [cytosol] UniProt Q8R050 UniProt Q149F3 Reactome DB_ID: 29438 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838470 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838470 Reactome R-MMU-143383 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-143383.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9838472 1 ETF1 dimer [cytosol] ETF1 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9789321 2 UniProt:Q8BWY3 Etf1 UniProt Q8BWY3 2 EQUAL 437 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838472 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838472 Reactome R-MMU-6800139 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6800139.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838474 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838474 Reactome R-MMU-6800132 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6800132.1 Reactome DB_ID: 71284 2 S-adenosyl-L-methionine [ChEBI:15414] S-adenosyl-L-methionine ChEBI 15414 Reactome DB_ID: 9838481 1 Me-Q185-ETF1 dimer:eRF3:GTP [cytosol] Me-Q185-ETF1 dimer:eRF3:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 9838479 1 Me-Q185-ETF1 dimer [cytosol] Me-Q185-ETF1 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9838477 2 N5-methyl-L-glutamine at 185 (in Homo sapiens) 185 EQUAL N5-methyl-L-glutamine 2 EQUAL 437 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838479 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838479 Reactome R-MMU-6800131 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6800131.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9838470 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838481 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838481 Reactome R-MMU-6800154 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6800154.1 Reactome DB_ID: 71285 2 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine [ChEBI:16680] S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine ChEBI 16680 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9838491 N6AMT1:TRMT112 [cytosol] N6AMT1:TRMT112 Reactome DB_ID: 9838485 1 UniProt:Q6SKR2 N6amt1 UniProt Q6SKR2 1 EQUAL 214 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9838489 1 UniProt:Q9DCG9 Trmt112 UniProt Q9DCG9 1 EQUAL 125 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838491 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838491 Reactome R-MMU-6800133 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6800133.1 GO 0036009 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838492 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838492 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9838494 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9838494 Reactome R-MMU-6800138 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6800138.1 Class 1 release factors such as eukaryotic peptide chain release factor subunit 1 (ETF1) direct the termination of peptide translation in response to the termination codons UAA, UAG and UGA. ETF1 needs to be complexed with ERF3 in its GTP-bound form to be efficiently post-translationally methylated. HemK methyltransferase family member 2 (N6AMT1) is a heterodimeric methyltransferase that catalyses N5-methylation of ETF1 on glutamine 185 (Q185), using S-adenosyl L-methionine (AdoMet) as the methyl donor (Figaro et al. 2008). N6AMT1 forms a complex with multifunctional methyltransferase subunit TRM112-like protein (TRMT112) 18539146 Pubmed 2008 HemK2 protein, encoded on human chromosome 21, methylates translation termination factor eRF1 Figaro, Sabine Scrima, Nathalie Buckingham, Richard H Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie FEBS Lett. 582:2352-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.4.21.1 3.4.21.92 3.4.21.73 3.4.21.71 3.4.21.93 3.4.21.94 3.4.21.34 3.4.21.78 3.4.21.9 3.4.21.53 3.4.21.6 3.4.21.75 3.4.24.3 3.4.21.10 3.4.21.54 3.4.21.7 3.4.21.4 3.4.21.59 3.4.21.38 3.4.21.5 3.4.21.35 3.4.21.79 3.4.21.36 3.4.19.1 3.4.21.62 3.4.21.41 3.4.21.61 3.4.21.83 3.4.21.22 3.4.21.88 3.4.21.45 3.4.21.89 3.4.21.20 3.4.21.42 3.4.21.21 3.4.21.43 3.4.21.87 3.4.21.26 3.4.21.48 3.4.24.34 3.4.21.27 3.4.21.46 3.4.21.68 3.4.21.47 3.4.21.69 3.4.21.39 3.4.24.7 3.4.21.102 APEH hydrolyses NAc-Ser-protein APEH hydrolyses NAc-Ser-protein This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5691496 1 NAc-Ser:protein [cytosol] NAc-Ser:protein Reactome DB_ID: 6785226 1 protein [ChEBI:36080] protein [protein] ChEBI 36080 Reactome DB_ID: 5691517 1 N-terminal N-acetyl-L-serine residue [ChEBI:83690] N-terminal N-acetyl-L-serine residue ChEBI 83690 Reactome Database ID Release 78 5691496 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5691496 Reactome R-ALL-5691496 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-5691496.2 Reactome DB_ID: 6785226 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5691517 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9831565 UniProt:Q8R146 Apeh UniProt Q8R146 1 EQUAL 732 EQUAL GO 0004252 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9831566 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9831566 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9831568 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9831568 Reactome R-MMU-5691512 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5691512.1 Protein acetylation, which can occur during or after polypeptide chain biosynthesis, helps protect the intracellular proteins from proteolysis. Acylamino-acid-releasing enzyme (APEH) is a cytosolic enzyme able to catalyse the preferential hydrolysis of terminal acetylated amino acids from small acetylated peptides. APEH prefers substrates with acetylated methionine, alanine and serine residues. Hydrolysis produces an acetylated amino acid and a N-terminus protein (Jones et al. 1991). APEH expression is reduced in renal cell carcinoma therefore may represent a tumor suppressor gene, whose loss contributes to the development of renal cell carcinoma (Erlandsson et al. 1991). The hydrolysis of an acetylated serine residue (NAc-Ser-protein) is shown here. 2006156 Pubmed 1991 Genetic relationship between acylpeptide hydrolase and acylase, two hydrolytic enzymes with similar binding but different catalytic specificities Jones, W M Scaloni, A Bossa, F Popowicz, A M Schneewind, O Manning, J M Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 88:2194-8 1861871 Pubmed 1991 The gene from the short arm of chromosome 3, at D3F15S2, frequently deleted in renal cell carcinoma, encodes acylpeptide hydrolase Erlandsson, R Boldog, F Persson, B Zabarovsky, E R Allikmets, R L Sümegi, J Klein, G Jörnvall, H Oncogene 6:1293-5 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862784 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862784 Reactome R-MMU-72764 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-72764.1 GO 0006415 GO biological process The arrival of any of the three stop codons (UAA, UAG and UGA) into the ribosomal A-site triggers the binding of a release factor (RF) to the ribosome and subsequent polypeptide chain release. In eukaryotes, the RF is composed of two proteins, eRF1 and eRF3. eRF1 is responsible for the hydrolysis of the peptidyl-tRNA, while eRF3 provides a GTP-dependent function. The ribosome releases the mRNA and dissociates into its two complex subunits, which can reassemble on another molecule to begin a new round of protein synthesis. It should be noted that at present, there is no factor identified in eukaryotes that would be the functional equivalent of the bacterial ribosome release (or recycling) factor, RRF, that catalyzes dissociation of the ribosome from the mRNA following release of the polypeptide 15314182 Pubmed 2004 GTP hydrolysis by eRF3 facilitates stop codon decoding during eukaryotic translation termination Salas-Marco, J Bedwell, David M Mol Cell Biol 24:7769-78 2684966 Pubmed 1989 Molecular cloning and expression of ribosome releasing factor Ichikawa, S Kaji, A J Biol Chem 264:20054-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Mitochondrial translation Mitochondrial translation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Mitochondrial translation elongation Mitochondrial translation elongation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 55S ribosome with peptidyl-tRNA in A site binds GFM1:GTP 55S ribosome with peptidyl-tRNA in A site binds GFM1:GTP This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9823385 1 GFM1:GTP [mitochondrial matrix] GFM1:GTP Reactome DB_ID: 113573 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9823383 1 UniProt:Q8K0D5 Gfm1 UniProt Q8K0D5 37 EQUAL 751 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9823385 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9823385 Reactome R-MMU-5419274 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5419274.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9823379 1 mitochondrial inner membrane GO 0005743 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA:peptidyl-tRNA at A-site [mitochondrial inner membrane] 55S ribosome:mRNA:tRNA:peptidyl-tRNA at A-site Reactome DB_ID: 5368267 1 mRNA [mitochondrial matrix] mRNA Reactome DB_ID: 9823375 1 55S ribosome [mitochondrial inner membrane] 55S ribosome Reactome DB_ID: 9823163 1 28S ribosomal subunit [mitochondrial inner membrane] 28S ribosomal subunit Reactome DB_ID: 9823069 1 UniProt:Q9D125 Mrps25 UniProt Q9D125 1 EQUAL 173 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823053 1 UniProt:P58059 Mrps21 UniProt P58059 1 EQUAL 87 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823073 1 UniProt:Q80ZS3 Mrps26 UniProt Q80ZS3 28 EQUAL 205 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823061 1 UniProt:Q8VE22 Mrps23 UniProt Q8VE22 1 EQUAL 190 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823045 1 UniProt:Q9CPX7 Mrps16 UniProt Q9CPX7 35 EQUAL 137 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823033 1 UniProt:O35680 Mrps12 UniProt O35680 30 EQUAL 138 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823041 1 UniProt:Q9DC71 Mrps15 UniProt Q9DC71 58 EQUAL 257 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823161 1 UniProt:Q9CZU4 Eral1 UniProt Q9CZU4 44 EQUAL 437 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823081 1 UniProt:Q9CY16 Mrps28 UniProt Q9CY16 72 EQUAL 187 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823105 1 UniProt:Q9CQX8 Mrps36 UniProt Q9CQX8 1 EQUAL 103 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823089 1 UniProt:Q61733 Mrps31 UniProt Q61733 66 EQUAL 395 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823117 1 UniProt:Q80X85 Mrps7 UniProt Q80X85 38 EQUAL 242 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823093 1 UniProt:Q9D2R8 Mrps33 UniProt Q9D2R8 2 EQUAL 106 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823109 1 UniProt:Q99N87 Mrps5 UniProt Q99N87 1 EQUAL 430 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823139 1 UniProt:Q9DCJ7 Aurkaip1 UniProt Q9DCJ7 1 EQUAL 199 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823157 1 UniProt:Q924T2 Mrps2 UniProt Q924T2 1 EQUAL 296 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823143 1 UniProt:Q9CQA6 Chchd1 UniProt Q9CQA6 1 EQUAL 118 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823147 1 UniProt:Q9ER88 Dap3 UniProt Q9ER88 19 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823025 1 UniProt:Q80ZK0 Mrps10 UniProt Q80ZK0 1 EQUAL 201 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823037 1 UniProt:Q9CR88 Mrps14 UniProt Q9CR88 1 EQUAL 128 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823151 1 UniProt:Q14C51 Ptcd3 UniProt Q14C51 38 EQUAL 689 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823065 1 UniProt:Q9CQV5 Mrps24 UniProt Q9CQV5 36 EQUAL 167 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823085 1 UniProt:Q9D0G0 Mrps30 UniProt Q9D0G0 1 EQUAL 439 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823057 1 UniProt:Q9CXW2 Mrps22 UniProt Q9CXW2 1 EQUAL 360 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823121 1 UniProt:Q9D7N3 Mrps9 UniProt Q9D7N3 1 EQUAL 396 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823113 1 UniProt:P58064 Mrps6 UniProt P58064 2 EQUAL 125 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823153 1 Ghost homologue of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA [mitochondrial inner membrane] Ghost homologue of Mitochondrial 12S rRNA Reactome DB_ID: 9823049 1 UniProt:Q9CQE3 Mrps17 UniProt Q9CQE3 21 EQUAL 130 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823029 1 UniProt:Q9DCA2 Mrps11 UniProt Q9DCA2 1 EQUAL 194 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823077 1 UniProt:Q8BK72 Mrps27 UniProt Q8BK72 1 EQUAL 414 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823101 1 UniProt:Q8BJZ4 Mrps35 UniProt Q8BJZ4 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9823135 1 MRPS18A,B,C [mitochondrial inner membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Mrps18a [mitochondrial inner membrane] Mrps18b [mitochondrial inner membrane] Mrps18c [mitochondrial inner membrane] UniProt Q99N85 UniProt Q99N84 UniProt Q8R2L5 Reactome DB_ID: 9823097 1 UniProt:Q9JIK9 Mrps34 UniProt Q9JIK9 2 EQUAL 218 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9823163 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9823163 Reactome R-MMU-5368239 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5368239.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9823373 1 39S ribosomal subunit [mitochondrial inner membrane] 39S ribosomal subunit Reactome DB_ID: 9823291 1 UniProt:Q9CQN7 Mrpl41 UniProt Q9CQN7 14 EQUAL 137 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823315 1 UniProt:Q8K2Y7 Mrpl47 UniProt Q8K2Y7 1 EQUAL 250 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823331 1 UniProt:Q9CPY1 Mrpl51 UniProt Q9CPY1 32 EQUAL 128 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823199 1 UniProt:Q9D8P4 Mrpl17 UniProt Q9D8P4 9 EQUAL 175 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823267 1 UniProt:Q99N90 Mrpl36 UniProt Q99N90 1 EQUAL 103 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823227 1 UniProt:O35972 Mrpl23 UniProt O35972 1 EQUAL 153 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823243 1 UniProt:Q99N95 Mrpl3 UniProt Q99N95 1 EQUAL 348 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823259 1 UniProt:Q99N91 Mrpl34 UniProt Q99N91 1 EQUAL 92 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823251 1 UniProt:Q9DCI9 Mrpl32 UniProt Q9DCI9 1 EQUAL 188 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823287 1 UniProt:Q9Z2Q5 Mrpl40 UniProt Q9Z2Q5 47 EQUAL 206 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823357 1 Ghost homologue of Mitochondrial 16S rRNA [mitochondrial matrix] Ghost homologue of Mitochondrial 16S rRNA Reactome DB_ID: 9823339 1 UniProt:Q9D1H8 Mrpl53 UniProt Q9D1H8 1 EQUAL 112 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823361 1 UniProt:Q8R035 Mrpl58 UniProt Q8R035 30 EQUAL 206 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823191 1 UniProt:Q9CPR5 Mrpl15 UniProt Q9CPR5 22 EQUAL 296 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823271 1 UniProt:Q921S7 Mrpl37 UniProt Q921S7 30 EQUAL 423 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823207 1 UniProt:Q9D338 Mrpl19 UniProt Q9D338 1 EQUAL 292 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823231 1 UniProt:Q9CQ06 Mrpl24 UniProt Q9CQ06 10 EQUAL 216 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823187 1 UniProt:Q9D1I6 Mrpl14 UniProt Q9D1I6 31 EQUAL 145 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823363 1 Ghost homologue of MT-TV [mitochondrial matrix] Ghost homologue of MT-TV Reactome DB_ID: 9823351 1 UniProt:Q99N94 Mrpl9 UniProt Q99N94 1 EQUAL 267 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9823371 2