BioPAX pathway converted from "Phospholipid metabolism" in the Reactome database. Phospholipid metabolism Phospholipid metabolism This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Glycerophospholipid biosynthesis Glycerophospholipid biosynthesis This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Synthesis of PA Synthesis of PA This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 1.1.5.3 Gly-3-P+FAD->DHAP+FADH2 (catalyzed by mitochondrial Gly-Phos dehydrogenase) Gly-3-P+FAD->DHAP+FADH2 (catalyzed by mitochondrial Gly-Phos dehydrogenase) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 188458 1 mitochondrial matrix GO 0005759 sn-glycerol 3-phosphate [ChEBI:15978] sn-glycerol 3-phosphate Reactome http://www.reactome.org ChEBI 15978 Reactome DB_ID: 113596 1 FAD [ChEBI:16238] FAD Flavin adenine dinucleotide ChEBI 16238 Reactome DB_ID: 188451 1 glycerone phosphate(2-) [ChEBI:57642] glycerone phosphate(2-) glycerone phosphate dianion dihydroxyacetone phosphate dianion 3-hydroxy-2-oxopropyl phosphate dihydroxyacetone phosphate ChEBI 57642 Reactome DB_ID: 31649 1 FADH2 [ChEBI:17877] FADH2 ChEBI 17877 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9766989 mitochondrial inner membrane GO 0005743 UniProt:Q64521 Gpd2 Mus musculus NCBI Taxonomy 10090 UniProt Q64521 Chain Coordinates 43 EQUAL 727 EQUAL GO 0004368 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9766990 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9766990 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9766992 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9766992 Reactome R-MMU-188467 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-188467.1 GO 0006127 GO biological process FAD-linked mitochondrial glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD2, alias: mGPDH) and its NAD-linked cytosolic isoform (GPD1, alias:cGPDH) constitute glycerol phosphate shuttle. GPD2 catalyzes the unidirectional conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate (G-3-P) to dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) with concomitant reduction of the enzyme-bound FAD. Impaired activity of GPD2 has been suggested to be one of the primary causes of insulin secretory defects in beta-cells and thus it is a candidate gene for type 2 diabetes. 8163052 Pubmed 1994 Enzymatic, metabolic and secretory patterns in human islets of type 2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients Fernandez-Alvarez, J Conget, I Rasschaert, J Sener, A Gomis, R Malaisse, WJ Diabetologia 37:177-81 7821823 Pubmed 1994 The sequence of a human mitochondrial glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-encoding cDNA Lehn, DA Brown, LJ Simonson, GD Moran, SM MacDonald, MJ Gene 150:417-8 0716720094 ISBN 1995 21: Oxidative Phosphorylation Stryer, L Biochemistry, 4th ed (Book): 548-549 8687421 Pubmed 1996 Molecular cloning of human mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase gene: genomic structure, chromosomal localization, and existence of a pseudogene Matsutani, A Takeuchi, Y Ishihara, H Kuwano, S Oka, Y Biochem Biophys Res Commun 223:481-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 1.1.1.8 DHAP is converted to G3P by GPD1/GPD1L DHAP is converted to G3P by GPD1/GPD1L Conversion of Dihydroxyacetone Phosphate to Glycerol -3- phosphate This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 70106 1 cytosol GO 0005829 hydron [ChEBI:15378] hydron ChEBI 15378 Reactome DB_ID: 75970 1 Reactome DB_ID: 73473 1 NADH(2-) [ChEBI:57945] NADH(2-) NADH dianion adenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] diphosphate} NADH ChEBI 57945 Reactome DB_ID: 29360 1 NAD(1-) [ChEBI:57540] NAD(1-) NAD(+) adenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoylpyridinio)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] diphosphate} NAD anion ChEBI 57540 Reactome DB_ID: 76114 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9756995 GPD1/GPD1L homodimer [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity GO 0004367 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9756996 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9756996 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9756998 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9756998 Reactome R-MMU-75889 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-75889.1 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is converted to glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPD1) or by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase-like (GPD1L) enzymes (Ou et al. 2006, Valdivia et al. 2009). The active forms of both enzymes are homodimers. This reaction may be found in white adipose tissues where glycerol-3-kinase activity is not observed in sufficient levels. GPD1/GPD1L reduces dihydroxyacetone phosphate with NADH donating electrons to this reduction. 19666841 Pubmed 2009 GPD1L links redox state to cardiac excitability by PKC-dependent phosphorylation of the sodium channel SCN5A Valdivia, CR Ueda, K Ackerman, Michael J Makielski, JC Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 297:H1446-52 16460752 Pubmed 2006 Crystal structures of human glycerol 3-phosphate dehydrogenase 1 (GPD1) Ou, X Ji, C Han, X Zhao, Xiaodong Li, X Mao, Y Wong, LL Bartlam, Mark Rao, Zihe J Mol Biol 357:858-69 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.42 DHAP is converted to 1-acyl GO3P by GNPAT DHAP is converted to 1-acyl GO3P by GNPAT This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 acyl-CoA [ChEBI:17984] acyl-CoA ChEBI 17984 Reactome DB_ID: 75970 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 coenzyme A(4-) [ChEBI:57287] coenzyme A(4-) CoA 3'-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-{3-[(3R)-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxo-4-({3-oxo-3-[(2-sulfanylethyl)amino]propyl}amino)butyl] diphosphate} ChEBI 57287 Reactome DB_ID: 75973 1 1-alkylglycerone 3-phosphate [ChEBI:17197] 1-alkylglycerone 3-phosphate ChEBI 17197 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800720 peroxisomal membrane GO 0005778 UniProt:P98192 Gnpat UniProt P98192 1 EQUAL 680 EQUAL GO 0016287 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800721 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800721 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800723 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800723 Reactome R-MMU-1483002 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483002.1 Dihydroxyacetone phosphate (DHAP) is converted to 1-acyl glycerone 3-phosphate (GO3P) by the enzyme dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase (GNPAT) (de Vet et al. 1999, Ofman et al. 1994). This reaction step links Glycerolipid metabolism to Ether lipid metabolism. 10553003 Pubmed 1999 Ether lipid biosynthesis: alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate synthase protein deficiency leads to reduced dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase activities de Vet, EC IJlst, L Oostheim, W Dekker, C Moser, HW van den Bosch, H J Lipid Res 40:1998-2003 8186247 Pubmed 1994 Purification of peroxisomal acyl-CoA: dihydroxyacetonephosphate acyltransferase from human placenta Ofman, Rob Wanders, Ronald J A Biochim Biophys Acta 1206:27-34 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.15 G3P is acylated to 1-acyl LPA by AGPAT6 G3P is acylated to 1-acyl LPA by AGPAT6 glycerol 3-phosphate + acyl-CoA => 1-acylglycerol 3-phosphate + CoASH [ER membrane-associated] Conversion of glycerol-3-phosphate to lysophosphatidic acid This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 76114 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500604 1 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate [ChEBI:16975] 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate ChEBI 16975 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9756926 endoplasmic reticulum membrane GO 0005789 UniProt:Q8K2C8 Gpat4 UniProt Q8K2C8 38 EQUAL 456 EQUAL GO 0004366 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9787032 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9787032 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9787034 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9787034 Reactome R-MMU-549112 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-549112.1 Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is acylated to 1-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by the enzymes glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 4 (AGPAT6) at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (Cao et al., 2006; Chen et al., 2008). 17170135 Pubmed 2006 Molecular identification of microsomal acyl-CoA:glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, a key enzyme in de novo triacylglycerol synthesis Cao, J Li, JL Li, D Tobin, JF Gimeno, RE Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:19695-700 18238778 Pubmed 2008 AGPAT6 is a novel microsomal glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase Chen, YQ Kuo, MS Li, S Bui, HH Peake, DA Sanders, PE Thibodeaux, SJ Chu, S Qian, YW Zhao, Y Bredt, DS Moller, DE Konrad, RJ Beigneux, AP Young, SG Cao, G J Biol Chem 283:10048-57 18718904 Pubmed 2009 Acyl-CoA:lysophospholipid acyltransferases Shindou, H Shimizu, T J Biol Chem 284:1-5 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.51 1-acyl LPA is acylated to PA by AGPAT (LPAAT) 1-acyl LPA is acylated to PA by AGPAT (LPAAT) 1-acyl-glycerol 3-phosphate + acyl-CoA => 1,2-diacyl-glycerol 3-phosphate + CoASH lysophosphatidic acid + fatty acyl CoA => phosphatidic acid + CoA (1) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500604 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426755 1 phosphatidic acid [ChEBI:16337] phosphatidic acid ChEBI 16337 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9756944 AGPAT [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Agpat2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Gpat3 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Agpat5 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Agpat4 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lclat1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lpcat1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lpcat4 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Agpat1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Agpat3 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Gpat4 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q8K3K7 UniProt Q8C0N2 UniProt Q9D1E8 UniProt Q8K4X7 UniProt Q3UN02 UniProt Q3TFD2 UniProt Q6NVG1 UniProt O35083 UniProt Q9D517 GO 0003841 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9756945 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9756945 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9756947 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9756947 Reactome R-MMU-75885 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-75885.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, 1-acyl-lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is acylated to phosphatidic acid (PA) by the enzymes 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases (AGPAT1 through 11), and lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT1) (Aguado and Campbell 1998).<br><br>See recent review by Agarwal (2012, in press).<br><br>AGPAT1, 2, 3 and LPCAT1 have been characterized biochemically (AGPAT1, 2: Yamashita et al. 2007, West et al. 1997, Aguado and Campbell 1998, Gale et al. 2006; AGPAT3: Agarwal et al. 2006; LPCAT1: Nakanishi et al. 2006, Chen et al. 2006). Two additional proteins, AGPAT4 and AGPAT5, are inferred to have such activity based on studies of homologous mouse enzymes (Lu et al. 2005). These enzymes differ in their tissue specific patterns of expression in the body and in their preferences for specific acyl CoA molecules (Shindou and Shimizu 2009; Takeuchi and Reue 2009).<br> 16620771 Pubmed 2006 Functional characterization of human 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase isoform 8: cloning, tissue distribution, gene structure, and enzymatic activity Agarwal, AK Barnes, RI Garg, A Arch Biochem Biophys 449:64-76 15367102 Pubmed 2005 Cloning and characterization of murine 1-acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferases and their regulation by PPARalpha in murine heart Lu, B Jiang, YJ Zhou, Y Xu, FY Hatch, GM Choy, PC Biochem J 385:469-77 17707131 Pubmed 2007 Topology of acyltransferase motifs and substrate specificity and accessibility in 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 Yamashita, A Nakanishi, H Suzuki, H Kamata, R Tanaka, K Waku, K Sugiura, T Biochim Biophys Acta 1771:1202-15 16495223 Pubmed 2006 A regulatory role for 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferase 2 in adipocyte differentiation Gale, SE Frolov, A Han, X Bickel, PE Cao, L Bowcock, A Schaffer, JE Ory, DS J Biol Chem 281:11082-9 9212163 Pubmed 1997 Cloning and expression of two human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase cDNAs that enhance cytokine-induced signaling responses in cells West, J Tompkins, CK Balantac, N Nudelman, E Meengs, B White, T Bursten, S Coleman, J Kumar, A Singer, JW Leung, DW DNA Cell Biol 16:691-701 19336658 Pubmed 2009 Biochemistry, physiology, and genetics of GPAT, AGPAT, and lipin enzymes in triglyceride synthesis Takeuchi, K Reue, K Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296:E1195-209 16864775 Pubmed 2006 Identification and characterization of a lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase in alveolar type II cells Chen, X Hyatt, BA Mucenski, ML Mason, RJ Shannon, JM Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:11724-9 9461603 Pubmed 1998 Characterization of a human lysophosphatidic acid acyltransferase that is encoded by a gene located in the class III region of the human major histocompatibility complex Aguado, B Campbell, RD J Biol Chem 273:4096-105 16704971 Pubmed 2006 Cloning and characterization of mouse lung-type acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1). Expression in alveolar type II cells and possible involvement in surfactant production Nakanishi, H Shindou, H Hishikawa, D Harayama, T Ogasawara, R Suwabe, A Taguchi, R Shimizu, T J Biol Chem 281:20140-7 22777291 Pubmed 2012 Lysophospholipid acyltransferases: 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferases. From discovery to disease Agarwal, AK Curr. Opin. Lipidol. 23:290-302 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PA is hydrolysed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2[1] PA is hydrolysed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2[1] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 water [ChEBI:15377] water ChEBI 15377 Reactome DB_ID: 426755 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 long-chain fatty acid anion [ChEBI:57560] long-chain fatty acid anion ChEBI 57560 Reactome DB_ID: 1500604 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800454 PLA2(1) [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pla2g2f [cytosol] Pla2g4d [cytosol] Pla2g4b [cytosol] UniProt Q9QZT4 UniProt Q50L43 UniProt P0C871 GO 0004623 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800455 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800455 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800513 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800513 Reactome R-MMU-1482656 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482656.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidic acid (PA) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by phospholipase A2 alpha/beta/delta/zeta (PLA2G4A/B/D/F) to form 1-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) (Ghomashchi et al. 2010). 20705608 Pubmed 2010 Interfacial kinetic and binding properties of mammalian group IVB phospholipase A2 (cPLA2beta) and comparison with the other cPLA2 isoforms Ghomashchi, F Naika, GS Bollinger, JG Aloulou, Ahmed Lehr, M Leslie, CC Gelb, Michael H J Biol Chem 285:36100-11 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PA is hydrolysed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2G2A PA is hydrolysed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2G2A This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426755 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500604 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800522 PLA2G2A:Ca2+ [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] PLA2G2A:Ca2+ Reactome DB_ID: 1500625 1 calcium(2+) [ChEBI:29108] calcium(2+) ChEBI 29108 Reactome DB_ID: 9800520 1 UniProt:P31482 Pla2g2a UniProt P31482 21 EQUAL 144 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800522 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800522 Reactome R-MMU-1500630 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1500630.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800523 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800523 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800525 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800525 Reactome R-MMU-1482679 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482679.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidic acid (PA) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by membrane-associated phospholipase A2 gamma 2A (PLA2G2A), to form 1-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) (Singer et al. 2002). 12359733 Pubmed 2002 Interfacial kinetic and binding properties of the complete set of human and mouse groups I, II, V, X, and XII secreted phospholipases A2 Singer, AG Ghomashchi, F Le Calvez, C Bollinger, J Bezzine, S Rouault, M Sadilek, M Nguyen, E Lazdunski, M Lambeau, G Gelb, Michael H J Biol Chem 277:48535-49 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.15 G3P is acylated to 1-acyl LPA by GPAM/GPAT2 (OM) G3P is acylated to 1-acyl LPA by GPAM/GPAT2 (OM) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 76114 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500580 1 mitochondrial outer membrane GO 0005741 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800535 GPAM/GPAT2 [mitochondrial outer membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Gpam [mitochondrial outer membrane] Gpat2 [mitochondrial outer membrane] UniProt Q61586 UniProt Q14DK4 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800536 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800536 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800538 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800538 Reactome R-MMU-1482695 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482695.1 Glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) is acylated to 1-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by the enzymes glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 1 (GPAT, also known as GPAM) and glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 2 (GPAT2), at the outer mitochondrial (OM) membrane (Shindou & Shimizu 2009, Chen et al. 2008, Takeuchi & Reue 2009). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.51 1-acyl LPA is acylated to PA by AGPAT5 (OM) 1-acyl LPA is acylated to PA by AGPAT5 (OM) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500580 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500590 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800426 UniProt:Q9D1E8 Agpat5 1 EQUAL 364 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800427 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800427 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800429 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800429 Reactome R-MMU-1482548 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482548.1 At the outer mitochondrial (OM) membrane, 1-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is acylated to phosphatidic acid (PA) by the enzyme 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferases epsilon (AGPAT5) (Prasad et al. 2011). 21173190 Pubmed 2011 Enzymatic activities of the human AGPAT isoform 3 and isoform 5: localization of AGPAT5 to mitochondria Prasad, SS Garg, A Agarwal, AK J Lipid Res 52:451-62 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PA is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2[1] (OM) PA is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2[1] (OM) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500590 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500580 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524103 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800454 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800457 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800457 Reactome R-MMU-1482604 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482604.1 At the outer mitochondrial (OM) membrane, phosphatidic acid (PA) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by phospholipase A2 alpha/beta/delta/zeta (PLA2G4A/B/D/F) to form 1-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) (Ghomashchi et al. 2010). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1 LIPH, I hydrolyse PA to 2-acyl LPA LIPH, I hydrolyse PA to 2-acyl LPA This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 109276 1 extracellular region GO 0005576 Reactome DB_ID: 1602448 1 plasma membrane GO 0005886 Reactome DB_ID: 1602366 1 Reactome DB_ID: 6792472 1 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate [ChEBI:17936] 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphate ChEBI 17936 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9835316 LIPH, I [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Lipi [plasma membrane] Liph [plasma membrane] UniProt F6YQT7 UniProt Q8CIV3 GO 0004620 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9835317 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9835317 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9835319 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9835319 Reactome R-MMU-6792445 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6792445.1 Lipase members H and I (LIPH, I) specifically hydrolyse phosphatidic acid (PA) to the potent bioactive lipid mediator 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (2-acyl LPA) (Hiramatsu et al. 2003, Sonoda et al. 2002). LIPH is expressed in most tissues at low levels whereas LIPI is mainly expressed in the testis. 12963729 Pubmed 2003 Biochemical and molecular characterization of two phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1s, mPA-PLA1alpha and mPA-PLA1beta Hiramatsu, Tatsufumi Sonoda, Hirofumi Takanezawa, Yasukazu Morikawa, Rei Ishida, Mayuko Kasahara, Kohji Sanai, Yutaka Taguchi, Ryo Aoki, Junken Arai, Hiroyuki J. Biol. Chem. 278:49438-47 12063250 Pubmed 2002 A novel phosphatidic acid-selective phospholipase A1 that produces lysophosphatidic acid Sonoda, Hirofumi Aoki, Junken Hiramatsu, Tatsufumi Ishida, Mayuko Bandoh, Koji Nagai, Yuki Taguchi, Ryo Inoue, Keizo Arai, Hiroyuki J. Biol. Chem. 277:34254-63 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA PLD6 dimer hydrolyses cardiolipin to PA and PG PLD6 dimer hydrolyses cardiolipin to PA and PG This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 8954419 1 cardiolipin [ChEBI:28494] cardiolipin cardiolipins Diphosphatidylglycerol 1&apos;,3&apos;-Bis(1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)-sn-glycerol ChEBI 28494 Reactome DB_ID: 189422 1 mitochondrial intermembrane space GO 0005758 Reactome DB_ID: 1500590 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8954401 1 phosphatidylglycerol [ChEBI:17517] phosphatidylglycerol phosphatidylglycerols ChEBI 17517 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9852833 PLD6 dimer [mitochondrial outer membrane] PLD6 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9852831 2 UniProt:Q5SWZ9 Pld6 Pld6 Pld6 FUNCTION Endonuclease that plays a critical role in PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) biogenesis during spermatogenesis. piRNAs provide essential protection against the activity of mobile genetic elements. piRNA-mediated transposon silencing is thus critical for maintaining genome stability, in particular in germline cells when transposons are mobilized as a consequence of wide-spread genomic demethylation (PubMed:23064227, PubMed:23064230). Has been proposed to act as a cardiolipin hydrolase to generate phosphatidic acid at mitochondrial surface (PubMed:21397847, PubMed:21397848). Although it cannot be excluded that it can act as a phospholipase in some circumstances, it should be noted that cardiolipin hydrolase activity is either undetectable in vitro, or very low. In addition, cardiolipin is almost exclusively found on the inner mitochondrial membrane, while PLD6 localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane, facing the cytosol. Has been shown to be a backbone-non-specific, single strand-specific nuclease, cleaving either RNA or DNA substrates with similar affinity (PubMed:23064227, PubMed:23064230). Produces 5' phosphate and 3' hydroxyl termini, suggesting it could directly participate in the processing of primary piRNA transcripts (PubMed:23064230). Also acts as a regulator of mitochondrial shape through facilitating mitochondrial fusion (By similarity).ACTIVITY REGULATION SsDNA hydrolase activity does not depend upon, but it stimulated by, the presence of Ca(2+) and Mn(2+).SUBUNIT Homodimer (PubMed:23064227). Interacts with MOV10L1 (PubMed:25762440). Interacts with MIGA1 and MIGA2; possibly facilitating homodimer formation (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Predominantly expressed in testis (at protein level). Also expressed at high levels in growing ovary.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Expressed in embryonic testis at 16.5 dpc (at protein level). Expressed at low levels in type A and B spermatogonia, increases 5-fold in spermatocytes undergoing meiosis (pachytene spermatocytes), and then decreases again in round spermatids. Expressed at low levels in testes in young mice, peaks from postnatal day 14 to day 29 with the onset of puberty andpersists in adulthood (at protein level).DOMAIN In contrast to other members of the phospholipase D family, contains only one PLD phosphodiesterase domain, suggesting that it has a single half-catalytic and requires homodimerization to form a complete active site.DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE Mutant animals are born at the expected Mendelian ratio. Females show no discernible phenotype and are fertile. Males are sterile, because of meiotic arrest during spermatogenesis due to demethylation and subsequent derepression of transposable elements. Effects are caused by defects in primary piRNA biogenesis: in contrast to wild-type cells neither mitochondria nor associated meiotic nuage (named P granule) are aggregated.SIMILARITY Belongs to the phospholipase D family. MitoPLD/Zucchini subfamily. UniProt Q5SWZ9 1 EQUAL 252 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9852833 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9852833 Reactome R-MMU-5601921 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5601921.1 GO 0035755 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9852834 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9852834 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9852852 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9852852 Reactome R-MMU-8954398 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8954398.1 Mitochondrial cardiolipin hydrolase (PLD6 aka MitoPLD) is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and promotes trans-mitochondrial membrane adherence (mitochondrial fusion) in a Mfn-dependent manner by hydrolysing cardiolipin to generate the acidic fusogenic lipid phosphatidic acid (PA) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) (Choi et al. 2006). Although cardiolipin is primarily an inner mitochondrial membrane-located protein, the outer mitochondrial membrane also contains around 10-20% cardiolipin and cardiolipin has been shown to translocate in a regulatable manner between the compartments (Liu et al. 2003). Mitoguardin 1 and 2 (MIGA1 and MIGA2) are regulators of mitochondrial membrane fusion. They form homo- or hetero-dimers at the mitochondrial outer membrane where they interact with PLD6 to stabilise it and/or facilitate PLD6 dimer formation (Zhang et al. 2016). 17028579 Pubmed 2006 A common lipid links Mfn-mediated mitochondrial fusion and SNARE-regulated exocytosis Choi, Seok-Yong Huang, Ping Jenkins, Gary M Chan, David C Schiller, Juergen Frohman, Michael A Nat. Cell Biol. 8:1255-62 26711011 Pubmed 2016 Mitoguardin Regulates Mitochondrial Fusion through MitoPLD and Is Required for Neuronal Homeostasis Zhang, Yongping Liu, Xiaoman Bai, Jian Tian, Xuejun Zhao, Xiaocui Liu, Wei Duan, Xiuying Shang, Weina Fan, Heng-Yu Tong, Chao Mol. Cell 61:111-24 14573790 Pubmed 2003 Phospholipid scramblase 3 controls mitochondrial structure, function, and apoptotic response Liu, Jihua Dai, Qiang Chen, Jun Durrant, David Freeman, Angela Liu, Tong Grossman, Douglas Lee, Ray M Mol. Cancer Res. 1:892-902 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 78 9852853 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9852853 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9852850 MIGA complexes [mitochondrial outer membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity 3.1.4.4 PC is hydrolyzed to PA and choline by PLD1/2 PC is hydrolyzed to PA and choline by PLD1/2 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(1+) [ChEBI:16110] 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(1+) ChEBI 16110 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 264618 1 choline [ChEBI:15354] choline ChEBI 15354 Reactome DB_ID: 426755 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800818 PLD1/2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pld1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Pld2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q9Z280 UniProt P97813 GO 0004630 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800819 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800819 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800821 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800821 Reactome R-MMU-1483182 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483182.1 Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolyzed to phosphatidic acid (PA) and choline (Cho) by the enzymes phospholipase D1/2 (PLD1/2), at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane (Lopez et al. 1998, Hammond et al. 1995). 9582313 Pubmed 1998 Cloning and initial characterization of a human phospholipase D2 (hPLD2). ADP-ribosylation factor regulates hPLD2 Lopez, I Arnold, RS Lambeth, JD J Biol Chem 273:12846-52 8530346 Pubmed 1995 Human ADP-ribosylation factor-activated phosphatidylcholine-specific phospholipase D defines a new and highly conserved gene family Hammond, SM Altshuller, YM Sung, TC Rudge, SA Rose, K Engebrecht, J Morris, AJ Frohman, MA J Biol Chem 270:29640-3 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PA is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2[15] PA is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPA by PLA2[15] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 109276 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602448 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602447 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602366 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9801879 PLA2(15) [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801880 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801880 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801893 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801893 Reactome R-MMU-1602446 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1602446.1 At the plasma membrane, phosphatidic acid (PA) is hydrolyzed, removing one of its acyl groups, to 1-acyl lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) by secretory phospholipase A2 proteins (Singer et al. 2002, Ishizaki et al. 1999). These include: Group IB (PLA2G1B) (Grataroli et al. 1982); Group IIA (PLA2G2A) (Seilhamer et al. 1989); Group IID (PLA2G2D) (Ishizaki et al. 1999); Group IIE (PLA2G2E) (Suzuki et al. 2000); Group IIF (PLA2G2F) (Valentin et al. 2000); Calcium-dependent Group V (PLA2G5) (Chen et al. 1994); Group X (PLA2G10) (Cupillard et al. 1997, Pan et al. 2002); and Group XIIA (PLA2G12A) (Gelb et al. 2000, Murakami et al. 2003). 7060561 Pubmed 1982 Studies on prophospholipase A2 and its enzyme from human pancreatic juice. Catalytic properties and sequence of the N-terminal region Grataroli, R Dijkman, R Dutilh, CE van der Ouderaa, F De Haas, GH Figarella, C Eur J Biochem 122:111-7 2925608 Pubmed 1989 Cloning and recombinant expression of phospholipase A2 present in rheumatoid arthritic synovial fluid Seilhamer, JJ Pruzanski, W Vadas, P Plant, S Miller, JA Kloss, J Johnson, LK J Biol Chem 264:5335-8 9188469 Pubmed 1997 Cloning, chromosomal mapping, and expression of a novel human secretory phospholipase A2 Cupillard, L Koumanov, K Matteï, MG Lazdunski, M Lambeau, G J Biol Chem 272:15745-52 12161451 Pubmed 2002 Crystal structure of human group X secreted phospholipase A2. Electrostatically neutral interfacial surface targets zwitterionic membranes Pan, YH Yu, BZ Singer, AG Ghomashchi, F Lambeau, G Gelb, Michael H Jain, MK Bahnson, BJ J Biol Chem 277:29086-93 11031251 Pubmed 2000 Cloning and recombinant expression of a structurally novel human secreted phospholipase A2 Gelb, Michael H Valentin, E Ghomashchi, F Lazdunski, M Lambeau, G J Biol Chem 275:39823-6 12522102 Pubmed 2003 Cellular arachidonate-releasing function of novel classes of secretory phospholipase A2s (groups III and XII) Murakami, M Masuda, S Shimbara, S Bezzine, S Lazdunski, M Lambeau, G Gelb, Michael H Matsukura, S Kokubu, F Adachi, M Kudo, I J Biol Chem 278:10657-67 10681567 Pubmed 2000 Structures, enzymatic properties, and expression of novel human and mouse secretory phospholipase A(2)s Suzuki, N Ishizaki, J Yokota, Y Higashino, K Ono, T Ikeda, M Fujii, N Kawamoto, K Hanasaki, K J Biol Chem 275:5785-93 10455175 Pubmed 1999 Cloning and characterization of novel mouse and human secretory phospholipase A(2)s Ishizaki, J Suzuki, N Higashino, K Yokota, Y Ono, T Kawamoto, K Fujii, N Arita, H Hanasaki, K J Biol Chem 274:24973-9 8300559 Pubmed 1994 Cloning and recombinant expression of a novel human low molecular weight Ca(2+)-dependent phospholipase A2 Chen, J Engle, SJ Seilhamer, JJ Tischfield, JA J Biol Chem 269:2365-8 11112443 Pubmed 2000 Cloning and recombinant expression of human group IIF-secreted phospholipase A(2) Valentin, E Singer, AG Ghomashchi, F Lazdunski, M Gelb, Michael H Lambeau, G Biochem Biophys Res Commun 279:223-8 11830583 Pubmed 2002 Identification of a soluble form phospholipase A2 receptor as a circulating endogenous inhibitor for secretory phospholipase A2 Higashino Ki, Ken-ichi Yokota, Yasunori Ono, Takashi Kamitani, Shigeki Arita, Hitoshi Hanasaki, Kohji J. Biol. Chem. 277:13583-8 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA INHIBITION Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801877 Reactome DB_ID: 9801874 UniProt:Q62028 Pla2r1 UniProt Q62028 21 EQUAL -1 EQUAL 3.1.1 DDHD1,2 hydrolyse PA DDHD1,2 hydrolyse PA This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602448 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602447 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602366 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9834434 DDHD1,2 [cytosol] DDHD1,2 Reactome DB_ID: 9834432 1 UniProt:Q80Y98 Ddhd2 UniProt Q80Y98 1 EQUAL 711 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9834428 1 UniProt:Q80YA3 Ddhd1 UniProt Q80YA3 1 EQUAL 900 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9834434 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9834434 Reactome R-MMU-6786649 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6786649.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9834435 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9834435 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9834437 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9834437 Reactome R-MMU-6786650 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6786650.1 Glycerophospholipids are important structural and functional components of biological membranes, of serum lipoproteins and pulmonary surfactant and act as precursors of lipid mediators such as platelet-activating factor and eicosanoids. Phosphatidic acid (PA) is a common glycerophospholipid and its hydrolysis can mediate its functions described above. Phospholipases DDHD1 and 2 can mediate the hydrolysis of PA (Inoue et al. 2012, Nakajima et al. 2002). Defects in DDHD1 or DDHD2 can cause autosomal recessive spastic paraplegias 28 or 54 respectively (SPG28, MIM:609340; SPG54, MIM:615033). These are forms of neurodegenerative spastic paraplegia, characterised by slow, gradual, progressive weakness and spasticity of the lower limbs (Tesson et al. 2012, Schuurs-Hoeijmakers et al. 2012). 11788596 Pubmed 2002 A novel phospholipase A1 with sequence homology to a mammalian Sec23p-interacting protein, p125 Nakajima, Ken-ichi Sonoda, Hirofumi Mizoguchi, Toshihide Aoki, Junken Arai, Hiroyuki Nagahama, Masami Tagaya, Mitsuo Tani, Katsuko J. Biol. Chem. 277:11329-35 23176823 Pubmed 2012 Mutations in DDHD2, encoding an intracellular phospholipase A(1), cause a recessive form of complex hereditary spastic paraplegia Schuurs-Hoeijmakers, Janneke H M Geraghty, Michael T Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan Ben-Salem, Salma de Bot, Susanne T Nijhof, Bonnie van de Vondervoort, Ilse I G M van der Graaf, Marinette Nobau, Anna Castells Otte-Höller, Irene Vermeer, Sascha Smith, Amanda C Humphreys, Peter Schwartzentruber, Jeremy Am. J. Hum. Genet. 91:1073-81 23176821 Pubmed 2012 Alteration of fatty-acid-metabolizing enzymes affects mitochondrial form and function in hereditary spastic paraplegia Tesson, Christelle Nawara, Magdalena Salih, Mustafa A M Rossignol, Rodrigue Zaki, Maha S Al Balwi, Mohammed Schule, Rebecca Mignot, C Obre, Emilie Bouhouche, Ahmed Santorelli, Filippo M Durand, Christelle M Oteyza, Andrés Caballero El-Hachimi, Khalid H Al Drees, Abdulmajeed Bouslam, Naima Lamari, Foudil Elmalik, Salah A Kabiraj, Mohammad M Seidahmed, Mohammed Z Esteves, Typhaine Gaussen, Marion Monin, Marie-Lorraine Gyapay, Gabor Lechner, Doris Gonzalez, Michael Depienne, Christel Mochel, Fanny Lavie, Julie Schols, Ludger Lacombe, Didier Yahyaoui, Mohamed Al Abdulkareem, Ibrahim Zuchner, Stephan Yamashita, A Benomar, Ali Goizet, Cyril Durr, Alexandra Gleeson, Joseph G Darios, Frederic Brice, Alexis Stevanin, Giovanni Am. J. Hum. Genet. 91:1051-64 22922100 Pubmed 2012 Roles of SAM and DDHD domains in mammalian intracellular phospholipase A1 KIAA0725p Inoue, Hiroki Baba, Takashi Sato, Seiichi Ohtsuki, Ryuya Takemori, Aya Watanabe, Takuya Tagaya, Mitsuo Tani, Katsuko Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1823:930-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ACP6 hydrolyses MYS-LPA ACP6 hydrolyses MYS-LPA This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 113521 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8878649 1 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate [ChEBI:62833] 1-myristoyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate ChEBI 62833 Reactome DB_ID: 113548 1 hydrogenphosphate [ChEBI:43474] hydrogenphosphate [PO3(OH)](2-) HYDROGENPHOSPHATE ION hydrogen phosphate [P(OH)O3](2-) HPO4(2-) phosphate INORGANIC PHOSPHATE GROUP ChEBI 43474 Reactome DB_ID: 8934414 1 1-monomyristoylglycerol [ChEBI:75562] 1-monomyristoylglycerol 1-tetradecanoylglycerol monomyristin DCBSHORRWZKAKO-UHFFFAOYSA-N InChI=1S/C17H34O4/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-17(20)21-15-16(19)14-18/h16,18-19H,2-15H2,1H3 C17H34O4 CCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)OCC(O)CO 2,3-dihydroxypropyl tetradecanoate 1-myristoyl glycerol ChEBI 75562 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9849037 UniProt:Q8BP40 Acp6 UniProt Q8BP40 33 EQUAL 428 EQUAL GO 0052642 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9849038 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9849038 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9849040 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9849040 Reactome R-MMU-8878654 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8878654.1 Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a bioactive phospholipid. It consists of a single fatty acyl chain, a glycerol backbone and a free phosphate group. The acyl chain can be of varying length and degree of saturation hence many forms of LPA can exist. LPA is an important extracellular signalling molecule and an intermediate lipid in phospholipid metabolism inside the cell, playing an important role in modulating the structure and fluidity of lipid rafts. Degradation of LPA is important for termination of signalling and for the finetuning of lipid raft structure. Degradation of LPA can occur via either acylation or hydrolysis. Lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6 (ACP6) can hydrolyse LPA of varying lengths. It is a monomeric enzyme located in mitochondria where it preferentially hydrolyses myristoyl LPA (C14:0) and other LPAs such as monounsaturated oleate (C18:1) or palmitate (C16:0) (latter two not shown here) (Hiroyama & Takenawa 1999, Li et al. 2013). 23807634 Pubmed 2013 Crystal structures and biochemical studies of human lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase type 6 Li, J Dong, Yu Lü, Xingru Wang, L Peng, Wei Zhang, XC Rao, Zihe Protein Cell 4:548-61 10506173 Pubmed 1999 Isolation of a cDNA encoding human lysophosphatidic acid phosphatase that is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial lipid biosynthesis Hiroyama, M Takenawa, T J. Biol. Chem. 274:29172-80 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.3.1 ALPI dimer hydrolyses phosphate monoesters ALPI dimer hydrolyses phosphate monoesters This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 109276 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8878780 1 phosphate monoester [ChEBI:7794] phosphate monoester orthophosphoric monoesters phosphate monoesters Orthophosphoric monoester phosphate monoester (0) phosphoric acid monoester ChEBI 7794 Reactome DB_ID: 109277 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8878776 1 alcohol [ChEBI:30879] alcohol ChEBI 30879 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9849056 ALPI:2Ca2+:Mg2+ dimer [plasma membrane] ALPI:2Ca2+:Mg2+ dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9849054 2 UniProt:F8VPQ6 Alpi UniProt F8VPQ6 20 EQUAL 503 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 140648 1 Reactome DB_ID: 109265 2 zinc(2+) [ChEBI:29105] zinc(2+) ChEBI 29105 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9849056 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9849056 Reactome R-MMU-8878786 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8878786.1 GO 0004035 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9849057 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9849057 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9849059 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9849059 Reactome R-MMU-8878787 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8878787.1 Alkaline phosphatases (ALPs) are ubiquitous membrane-bound glycoproteins that catalyse the hydrolysis of phosphate monoesters in alkaline conditions (Sharma et al. 2014). To date, little is known about the physiological function of ALPs in most tissues. In humans, four isozymes exist, named from their tissue localisations. One isozyme, intestinal-type alkaline phosphatase (ALPI, IAP), possesses alkaline phosphatase activity but has no specific physiological substrate defiend for it yet. It may be involved in the hydrolysis of pro-drugs in the intestine (Lowe et al. 1990). 3458202 Pubmed 1986 Partial sequencing of human adult, human fetal, and bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatases: comparison with the human placental and liver isozymes Hua, J C Berger, J Pan, Y C Hulmes, J D Udenfriend, S Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 83:2368-72 24966474 Pubmed 2014 Alkaline phosphatase: an overview Sharma, Ujjawal Pal, Deeksha Prasad, Rajendra Indian J Clin Biochem 29:269-78 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9860294 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9860294 Reactome R-MMU-1483166 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483166.1 GO 0006654 GO biological process In the de novo synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA), lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is initially formed by the esterification of sn-1 by glycerol 3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) from glycerol 3-phosphate (G3P). Next, LPA is converted to PA by a LPA acyltransferase (AGPAT, also known as LPAAT). In addition to this, PA is also formed when phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolyzed by phospholipases D1 and D2 (PLD1 and 2). PA is involved in acyl chain remodeling via cleavage by phospholipases followed by reacylation by acyltransferases (Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Singer et al. 2002, Prasad et al. 2011, Shindou & Shimizu 2009, Cao et al. 2006). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Acyl chain remodeling of DAG and TAG Acyl chain remodeling of DAG and TAG This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3.1.1.3 TAG is hydrolyzed to DAG by PNPLA2/3 TAG is hydrolyzed to DAG by PNPLA2/3 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500594 1 triglyceride [ChEBI:17855] triglyceride ChEBI 17855 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol [ChEBI:17815] 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerol ChEBI 17815 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800506 PNPLA2/3 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pnpla2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Pnpla3 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q8BJ56 UniProt Q91WW7 GO 0004806 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800575 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800575 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800577 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800577 Reactome R-MMU-1482777 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482777.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, triacylglycerol (TAG) is hydrolyzed, removing one of its acyl groups to form diacylglycerol (DAG) by patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein 2/3 (PNPLA2/3) (He et al. 2010, Jenkins et al. 2004, Basantani et al. 2011). 20034933 Pubmed 2010 A sequence variation (I148M) in PNPLA3 associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease disrupts triglyceride hydrolysis He, S McPhaul, C Li, JZ Garuti, R Kinch, L Grishin, NV Cohen, JC Hobbs, HH J Biol Chem 285:6706-15 21068004 Pubmed 2011 Pnpla3/Adiponutrin deficiency in mice does not contribute to fatty liver disease or metabolic syndrome Basantani, MK Sitnick, MT Cai, L Brenner, DS Gardner, NP Li, JZ Schoiswohl, G Yang, K Kumari, M Gross, RW Zechner, R Kershaw, EE J Lipid Res 52:318-29 15364929 Pubmed 2004 Identification, cloning, expression, and purification of three novel human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 family members possessing triacylglycerol lipase and acylglycerol transacylase activities Jenkins, CM Mancuso, DJ Yan, W Sims, HF Gibson, B Gross, RW J Biol Chem 279:48968-75 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.20 DGAT2L6,L7P transfer acyl group from acyl-CoA to DAG, forming TAG DGAT2L6,L7P transfer acyl group from acyl-CoA to DAG, forming TAG This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500594 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9843471 UniProt:A2ADU8 Dgat2l6 UniProt A2ADU8 1 EQUAL 337 EQUAL GO 0004144 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9843472 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9843472 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9843474 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9843474 Reactome R-MMU-8848580 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8848580.1 DGAT2L6 (Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2-like protein 6, also known as DC3) catalyzes the transfer of an acyl group from acyl-CoA to DAG (diacylglycerol) to form TAG (triacylglycerol). DGAT2L6 catalyzes this reaction with low efficiency in vitro so its physiological role is uncertain. Based on its similarity to other proteins of the DGAT family it is inferred to be localized to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (Turkish et al. 2005). The putative diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2-like protein DGAT2L7P may also possess the same activity as DGAT2L6. 15671038 Pubmed 2005 Identification of two novel human acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferases: members of the diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) gene superfamily Turkish, Aaron R Henneberry, Annette L Cromley, Debra Padamsee, Mahajabeen Oelkers, P Bazzi, Hisham Christiano, Angela M Billheimer, JT Sturley, Stephen L J. Biol. Chem. 280:14755-64 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.20 DAG is acylated to TAG by DGAT1/2 DAG is acylated to TAG by DGAT1/2 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500594 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800653 DGAT1/2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Dgat2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q9DCV3 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800654 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800654 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800656 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800656 Reactome R-MMU-1482889 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482889.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, diacylglycerol (DAG) is acylated and forms triacylglycerol (TAG) by the action of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) tetramer or by diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2) (Wakimoto et al. 2003, Oelkers et al. 1998, Cases et al. 2001). 11481335 Pubmed 2001 Cloning of DGAT2, a second mammalian diacylglycerol acyltransferase, and related family members Cases, S Stone, SJ Zhou, P Yen, E Tow, B Lardizabal, KD Voelker, T Farese, RV J Biol Chem 276:38870-6 9756920 Pubmed 1998 Characterization of two human genes encoding acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-related enzymes Oelkers, P Behari, A Cromley, D Billheimer, JT Sturley, SL J Biol Chem 273:26765-71 14521909 Pubmed 2003 A novel diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT2) is decreased in human psoriatic skin and increased in diabetic mice Wakimoto, K Chiba, H Michibata, H Seishima, M Kawasaki, S Okubo, K Mitsui, H Torii, H Imai, Y Biochem Biophys Res Commun 310:296-302 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.34 DAG is hydrolyzed to 2-MAG by PNPLA2/3 DAG is hydrolyzed to 2-MAG by PNPLA2/3 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498728 1 2-monoglyceride [ChEBI:17389] 2-monoglyceride 2-Glyceride 2-Monoacylglycerol 2-Acylglycerol 2-monoglycerides ChEBI 17389 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800506 GO 0004465 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800588 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800588 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800590 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800590 Reactome R-MMU-1482811 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482811.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins 2/3 (PNPLA2/3) hydrolyze diacylglycerol (DAG), removing an acyl group to form 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) (He et al. 2010, Jenkins et al. 2004, Basantani et al. 2011). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.22 AWAT2 transfers acyl group from acyl-CoA to MAG, forming DAG AWAT2 transfers acyl group from acyl-CoA to MAG, forming DAG This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 6782195 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5696449 1 monoacylglycerol [ChEBI:17408] monoacylglycerol ChEBI 17408 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9812869 UniProt:Q6E1M8 Awat2 UniProt Q6E1M8 1 EQUAL 333 EQUAL GO 0003846 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832764 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832764 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832766 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832766 Reactome R-MMU-5696448 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5696448.1 Acyl-CoA wax alcohol acyltransferase 2 (AWAT2 aka MFAT) is an enzyme highly expressed in skin and thought to play an important role in lipid metabolism in skin. AWAT2 can transfer an acyl group from acyl-CoA to monoacylglycerol, long-chain alcohol, and retinol to form diacylglycerols, wax monoesters and retinyl esters, respectively. Human skin surface lipids are mainly composed of triacylglycerol and wax monoesters (Yen et al. 2005, Turkish et al. 2005). 16106050 Pubmed 2005 A human skin multifunctional O-acyltransferase that catalyzes the synthesis of acylglycerols, waxes, and retinyl esters Yen, Chi-Liang Eric Brown, Charles H Monetti, Mara Farese, RV J. Lipid Res. 46:2388-97 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1 2-MAG is transacylated to DAG by PNPLA2/3 2-MAG is transacylated to DAG by PNPLA2/3 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1498728 2 Reactome DB_ID: 76116 1 glycerol [ChEBI:17754] glycerol ChEBI 17754 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800506 GO 0016411 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800507 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800507 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800511 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800511 Reactome R-MMU-1482654 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482654.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, two 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) molecules are transacylated by patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins 2/3 (PNPLA2/3) to form diacylglycerol (DAG) and glycerol (Jenkins et al. 2004). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1 2-MAG and DAG are transacylated to TAG by PNPLA2/3 2-MAG and DAG are transacylated to TAG by PNPLA2/3 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498728 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500594 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76116 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800506 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800509 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800509 Reactome R-MMU-1482647 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482647.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, a 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) molecule and a diacylglycerol (DAG) molecule are transacylated by patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins 2/3 (PNPLA2/3). This forms triacylglycerol (TAG) and glycerol (Jenkins et al. 2004). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.23 2-MAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acid and glycerol by MGLL 2-MAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acid and glycerol by MGLL This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498728 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76116 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500593 1 fatty acid [ChEBI:35366] fatty acid ChEBI 35366 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800404 MGLL dimer [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] MGLL dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9800402 2 UniProt:O35678 Mgll UniProt O35678 1 EQUAL 303 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800404 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800404 Reactome R-MMU-1500601 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1500601.1 GO 0047372 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800405 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800405 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800407 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800407 Reactome R-MMU-1482543 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482543.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) hydrolyzes 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) to form a fatty acid and glycerol (Dinh et al. 2004, Zvonok et al. 2008, Bertrand et al. 2010, Labar et al. 2010). 19962385 Pubmed 2010 Structural basis for human monoglyceride lipase inhibition Bertrand, T Augé, F Houtmann, J Rak, A Vallée, F Mikol, V Berne, PF Michot, N Cheuret, D Hoornaert, C Mathieu, M J Mol Biol 396:663-73 18452279 Pubmed 2008 Full mass spectrometric characterization of human monoacylglycerol lipase generated by large-scale expression and single-step purification Zvonok, N Williams, J Johnston, M Pandarinathan, L Janero, DR Li, J Krishnan, SC Makriyannis, A J Proteome Res 7:2158-64 19957260 Pubmed 2010 Crystal structure of the human monoacylglycerol lipase, a key actor in endocannabinoid signaling Labar, G Bauvois, C Borel, F Ferrer, JL Wouters, J Lambert, DM Chembiochem 11:218-27 15272052 Pubmed 2004 RNA interference suggests a primary role for monoacylglycerol lipase in the degradation of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol Dinh, TP Kathuria, S Piomelli, D Mol Pharmacol 66:1260-4 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862206 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862206 Reactome R-MMU-1482883 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482883.1 GO 0036155 GO biological process Acyl chain remodeling of triacylglycerol (TAG) and diacylglycerol (DAG) progresses through their hydrolysis by patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing proteins 2/3 (PNPLA2/3). DAG is reacylated back to TAG by acylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1/2 (DGAT1/2), while DAG and its hydrolysis product 2-monoacylglycerol (2-MAG) are transacylated back to TAG by PNPLA2/3. In addition, the DAG hydrolysis product 2-MAG is subsequently hydrolyzed to fatty acid and glycerol by monoglyceride lipase (MGLL) (Jenkins et al. 2004). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Synthesis of PE Synthesis of PE This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 2.7.1.82 ETA is phosphorylated to PETA by CHK/ETNK ETA is phosphorylated to PETA by CHK/ETNK This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 113592 1 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) Adenosine 5'-triphosphate atp ATP ChEBI 30616 Reactome DB_ID: 1498751 1 ethanolamine [ChEBI:16000] ethanolamine ChEBI 16000 Reactome DB_ID: 29370 1 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP trianion 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP ChEBI 456216 Reactome DB_ID: 428686 1 O-phosphoethanolamine [ChEBI:17553] O-phosphoethanolamine ChEBI 17553 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800868 CHK/ETNK [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Etnk2 [cytosol] Etnk1 [cytosol] UniProt A7MCT6 UniProt Q9D4V0 GO 0004305 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800869 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800869 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800871 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800871 Reactome R-MMU-1483222 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483222.1 In the cytosol, ethanolamine (ETA) is phosphorylated to phosphoethanolamine (PETA) by choline kinase (CHK) dimer or by ethanolamine kinase 1/2 (ETNK1/2) (Lykidis et al. 2001, Gallego-Ortega et al. 2009). CHK dimer consists of either choline kinase alpha subunit (CHKA) or beta subunit (CHKB) homodimer, or of CHKA:CHKB heterodimer. 19915674 Pubmed 2009 Differential role of human choline kinase alpha and beta enzymes in lipid metabolism: implications in cancer onset and treatment Gallego-Ortega, D Ramirez de Molina, A Ramos, MA Valdes-Mora, F Barderas, MG Sarmentero-Estrada, J Lacal, JC PLoS One 4:e7819 11044454 Pubmed 2001 Overexpression of a mammalian ethanolamine-specific kinase accelerates the CDP-ethanolamine pathway Lykidis, A Wang, J Karim, MA Jackowski, S J Biol Chem 276:2174-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.3.75 PETA is dephosphorylated to ETA by PHOSPHO1 PETA is dephosphorylated to ETA by PHOSPHO1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 428686 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498751 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800785 PHOSPHO1:Mg2+ [cytosol] PHOSPHO1:Mg2+ Reactome DB_ID: 9800783 1 UniProt:Q8R2H9 Phospho1 UniProt Q8R2H9 1 EQUAL 267 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 29926 1 magnesium(2+) [ChEBI:18420] magnesium(2+) ChEBI 18420 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800785 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800785 Reactome R-MMU-1500633 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1500633.1 GO 0052732 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800786 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800786 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800788 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800788 Reactome R-MMU-1483096 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483096.1 In the cytosol, phosphoethanolamine (PETA) is dephosphorylated to ethanolamine (ETA) by phosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatase (PHOSPHO1) (Roberts et al. 2004). 15175005 Pubmed 2004 Human PHOSPHO1 exhibits high specific phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine phosphatase activities Roberts, SJ Stewart, AJ Sadler, PJ Farquharson, C Biochem J 382:59-65 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 4.2.3.2 PXLP-K278-ETNPPL tetramer hydrolyses PETA PXLP-K278-ETNPPL tetramer hydrolyses PETA This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 113521 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5696414 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5693978 1 ammonia [ChEBI:16134] ammonia ChEBI 16134 Reactome DB_ID: 113548 1 Reactome DB_ID: 113532 1 acetaldehyde [ChEBI:15343] acetaldehyde ChEBI 15343 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9832753 PXLP-K278-ETNPPL tetramer [mitochondrial matrix] PXLP-K278-ETNPPL tetramer Reactome DB_ID: 9832751 4 UniProt:Q8BWU8 Etnppl UniProt Q8BWU8 N6-pyridoxal phosphate-L-lysine at 278 (in Homo sapiens) 278 EQUAL N6-pyridoxal phosphate-L-lysine [MOD:00128] 1 EQUAL 499 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832753 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832753 Reactome R-MMU-5696413 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5696413.1 GO 0050459 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832754 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832754 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832756 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832756 Reactome R-MMU-5696415 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5696415.1 In mitochondria, ethanolamine-phosphate phospho-lyase and 5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine phospho-lyase (ETNPPL and PHYKPL respectively) are two closely related pyridoxal-phosphate-dependent, homotetrameric ammoniophospholyases that hydrolyse phosphoethanolamine (PETA) and 5-phosphohydroxylysine (5PHL) respectively (Veiga-da-Cunha et al. 2012). PETA is a component and a precursor of phospholipids whereas 5PHL is a breakdown product of collagen. ETNPPL utilises one pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PXLP) as cofactor per subunit. 22241472 Pubmed 2012 Molecular identification of hydroxylysine kinase and of ammoniophospholyases acting on 5-phosphohydroxy-L-lysine and phosphoethanolamine Veiga-da-Cunha, M Hadi, Farah Balligand, Thomas Stroobant, Vincent Van Schaftingen, Emile J. Biol. Chem. 287:7246-55 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.7.14 PETA and CTP are condensed to CDP-ETA by PCY2 PETA and CTP are condensed to CDP-ETA by PCY2 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 110614 1 CTP(4-) [ChEBI:37563] CTP(4-) cytidine 5'-triphosphate(4-) ctp CTP ChEBI 37563 Reactome DB_ID: 428686 1 Reactome DB_ID: 111294 1 diphosphate(3-) [ChEBI:33019] diphosphate(3-) ChEBI 33019 Reactome DB_ID: 1500603 1 CDP-ethanolamine [ChEBI:16732] CDP-ethanolamine ChEBI 16732 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800834 PCYT2 dimer [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] PCYT2 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9800832 2 UniProt:Q922E4 Pcyt2 UniProt Q922E4 1 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800834 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800834 Reactome R-MMU-1500642 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1500642.1 GO 0004306 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800835 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800835 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800837 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800837 Reactome R-MMU-1483190 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483190.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, active membrane-bound ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (PCY2) dimer condenses phosphoethanolamine (PETA) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP) to produce CDP-ethanolamine (CDP-ETA) (Zhu et al. 2008, Nakashima et al. 1997). 9083101 Pubmed 1997 Cloning of a human cDNA for CTP-phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase by complementation in vivo of a yeast mutant Nakashima, A Hosaka, K Nikawa, J J Biol Chem 272:9567-72 18583706 Pubmed 2008 Stimulation of the human CTP:phosphoethanolamine cytidylyltransferase gene by early growth response protein 1 Zhu, Lijun Johnson, C Bakovic, M J Lipid Res 49:2197-211 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.3.4 PA is dephosphorylated to DAG by LPIN PA is dephosphorylated to DAG by LPIN This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426755 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800845 LPIN [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity GO 0008195 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800846 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800846 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800848 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800848 Reactome R-MMU-1483203 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483203.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidate phosphatase 1-3 (LPIN) dephosphorylates phosphatidic acid (PA) to form diacylglycerol (DAG) (Grimsey et al. 2008, Donkor et al. 2007). 17158099 Pubmed 2007 Three mammalian lipins act as phosphatidate phosphatases with distinct tissue expression patterns Donkor, J Sariahmetoglu, M Dewald, J Brindley, DN Reue, K J Biol Chem 282:3450-7 18694939 Pubmed 2008 Temporal and spatial regulation of the phosphatidate phosphatases lipin 1 and 2 Grimsey, N Han, GS O'Hara, L Rochford, JJ Carman, GM Siniossoglou, S J Biol Chem 283:29166-74 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.8.1 CDP-ETA and DAG are converted to PE by CEPT1/EPT1 CDP-ETA and DAG are converted to PE by CEPT1/EPT1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500603 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 phosphatidylethanolamine [ChEBI:16038] phosphatidylethanolamine Cephalin phosphatidylethanolamines (3-Phosphatidyl)ethanolamine 1-Acyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (3-Phosphatidyl)-ethanolamine O-(1-beta-Acyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho)ethanolamine ChEBI 16038 Reactome DB_ID: 109395 1 cytidine 5'-monophosphate(2-) [ChEBI:60377] cytidine 5'-monophosphate(2-) Cytidine-5-monophosphate dianion CMP 5'-O-phosphonatocytidine CMP dianion CMP(2-) ChEBI 60377 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800697 CEPT1/EPT1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity GO 0004307 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800698 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800698 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800700 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800700 Reactome R-MMU-1482962 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482962.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1) or ethanolaminephosphotransferase 1 (EPT1) converts CDP- ethanolamine (CDP-ETA) and diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP) (Horibata et al. 2007, Wright et al. 2002, Henneberry et al. 1999, Henneberry et al. 2002, Henneberry et al. 2000). 10893425 Pubmed 2000 Cloning, genomic organization, and characterization of a human cholinephosphotransferase Henneberry, AL Wistow, G McMaster, CR J Biol Chem 275:29808-15 10191259 Pubmed 1999 Cloning and expression of a human choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase: synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine Henneberry, AL McMaster, CR Biochem J 339:291-8 12216837 Pubmed 2002 PC and PE synthesis: mixed micellar analysis of the cholinephosphotransferase and ethanolaminephosphotransferase activities of human choline/ethanolamine phosphotransferase 1 (CEPT1) Wright, MM McMaster, CR Lipids 37:663-72 12221122 Pubmed 2002 The major sites of cellular phospholipid synthesis and molecular determinants of Fatty Acid and lipid head group specificity Henneberry, AL Wright, MM McMaster, CR Mol Biol Cell 13:3148-61 17132865 Pubmed 2007 Identification and characterization of human ethanolaminephosphotransferase1 Horibata, Y Hirabayashi, Y J Lipid Res 48:503-8 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862220 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862220 Reactome R-MMU-1483213 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483213.1 GO 0006646 GO biological process <i>De novo</i> (Kennedy pathway) synthesis of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) involves phosphorylation of ethanolamine (ETA) to phosphoethanolamine (PETA) followed by condensing with cytidine triphosphate (CTP) to form CDP-ethanolamine (CDP-ETA). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and CDP-ETA together then form PE. Alternatively, PE is formed when phosphatidylserine (PS) is decarboxylated by phosphatidylserine decarboxylase proenzyme (PISD) (Henneberry et al. 2002, Vance 1991, Vance 1990). 1898727 Pubmed 1991 Newly made phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylethanolamine are preferentially translocated between rat liver mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum Vance, Jean E J Biol Chem 266:89-97 2332429 Pubmed 1990 Phospholipid synthesis in a membrane fraction associated with mitochondria Vance, Jean E J Biol Chem 265:7248-56 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Acyl chain remodelling of PE Acyl chain remodelling of PE This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3.1.1.4 PE is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPE by PLA2[2] PE is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPE by PLA2[2] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498738 1 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [ChEBI:29017] 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ChEBI 29017 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800643 PLA2(2) [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pla2g4d [cytosol] Plaat3 [cytosol] Plbd1 [cytosol] Pla2g4e [cytosol] Pla2g6 [cytosol] Pla2g4b [cytosol] Pla2g4f [cytosol] UniProt Q8R3U1 UniProt Q8VCI0 UniProt Q50L42 UniProt P97819 UniProt Q50L41 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800644 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800644 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800646 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800646 Reactome R-MMU-1482884 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482884.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by phospholipase A2 to form 1-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE). The phospholipases are either cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha/beta/delta/epsilon/zeta (PLA2G(4A/B/D/E/F) (Ghosh et al. 2006, Yamashita et al. 2009, Yamashita et al. 1999, Ghomashchi et al. 2010), 85 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G6) (Larsson et al. 1998, Ma et al. 1999, Larsson Forsell et al. 1999), group XVI phospholipase A2 (PLA2G16) (Duncan et al. 2008), or Phospholipase B-like 1 (PLBD1) (Xu et al. 2009). PLBD1 acts as a phospholipase A2 but in addition has the propensity to hydrolyze the lysophospholipid formed in its initial reaction. 19501189 Pubmed 2009 Subcellular localization and lysophospholipase/transacylation activities of human group IVC phospholipase A2 (cPLA2gamma) Yamashita, A Tanaka, K Kamata, R Kumazawa, T Suzuki, N Koga, H Waku, K Sugiura, T Biochim Biophys Acta 1791:1011-22 16617059 Pubmed 2006 Identification of the expressed form of human cytosolic phospholipase A2beta (cPLA2beta): cPLA2beta3 is a novel variant localized to mitochondria and early endosomes Ghosh, M Loper, R Gelb, Michael H Leslie, CC J Biol Chem 281:16615-24 19019078 Pubmed 2009 The identification of a phospholipase B precursor in human neutrophils Xu, S Zhao, L Larsson, A Venge, P FEBS J 276:175-86 9417066 Pubmed 1998 Multiple splice variants of the human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 and their effect on enzyme activity Larsson, PK Claesson, HE Kennedy, BP J Biol Chem 273:207-14 10336645 Pubmed 1999 The human calcium-independent phospholipase A2 gene multiple enzymes with distinct properties from a single gene Larsson Forsell, PK Kennedy, BP Claesson, HE Eur J Biochem 262:575-85 10092647 Pubmed 1999 Human pancreatic islets express mRNA species encoding two distinct catalytically active isoforms of group VI phospholipase A2 (iPLA2) that arise from an exon-skipping mechanism of alternative splicing of the transcript from the iPLA2 gene on chromosome 22q13.1 Ma, Z Wang, X Nowatzke, W Ramanadham, S Turk, J J Biol Chem 274:9607-16 18614531 Pubmed 2008 Identification and functional characterization of adipose-specific phospholipase A2 (AdPLA) Duncan, RE Sarkadi-Nagy, E Jaworski, K Ahmadian, M Sul, HS J Biol Chem 283:25428-36 15944408 Pubmed 2005 Roles of C-terminal processing, and involvement in transacylation reaction of human group IVC phospholipase A2 (cPLA2gamma) Yamashita, A Kamata, R Kawagishi, N Nakanishi, H Suzuki, H Sugiura, T Waku, K J Biochem 137:557-67 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PE is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPE by PLA2[3] PE is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPE by PLA2[3] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498738 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800648 PLA2(3) [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pnpla8 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q8K1N1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800649 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800649 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800651 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800651 Reactome R-MMU-1482887 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482887.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by membrane-associated phospholipase A2 gamma 2A, (PLA2G2A) or by calcium-independent phospholipase A2-gamma (PNPLA8), to form 1-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) (Murakami et al. 2005, Kramer et al. 1989, Singer et al. 2002). 2925633 Pubmed 1989 Structure and properties of a human non-pancreatic phospholipase A2 Kramer, RM Hession, C Johansen, B Hayes, G McGray, P Chow, EP Tizard, R Pepinsky, RB J Biol Chem 264:5768-75 15695510 Pubmed 2005 Group VIB Ca2+-independent phospholipase A2gamma promotes cellular membrane hydrolysis and prostaglandin production in a manner distinct from other intracellular phospholipases A2 Murakami, M Masuda, S Ueda-Semmyo, K Yoda, E Kuwata, H Takanezawa, Y Aoki, J Arai, H Sumimoto, H Ishikawa, Y Ishii, T Nakatani, Y Kudo, I J Biol Chem 280:14028-41 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.51 1-acyl LPE is acylated to PE by LPEAT 1-acyl LPE is acylated to PE by LPEAT This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1498738 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800493 LPEAT [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Mboat1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Mboat2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lpcat4 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lpcat3 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q8BH98 UniProt Q8R3I2 UniProt Q91V01 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800514 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800514 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800516 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800516 Reactome R-MMU-1482667 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482667.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, lysophospholipid acyltransferases acylate 1-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) to form phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The lysophospholipid acyltransferases involved are: lysophospholipid acyltransferase 1 (MBOAT1) aka LPEAT1 (Gijon et al. 2008, Hishikawa et al. 2008); lysophospholipid acyltransferase LPCAT4 (LPCAT4) aka LPEAT2 (Cao et al. 2008, Ye et al., 2005); lysophospholipid acyltransferase 2 (MBOAT2) aka LPCAT4 (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008); lysophospholipid acyltransferase 5 (LPCAT3) (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008, Jain et al. 2009, Kazachkov et al. 2008). 19351971 Pubmed 2009 Characterization of human lysophospholipid acyltransferase 3 Jain, S Zhang, X Khandelwal, PJ Saunders, AJ Cummings, BS Oelkers, P J Lipid Res 50:1563-70 18781350 Pubmed 2008 Substrate preferences of a lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase highlight its role in phospholipid remodeling Kazachkov, M Chen, Q Wang, L Zou, J Lipids 43:895-902 18287005 Pubmed 2008 Discovery of a lysophospholipid acyltransferase family essential for membrane asymmetry and diversity Hishikawa, D Shindou, H Kobayashi, S Nakanishi, H Taguchi, R Shimizu, T Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:2830-5 18195019 Pubmed 2008 Identification and characterization of a major liver lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase Zhao, Y Chen, YQ Bonacci, TM Bredt, DS Li, S Bensch, WR Moller, DE Kowala, M Konrad, RJ Cao, G J Biol Chem 283:8258-65 18772128 Pubmed 2008 Lysophospholipid acyltransferases and arachidonate recycling in human neutrophils Gijon, MA Riekhof, WR Zarini, S Murphy, RC Voelker, DR J Biol Chem 283:30235-45 18458083 Pubmed 2008 Molecular identification of a novel mammalian brain isoform of acyl-CoA:lysophospholipid acyltransferase with prominent ethanolamine lysophospholipid acylating activity, LPEAT2 Cao, J Shan, D Revett, T Li, D Wu, L Liu, Wei Tobin, JF Gimeno, RE J Biol Chem 283:19049-57 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.32 PE is hydrolyzed to 2-acyl LPE by PLA2[4] PE is hydrolyzed to 2-acyl LPE by PLA2[4] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498729 1 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [ChEBI:28936] 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ChEBI 28936 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800609 PLA2(4) [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pla2g4d [cytosol] Pla2g4e [cytosol] Pla2g4f [cytosol] GO 0008970 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800610 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800610 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800612 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800612 Reactome R-MMU-1482828 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482828.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off by cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha/delta/epsilon/zeta (PLA2G4A/D/E/F) (Ghomashchi et al. 2010). This produces 2-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE). Cytosolic phospholipase A2 enzymes show not only PLA2 hydrolyzing activity to form the 1-acyl lysophospholipid but also have a degree of PLA1 activity, producing a 2-acyl lysophospholipid. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.32 PE is hydrolyzed to 2-acyl LPE by PLA2G4C PE is hydrolyzed to 2-acyl LPE by PLA2G4C This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498729 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800411 UniProt:Q64GA5 Pla2g4c UniProt Q64GA5 1 EQUAL 538 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800605 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800605 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800658 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800658 Reactome R-MMU-1482892 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482892.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off by membrane-associated phospholipase A2 gamma 2A, PLA2G2A, to form 2-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Yamashita et al. 2009). Cytosolic phospholipase A2 enzymes show not only PLA2 hydrolyzing activity to form the 1-acyl lysophospholipid but also have a degree of PLA1 activity, producing a 2-acyl lysophospholipid. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.52 2-acyl LPE is acylated to PE by LPEAT 2-acyl LPE is acylated to PE by LPEAT This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1498729 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800493 GO 0047144 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800494 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800494 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800496 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800496 Reactome R-MMU-1482646 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482646.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, lysophospholipid acyltransferases acylate 2-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) to form phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). The lysophospholipid acyltransferases involved are: lysophospholipid acyltransferase 1 (MBOAT1) aka LPEAT1 (Gijon et al. 2008, Hishikawa et al. 2008); lysophospholipid acyltransferase LPCAT4 (LPCAT4) aka LPEAT2 (Cao et al. 2008, Ye et al. 2005); lysophospholipid acyltransferase 2 (MBOAT2) aka LPCAT4 (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008); lysophospholipid acyltransferase 5 (LPCAT3) (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008, Jain et al. 2009, Kazachkov et al. 2008). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PE is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPE by PLA2[16] PE is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPE by PLA2[16] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1602375 1 Reactome DB_ID: 109276 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602366 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602372 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9801869 PLA2(16) [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801870 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801870 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801886 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801886 Reactome R-MMU-1602398 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1602398.1 At the plasma membrane, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is hydrolyzed, removing one of its acyl groups, to 1-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) by secretory phospholipase A2 proteins (Singer et al. 2002, Ishizaki et al. 1999). These include: Group IB (PLA2G1B) (Grataroli et al. 1982); Group IIA (PLA2G2A) (Seilhamer et al. 1989); Group IID (PLA2G2D) (Ishizaki et al. 1999); Group IIE (PLA2G2E) (Suzuki et al. 2000); Group IIF (PLA2G2F) (Valentin et al. 2000); Group III (PLA2G3) (Murakami et al. 2003, Murakami et al. 2005); Calcium-dependent Group V (PLA2G5) (Chen et al. 1994); Group X (PLA2G10) (Cupillard et al. 1997, Pan et al. 2002); and Group XIIA (PLA2G12A) (Gelb et al. 2000, Murakami et al. 2003). 15863501 Pubmed 2005 Cellular distribution, post-translational modification, and tumorigenic potential of human group III secreted phospholipase A(2) Murakami, M Masuda, S Shimbara, S Ishikawa, Y Ishii, T Kudo, I J Biol Chem 280:24987-98 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA INHIBITION Reactome DB_ID: 9801874 21 EQUAL -1 EQUAL 2.3 HRASLS transfer acyl group from PC to PE to form NAPE HRASLS transfer acyl group from PC to PE to form NAPE This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 6814253 1 1-O-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine [ChEBI:58168] 1-O-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine a 1-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ChEBI 58168 Reactome DB_ID: 5694568 1 N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine [ChEBI:61232] N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine NAPE ChEBI 61232 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9845544 HRASLS [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Plaat3 [cytosol] GO 0016746 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9845545 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9845545 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9845547 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9845547 Reactome R-MMU-8858298 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8858298.1 The H-RAS-like suppressor (HRASLS) subfamily consists of five enzymes (1–5) in humans that share sequence homology with lecithin:retinol acyltransferase (LRAT). All HRASLS members possess in vitro phospholipid metabolizing abilities including phospholipase A1/2 (PLA1/2) activities and O-acyltransferase activities for the remodeling of glycerophospholipid acyl chains (Golczak et al. 2012), as well as N-acyltransferase activities for the production of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (Mardian et al. 2015). Acyl chain remodelling can play a key role in regulating triglyceride accumulation and energy expenditure in adipocytes, making this process a potential target for treatment of metabolic disorders causing obesity. The example here describes the N-acyltransferase activity of HRASLSs for the production of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamines (NAPEs) (Uyama et al. 2012). 22825852 Pubmed 2012 Generation of N-acylphosphatidylethanolamine by members of the phospholipase A/acyltransferase (PLA/AT) family Uyama, Toru Ikematsu, Natsuki Inoue, Manami Shinohara, Naoki Jin, Xing-Hua Tsuboi, Kazuhito Tonai, Takeharu Tokumura, Akira Ueda, Natsuo J. Biol. Chem. 287:31905-19 22605381 Pubmed 2012 Structural basis for the acyltransferase activity of lecithin:retinol acyltransferase-like proteins Golczak, Marcin Kiser, Philip D Sears, Avery E Lodowski, David T Blaner, William S Palczewski, Krzysztof J. Biol. Chem. 287:23790-807 26503625 Pubmed 2015 The HRASLS (PLA/AT) subfamily of enzymes Mardian, Emily B Bradley, Ryan M Duncan, Robin E J. Biomed. Sci. 22:99 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3 ABHD4 hydrolyses NAPE ABHD4 hydrolyses NAPE This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5694568 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5694580 1 N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine [ChEBI:52571] N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamine N-arachidonoylphosphatidylethanolamines ChEBI 52571 Reactome DB_ID: 5694567 1 acyl group [ChEBI:22221] acyl group acyl groups alkanoyl group groupe acyle ChEBI 22221 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9832507 UniProt:Q8VD66 Abhd4 UniProt Q8VD66 1 EQUAL 342 EQUAL GO 0016787 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832508 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832508 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832510 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832510 Reactome R-MMU-5694583 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5694583.1 Abhydrolase domain-containing protein 4 (ABHD4) is a regulator of endocannabinoid signalling and suppressor of tumor growth. Its physiological substrates are both N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) and a wide range of lysoNAPEs. Shown here, ANHD4 mediates the hydrolysis of NAPE to glycerophospho-arachidonyl ethanolamine (GPAEA), an endocannabanoid (Simon & Cravatt 2006). 16818490 Pubmed 2006 Endocannabinoid biosynthesis proceeding through glycerophospho-N-acyl ethanolamine and a role for alpha/beta-hydrolase 4 in this pathway Simon, Gabriel M Cravatt, BF J. Biol. Chem. 281:26465-72 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862216 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862216 Reactome R-MMU-1482839 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482839.1 GO 0036152 GO biological process In the acyl chain remodelling pathway (Lands cycle), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is hydrolyzed by phopholipases and subsequently reacylated by acyltransferases. These cycles modify the fatty acid composition of glycerophospholipids to generate diverse molecules asymmetrically distributed in the cell membrane (Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Singer et al. 2002, Cao et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2008, Hishikawa et al. 2008). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Hydrolysis of LPE Hydrolysis of LPE This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3.1.1.5 1-acyl LPE is hydrolyzed to GPETA by PLA2G4C 1-acyl LPE is hydrolyzed to GPETA by PLA2G4C This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1498738 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524023 1 sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine [ChEBI:16929] sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine ChEBI 16929 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800411 1 EQUAL 538 EQUAL GO 0004622 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800412 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800412 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800431 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800431 Reactome R-MMU-1482571 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482571.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, membrane-bound cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (PLA2G4C) hydrolyzes 1-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) to produce glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPETA) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Yamashita et al. 2009). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.5 2-acyl LPE is hydrolyzed to GPETA by PLA2G4C 2-acyl LPE is hydrolyzed to GPETA by PLA2G4C This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498729 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524023 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800411 1 EQUAL 538 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800414 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800414 Reactome R-MMU-1482545 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482545.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, membrane-bound cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (PLA2G4C) hydrolyzes 2-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) to produce glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPETA) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Yamashita et al. 2009). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862208 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862208 Reactome R-MMU-1483152 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483152.1 GO 0006644 GO biological process Lysophosphatidylethanolamine (LPE) is hydrolyzed by phospholipases to produce glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPETA) which is in turn hydrolyzed by glycerophosphocholine phosphodiesterase to produce ethanolamine (ETA) and glycerol-3-phosphate (G3P) (Yamashita et al. 2009, Yamashita et al. 2005). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Synthesis of PC Synthesis of PC This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 2.1.1.17 PE is methylated to PC by PEMT PE is methylated to PC by PEMT This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 71284 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine [ChEBI:15414] S-adenosyl-L-methionine ChEBI 15414 Reactome DB_ID: 1500581 1 Reactome DB_ID: 71285 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine [ChEBI:16680] S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine ChEBI 16680 Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800811 UniProt:Q61907 Pemt UniProt Q61907 2 EQUAL 199 EQUAL GO 0004608 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800812 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800812 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800814 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800814 Reactome R-MMU-1483174 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483174.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) methylates phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and produces phosphatidylcholine (PC) (Vance & Ridgway 1998, Shields et al. 2001, Guan et al. 1999). 11420179 Pubmed 2001 Structure, expression profile and alternative processing of the human phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) gene Shields, DJ Agellon, LB Vance, Dennis E Biochim Biophys Acta 1532:105-14 3057511 Pubmed 1988 The methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine Vance, Dennis E Ridgway, ND Prog Lipid Res 27:61-79 10100195 Pubmed 1999 Activity of phosphatidylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase in brain affected by Alzheimer's disease Guan, ZZ Wang, YN Xiao, KQ Hu, PS Liu, JL Neurochem Int 34:41-7 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA PCTP binds PC PCTP binds PC This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524163 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9830861 1 UniProt:P53808 Pctp UniProt P53808 1 EQUAL 214 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9848028 1 PCTP:PC [cytosol] PCTP:PC Reactome DB_ID: 1524163 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9830861 1 1 EQUAL 214 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848028 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848028 Reactome R-MMU-8873866 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873866.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848030 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848030 Reactome R-MMU-8873794 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873794.1 Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP aka STARD2) is a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)-related lipid transfer (START) domain superfamily, a functionally diverse group of proteins that share a unique structural motif for binding lipids (the START domain). PCTP is widely expressed with highest expression levels in oxidative tissues, including liver, heart, muscle, kidney and brown fat but very little expression in white adipose tissue. PCTP exclusively binds phosphatidylcholine (PC) in the cytosol of cells and may mediate PC exchange at cellular membranes (Roderick et al. 2002). Recent mouse studies reveals a key regulatory role for PCTP in lipid and glucose metabolism. PCTP appears to limit access of fatty acids to mitochondria by binding to (Ersoy et al. 2013) and stimulating the activity of acyl-coenzyme A thioesterase 13 (ACOT13, aka Acyl-CoA thioesterase 13, THEM2), an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of acyl-CoAs to their free fatty acids (Kawano et al. 2014). Ultimately, insulin signaling is downregulated (Kang et al. 2010). 23901139 Pubmed 2013 Phosphatidylcholine transfer protein interacts with thioesterase superfamily member 2 to attenuate insulin signaling Ersoy, Baran A Tarun, Akansha D'Aquino, Katharine Hancer, Nancy J Ukomadu, Chinweike White, Morris F Michel, Thomas Manning, Brendan D Cohen, David E Sci Signal 6:ra64 12055623 Pubmed 2002 Structure of human phosphatidylcholine transfer protein in complex with its ligand Roderick, Steven L Chan, Wayne W Agate, Diana S Olsen, Laurence R Vetting, Matt W Rajashankar, K R Cohen, David E Nat. Struct. Biol. 9:507-11 20338778 Pubmed 2010 PC-TP/StARD2: Of membranes and metabolism Kang, Hye Won Wei, Jie Cohen, David E Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 21:449-56 24732803 Pubmed 2014 Thioesterase superfamily member 2 (Them2) and phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PC-TP) interact to promote fatty acid oxidation and control glucose utilization Kawano, Yuki Ersoy, Baran A Li, Yingxia Nishiumi, Shin Yoshida, Masaru Cohen, David E Mol. Cell. Biol. 34:2396-408 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA STARD7 binds PC STARD7 binds PC This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9848716 1 UniProt:Q8R1R3 Stard7 UniProt Q8R1R3 59 EQUAL 370 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9848718 1 STARD7:PC [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] STARD7:PC Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9848716 1 59 EQUAL 370 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848718 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848718 Reactome R-MMU-8873897 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873897.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848720 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848720 Reactome R-MMU-8877153 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8877153.1 The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved and widely expressed proteins that have been implicated in lipid transport, metabolism, and signaling. Human StAR-related lipid transfer protein 7 (STARD7, aka GTT1) is a member of the StarD2/phosphatidylcholine transfer protein (PCTP) subfamily that can bind phospholipids and sphingolipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC). STARD7 is located on the outer mitochondrial membrane and binds ER-membrane PC (Flores-Martin et al. 2013). 23507753 Pubmed 2013 The Lipid Transfer Protein StarD7: Structure, Function, and Regulation Flores-Martin, Jésica Rena, Viviana Angeletti, Sofía Panzetta-Dutari, Graciela M Genti-Raimondi, Susana Int J Mol Sci 14:6170-86 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA STARD10 binds LPCAT1 and PC STARD10 binds LPCAT1 and PC This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9848034 1 UniProt:Q9JMD3 Stard10 UniProt Q9JMD3 1 EQUAL 291 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9756942 1 UniProt:Q3TFD2 Lpcat1 1 EQUAL 534 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9848036 1 STARD10:LPCAT1:PC [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] STARD10:LPCAT1:PC Reactome DB_ID: 9848034 1 1 EQUAL 291 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9756942 1 1 EQUAL 534 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848036 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848036 Reactome R-MMU-8873921 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873921.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848050 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848050 Reactome R-MMU-8873923 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873923.1 The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved and widely expressed proteins that have been implicated in lipid transport, metabolism, and signaling. Human PCTP-like protein (STARD10) (Olayioye et al. 2005) is thought to be a dual specificity lipid transfer protein capable of shuttling phosphatidylcholine (PC) (and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), not shown here) between intracellular membranes, especially to lamellar body membranes. Saturated PC is a major component of pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of proteins and phospholipids that plays an important role in facilitating gas exchange by maintaining alveolar stability. After synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum, saturated PC is transported to lamellar bodies (LBs) for storage prior to secretion. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) mediated reacylation is a final step in saturated PC synthesis prior to transport and LPCAT1 is proposed to form a complex with STARD10 at the ER membrane to facilitate the synthesis then transport of saturated PC to LBs (Lin et al. 2015). 26048993 Pubmed 2015 Lysophosphatidylcholine Acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) Specifically Interacts with Phospholipid Transfer Protein StarD10 to Facilitate Surfactant Phospholipid Trafficking in Alveolar Type II Cells Lin, Sui Ikegami, Machiko Moon, Changsuk Naren, Anjaparavanda P Shannon, John M J. Biol. Chem. 290:18559-74 17561512 Pubmed 2007 Phosphorylation of StarD10 on serine 284 by casein kinase II modulates its lipid transfer activity Olayioye, Monilola A Buchholz, Michael Schmid, S Schoffler, P Hoffmann, Peter Pomorski, Thomas J. Biol. Chem. 282:22492-8 15911624 Pubmed 2005 StarD10, a START domain protein overexpressed in breast cancer, functions as a phospholipid transfer protein Olayioye, Monilola A Vehring, Stefanie Müller, Peter Herrmann, Andreas Schiller, Jürgen Thiele, Christoph Lindeman, Geoffrey J Visvader, Jane E Pomorski, Thomas J. Biol. Chem. 280:27436-42 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA STARD10 transports PC from ER membrane to lamellar body membrane STARD10 transports PC from ER membrane to lamellar body membrane This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9848036 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9848038 1 lamellar body membrane GO 0097232 STARD10:PC [lamellar body membrane] STARD10:PC Reactome DB_ID: 9848034 1 1 EQUAL 291 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 8873832 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848038 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848038 Reactome R-MMU-8873863 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873863.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9756942 1 1 EQUAL 534 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848040 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848040 Reactome R-MMU-8873834 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873834.1 The steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins constitute a family of evolutionarily conserved and widely expressed proteins that have been implicated in lipid transport, metabolism, and signaling. Human PCTP-like protein (STARD10) (Olayioye et al. 2005) is thought to be a dual specificity lipid transfer protein capable of shuttling phosphatidylcholine (PC) (and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), not shown here) between intracellular membranes, especially to lamellar body membranes. Saturated PC is a major component of pulmonary surfactant, a mixture of proteins and phospholipids that plays an important role in facilitating gas exchange by maintaining alveolar stability. After synthesis in the endoplasmic reticulum, saturated PC is transported to lamellar bodies (LBs) for storage prior to secretion. Lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) mediated reacylation is a final step in saturated PC synthesis prior to transport and LPCAT1 is proposed to form a complex with STARD10 at the ER membrane to facilitate the synthesis then transport of saturated PC to LBs (Lin et al. 2015). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.11 Casein kinase II phosphorylates STARD10 Casein kinase II phosphorylates STARD10 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9848034 1 1 EQUAL 291 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 113592 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29370 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9848053 1 O-phospho-L-serine at 284 (in Homo sapiens) 284 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine [MOD:00046] 1 EQUAL 291 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9770944 Casein kinase II [cytosol] Casein kinase II Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9770942 2 CSNK2(A1:A1/A1:A2/A2:A2) [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Reactome DB_ID: 9770928 2 UniProt:P67871 Csnk2b Csnk2b Csnk2b Ck2n FUNCTION Regulatory subunit of casein kinase II/CK2. As part of the kinase complex regulates the basal catalytic activity of the alpha subunit a constitutively active serine/threonine-protein kinase that phosphorylates a large number of substrates containing acidic residues C-terminal to the phosphorylated serine or threonine (PubMed:16818610). Participates in Wnt signaling (PubMed:10806215).SUBUNIT Casein kinase II/CK2 is a tetramer composed of an alpha subunit, an alpha' subunit and two beta subunits. The beta subunit dimerization is mediated by zinc ions. Interacts with CD163. Also component of a CK2-SPT16-SSRP1 complex composed of SSRP1, SUPT16H, CSNK2A1, CSNK2A2 and CSNK2B, the complex associating following UV irradiation (By similarity). Interacts with DYNLT2. Interacts with MUSK; mediates phosphorylation of MUSK by CK2. Interacts with FGF1; this interaction is increased in the presence of FIBP, suggesting a possible cooperative interaction between CSNKB and FIBP in binding to FGF1 (By similarity).PTM Phosphorylated by alpha subunit.SIMILARITY Belongs to the casein kinase 2 subunit beta family. UniProt P67871 2 EQUAL 215 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9770944 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9770944 Reactome R-MMU-201711 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-201711.1 GO 0004674 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9770945 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9770945 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848055 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848055 Reactome R-MMU-8873929 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8873929.1 PCTP-like protein (STARD10) is a member of the steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein-related lipid transfer (START) domain proteins that are implicated in lipid transport, metabolism, and signaling. STARD10 is thought to function as a dual specificity lipid transfer protein capable of shuttling phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine between membranes. Its lipid transfer activity is negatively regulated by casein kinase, a serine/threonine-protein kinase which phosphorylates STARD10 on a serine residue at position 284 (Olayioye et al. 2007). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Cho transports from the extracellular space to the cytosol Cho transports from the extracellular space to the cytosol CTL1-5 can mediate the uptake of choline This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 264638 1 Reactome DB_ID: 264618 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9784374 CTL1-5 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Slc44a1 [plasma membrane] Slc44a3 [plasma membrane] Slc44a5 [plasma membrane] Slc44a4 [plasma membrane] Slc44a2 [plasma membrane] UniProt Q6X893 UniProt Q921V7 UniProt Q5RJI2 UniProt Q91VA1 UniProt Q8BY89 GO 0015220 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784375 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784375 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784377 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784377 Reactome R-MMU-444433 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-444433.1 Choline (Cho) transports from the extracellular space through the plasma membrane via the choline transporter-like proteins (SLC44A1-5 also known as CTL1-5) to the cytosol (Okuda & Haga 2000, Traiffort et al. 2005, O'Regan et al. 2000).<br><br>CTL1 is broadly expressed on leukocytes and endothelial cells (Wille et al. 2001). CTL2 is highly expressed in human inner ear and is the target of antibody-induced hearing loss (Nair et al. 2004). 11068039 Pubmed 2000 Functional characterization of the human high-affinity choline transporter Okuda, T Haga, T FEBS Lett 484:92-7 11698453 Pubmed 2001 Characterization of CDw92 as a member of the choline transporter-like protein family regulated specifically on dendritic cells Wille, S Szekeres, A Majdic, O Prager, E Staffler, G Stockl, J Kunthalert, D Prieschl, EE Baumruker, T Burtscher, H Zlabinger, GJ Knapp, W Stockinger, H J Immunol 167:5795-804 14973250 Pubmed 2004 Identification and characterization of choline transporter-like protein 2, an inner ear glycoprotein of 68 and 72 kDa that is the target of antibody-induced hearing loss Nair, TS Kozma, KE Hoefling, NL Kommareddi, PK Ueda, Y Gong, TW Lomax, MI Lansford, CD Telian, SA Satar, B Arts, HA El-Kashlan, HK Berryhill, WE Raphael, Y Carey, TE J Neurosci 24:1772-9 10677542 Pubmed 2000 An electric lobe suppressor for a yeast choline transport mutation belongs to a new family of transporter-like proteins O'Regan, S Traiffort, E Ruat, M Cha, N Compaore, D Meunier, FM Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:1835-40 15715662 Pubmed 2005 Molecular characterization of the family of choline transporter-like proteins and their splice variants Traiffort, E Ruat, M O'Regan, S Meunier, FM J Neurochem 92:1116-25 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.1.32 Cho is phosphorylated to PCho by CHK dimer Cho is phosphorylated to PCho by CHK dimer This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 113592 1 Reactome DB_ID: 264618 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29370 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524071 1 phosphocholines [ChEBI:36700] phosphocholines ChEBI 36700 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800739 CHK dimer [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity GO 0004103 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800740 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800740 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800742 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800742 Reactome R-MMU-1483004 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483004.1 In the cytosol, choline kinase alpha subunit (CHKA) homodimer, choline kinase beta subunit (CHKB) dimer, or CHKA:CHKB heterodimer phosphorylates choline (Cho) to produce phosphocholine (PCho) (Malito et al. 2006, Gallego-Ortega et al. 2009). 17007874 Pubmed 2006 Elucidation of human choline kinase crystal structures in complex with the products ADP or phosphocholine Malito, E Sekulic, N Too, WC Konrad, M Lavie, A J Mol Biol 364:136-51 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.3.75 PCho is dephosphorylated to Cho by PHOSPHO1 PCho is dephosphorylated to Cho by PHOSPHO1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524071 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 264618 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29372 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800785 GO 0052731 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800798 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800798 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800800 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800800 Reactome R-MMU-1483159 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483159.1 In the cytosol, the phosphoethanolamine/phosphocholine phosphatase (PHOSPHO1) dephosphorylates phosphocholine (PCho) to choline (Cho) (Roberts et al. 2004). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.6 Cho is acetylated to AcCho by CHAT Cho is acetylated to AcCho by CHAT Synthesis of o-acetylcholine This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 76183 1 acetyl-CoA(4-) [ChEBI:57288] acetyl-CoA(4-) 3'-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-(3-{(3R)-4-[(3-{[2-(acetylsulfanyl)ethyl]amino}-3-oxopropyl)amino]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-4-oxobutyl} diphosphate) acetyl-CoA acetyl-CoA tetraanion acetyl-coenzyme A(4-) AcCoA(4-) ChEBI 57288 Reactome DB_ID: 264618 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 Reactome DB_ID: 264643 1 acetylcholine [ChEBI:15355] acetylcholine ChEBI 15355 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9774244 UniProt:Q03059 Chat UniProt Q03059 1 EQUAL 748 EQUAL GO 0004102 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9774245 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9774245 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9774247 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9774247 Reactome R-MMU-264622 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-264622.1 In the cytosol, choline O-acetyltransferase (CHAT) acetylates choline (Cho) to produce acetylcholine (AcCho) (Toussaint 1992).<br><br>AcCho is synthesised in the cytoplasm of cholinergic neurons from acetyl-CoA and Cho by CHAT enzyme. 1339386 Pubmed 1992 Human choline acetyltransferase (CHAT): partial gene sequence and potential control regions Toussaint, JL Genomics 12:412-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.7.15 PCho and CTP are condensed to CDP-Cho by PCYT1 dimer PCho and CTP are condensed to CDP-Cho by PCYT1 dimer This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524071 1 Reactome DB_ID: 110614 1 Reactome DB_ID: 111294 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524060 1 CDP-choline [ChEBI:16436] CDP-choline ChEBI 16436 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800759 PCYT1 dimer [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity GO 0004105 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800760 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800760 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800762 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800762 Reactome R-MMU-1483081 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483081.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, active membrane-bound choline-phosphate cytidylyltransferase A (PCYT1A) or B (PCYT1B) homodimer condenses phosphocholine (PCho) and cytidine triphosphate (CTP) to produce CDP-choline (CDP-Cho) (Lykidis et al. 1998). 9593753 Pubmed 1998 Cloning and characterization of a second human CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase Lykidis, A Murti, KG Jackowski, S J Biol Chem 273:14022-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.8.2 CDP-Cho and DAG are converted to PC by CEPT1 at the ER membrane CDP-Cho and DAG are converted to PC by CEPT1 at the ER membrane This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524060 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500596 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 109395 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800686 CEPT1:Mg2+/Mn2+ [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] CEPT1:Mg2+/Mn2+ Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 1500591 1 Mg2+/Mn2+ [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Mn2+ [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Mg2+ [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] ChEBI 29035 Reactome DB_ID: 9800684 1 UniProt:Q8BGS7 Cept1 UniProt Q8BGS7 1 EQUAL 416 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800686 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800686 Reactome R-MMU-1500587 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1500587.1 GO 0004142 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800687 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800687 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800689 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800689 Reactome R-MMU-1482961 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482961.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, choline/ethanolaminephosphotransferase (CEPT1) converts CDP-choline (CDP-Cho) and diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP) (Wright et al. 2002, Henneberry et al. 1999, Henneberry et al. 2002, Henneberry et al. 2000). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.7.8.2 CDP-Cho and DAG are converted to PC by CHPT1 at the Golgi membrane CDP-Cho and DAG are converted to PC by CHPT1 at the Golgi membrane This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524060 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524057 1 Golgi membrane GO 0000139 Reactome DB_ID: 429785 1 Reactome DB_ID: 109395 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800706 CHPT1:Mg2+/Mn2+ [Golgi membrane] CHPT1:Mg2+/Mn2+ Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 1524087 1 Mg2+/Mn2+ [Golgi membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Mg2+ [Golgi membrane] Mn2+ [Golgi membrane] Reactome DB_ID: 9800704 1 UniProt:Q8C025 Chpt1 UniProt Q8C025 1 EQUAL 406 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800706 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800706 Reactome R-MMU-1500652 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1500652.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800707 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800707 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800709 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800709 Reactome R-MMU-1482973 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482973.1 At the Golgi membrane, cholinephosphotransferase 1 (CHPT1) converts CDP-choline (CDP-Cho) and diacylglycerol (DAG) to phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cytidine monophosphate (CMP) (Wright et al. 2002, Henneberry et al. 1999, Henneberry et al. 2002, Henneberry et al. 2000). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.32 ABHD3 hydrolyses LPC(14:0) to 1AGPC ABHD3 hydrolyses LPC(14:0) to 1AGPC This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 5694502 1 lysophosphatidylcholine 14:0 [ChEBI:64483] lysophosphatidylcholine 14:0 LPC 14:0 myristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine lysophosphatidylcholine(14:0) PC 14:0_0:0 LyPC(14:0) LPC(14:0) tetradecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine LysoPC(14:0) ChEBI 64483 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 5694457 1 1-acylglycerophosphocholine(1+) [ChEBI:11230] 1-acylglycerophosphocholine(1+) ChEBI 11230 Reactome DB_ID: 1861754 1 carboxylic acid [ChEBI:33575] carboxylic acid acidos carboxilicos Carbonsaeuren acide carboxylique RC(=O)OH Karbonsaeure acides carboxyliques acido carboxilico Carbonsaeure ChEBI 33575 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9832436 UniProt:Q91ZH7 Abhd3 UniProt Q91ZH7 1 EQUAL 409 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832437 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832437 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832439 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832439 Reactome R-MMU-5694485 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5694485.1 Phospholipase ABHD3 selectively cleaves medium-chain and oxidatively-truncated phospholipids, having much higher phospholipase activity toward C14-containing phosphatidylcholines such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC(14:0)) and producing 1-acylglycerophosphocholine (1AGPC) (Long et al. 2011). ABHD3 is ubiquitously expressed with highest expression in brain and small intestine (Lord et al. 2013). 23328280 Pubmed 2013 Mammalian alpha beta hydrolase domain (ABHD) proteins: Lipid metabolizing enzymes at the interface of cell signaling and energy metabolism Lord, Caleb C Thomas, Gwynneth Brown, J Mark Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1831:792-802 21926997 Pubmed 2011 Metabolomics annotates ABHD3 as a physiologic regulator of medium-chain phospholipids Long, Jonathan Z Cisar, Justin S Milliken, David Niessen, Sherry Wang, Chu Trauger, Sunia A Siuzdak, G Cravatt, BF Nat. Chem. Biol. 7:763-5 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA MFSD2A transports LPC from extracellular region to plasma membrane MFSD2A transports LPC from extracellular region to plasma membrane This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 74113 1 sodium(1+) [ChEBI:29101] sodium(1+) ChEBI 29101 Reactome DB_ID: 8865642 1 lysophosphatidylcholine 22:6 [ChEBI:64567] lysophosphatidylcholine 22:6 PC 22:6_0.0 LPC 22:6 lysophosphatidylcholine(22:6) LysoPC(22:6) LPC(22:6) docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine ChEBI 64567 Reactome DB_ID: 83910 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8865629 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9846489 UniProt:Q9DA75 Mfsd2a UniProt Q9DA75 1 EQUAL 543 EQUAL GO 0005548 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9846490 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9846490 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9846492 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9846492 Reactome R-MMU-8865637 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8865637.1 Sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine symporter 1 (MFSD2A, aka NLS1) plays an essential role in blood-brain barrier (BBB) formation and function and transports LPC into the brain via a flipping motion (Nguyen et al. 2014, Guemez-Gamboa et al. 2015, Quek et al. 2016). LPCs are synthesised by the liver, circulate bound to albumin and serve as the chemical carrier for DHA uptake via MFSD2A. LPC can contain docosahexanoic acid (DHA), the most abundant omega-3 fatty acid in brain. Despite large DHA content in phospholipids, the brain does not synthesise it. MFSD2A is highly enriched in cerebral vasculature, where it is exclusively found in BBB endothelium. 26945070 Pubmed 2016 Structural insights into the transport mechanism of the human sodium-dependent lysophosphatidylcholine transporter Mfsd2a Quek, Debra Q Y Nguyen, Long N Fan, Hao Silver, DL J. Biol. Chem. 26005868 Pubmed 2015 Inactivating mutations in MFSD2A, required for omega-3 fatty acid transport in brain, cause a lethal microcephaly syndrome Guemez-Gamboa, Alicia Nguyen, Long N Yang, Hongbo Zaki, Maha S Kara, Majdi Ben-Omran, Tawfeg Akizu, Naiara Rosti, Rasim Ozgur Rosti, Basak Scott, Eric Schroth, Jana Copeland, Brett Vaux, Keith K Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury Quek, Debra Q Y Wong, Bernice H Tan, Bryan C Wenk, Markus R Gunel, Murat Gabriel, S Chi, Neil C Silver, DL Gleeson, Joseph G Nat. Genet. 47:809-13 24828044 Pubmed 2014 Mfsd2a is a transporter for the essential omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid Nguyen, Long N Ma, Dongliang Shui, Guanghou Wong, Peiyan Cazenave-Gassiot, Amaury Zhang, Xiaodong Wenk, Markus R Goh, Eyleen L K Silver, DL Nature 509:503-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9861424 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9861424 Reactome R-MMU-1483191 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483191.1 GO 0006656 GO biological process <i>De novo</i> (Kennedy pathway) synthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PC) involves phosphorylation of choline (Cho) to phosphocholine (PCho) followed by condensing with cytidine triphosphate (CTP) to form CDP-choline (CDP-Cho). Diacylglycerol (DAG) and CDP-ETA together then form PC. Alternatively, PC is formed when phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is methylated by phosphatidylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PEMT) (Henneberry et al. 2002; Wright & McMaster 2002). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA PI and PC transport between ER and Golgi membranes PI and PC transport between ER and Golgi membranes This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> PI:PITPNB is transported from the ER membrane to the Golgi membrane PI:PITPNB is transported from the ER membrane to the Golgi membrane This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9800856 1 PI:PITPNB [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] PI:PITPNB Reactome DB_ID: 426639 1 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol [ChEBI:16749] 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol ChEBI 16749 Reactome DB_ID: 9800850 1 UniProt:P53811 Pitpnb UniProt P53811 2 EQUAL 271 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800856 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800856 Reactome R-MMU-1524117 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1524117.1 Reactome DB_ID: 9800768 1 PI:PITPNB [Golgi membrane] PI:PITPNB Reactome DB_ID: 9800766 1 2 EQUAL 271 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 1524146 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800768 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800768 Reactome R-MMU-1524150 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1524150.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800873 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800873 Reactome R-MMU-1483229 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483229.1 The phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta isoform (PITPNB) bound to phosphatidylinositol (PI) complex transports from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to the Golgi membrane (Carvou et al. 2010, Shadan et al. 2008). 18636990 Pubmed 2008 Dynamics of lipid transfer by phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins in cells Shadan, S Holic, R Carvou, N Ee, P Li, M Murray-Rust, J Cockcroft, S Traffic 9:1743-56 20332109 Pubmed 2010 Phosphatidylinositol- and phosphatidylcholine-transfer activity of PITPbeta is essential for COPI-mediated retrograde transport from the Golgi to the endoplasmic reticulum Carvou, N Holic, R Li, M Futter, C Skippen, A Cockcroft, S J Cell Sci 123:1262-73 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA PI is exchanged with PC by PITPNB PI is exchanged with PC by PITPNB This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9800768 1 Reactome DB_ID: 429785 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9800770 1 PC:PITPNB [Golgi membrane] PC:PITPNB Reactome DB_ID: 9800766 1 2 EQUAL 271 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 429785 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800770 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800770 Reactome R-MMU-1524122 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1524122.1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524146 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800772 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800772 Reactome R-MMU-1483087 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483087.1 At the Golgi membrane, phosphatidylinositol (PI) is exchanged for phosphatidylcholine (PC) within the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta isoform (PITPNB) complex (Tilley et al. 2004, Yolder et al. 2001, Carvou et al. 2010, Schouten et al. 2002, Vordtriede et al. 2005, Shadan et al. 2008). 11980708 Pubmed 2002 Structure of apo-phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha provides insight into membrane association Schouten, A Agianian, B Westerman, J Kroon, J Wirtz, KWA Gros, P EMBO J 21:2117-21 14962392 Pubmed 2004 Structure-function analysis of human [corrected] phosphatidylinositol transfer protein alpha bound to phosphatidylinositol Tilley, SJ Skippen, A Murray-Rust, J Swigart, PM Stewart, A Morgan, CP Cockcroft, S McDonald, NQ Structure 12:317-26 11104777 Pubmed 2001 Structure of a multifunctional protein. Mammalian phosphatidylinositol transfer protein complexed with phosphatidylcholine Yoder, MD Thomas, LM Tremblay, JM Oliver, RL Yarbrough, LR Helmkamp GM, Jr J Biol Chem 276:9246-52 16274224 Pubmed 2005 Structure of PITPbeta in complex with phosphatidylcholine: comparison of structure and lipid transfer to other PITP isoforms Vordtriede, PB Doan, CN Tremblay, JM Helmkamp GM, Jr Yoder, MD Biochemistry 44:14760-71 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA PC:PITPNB is transported from the Golgi membrane to the ER membrane PC:PITPNB is transported from the Golgi membrane to the ER membrane This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9800770 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9800852 1 PC:PITPNB [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] PC:PITPNB Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9800850 1 2 EQUAL 271 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800852 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800852 Reactome R-MMU-1524110 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1524110.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800854 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800854 Reactome R-MMU-1483211 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483211.1 The complex between phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta isoform (PITPNB) transports from the Golgi membrane to the ER membrane (Carvou et al. 2010, Shadan et al. 2008). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA PC is exchanged with PI by PITPNB PC is exchanged with PI by PITPNB This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 426639 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9800852 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9800856 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800858 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800858 Reactome R-MMU-1483219 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483219.1 At the ER membrane, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is exchanged for phosphatidylinositol (PI) within the phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta isoform (PITPNB) complex (Tilley et al. 2004, Yolder et al. 2001, Carvou et al. 2010, Schouten et al. 2002, Vordtriede et al. 2005, Shadan et al. 2008). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862226 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862226 Reactome R-MMU-1483196 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1483196.1 GO 0015914 GO biological process The phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta isoform (PITPNB) bound to phosphatidylinositol (PI) complex transports from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane to the Golgi membrane, where phosphatidylcholine (PC) is exchanged for PI. PITPNB now in complex with PC transports back to the ER membrane where PI is now exchanged for PC, and the cycle repeats. This process has been characterized in detail in bovine and rodent model systems (e.g., Wirtz et al. 2006; Ghosh and Bankaitis 2011), which provide a framework for organizing the more limited data available for the very well conserved human proteins and processes( Carvou et al. 2010, Shadan et al. 2008). 16854452 Pubmed 2006 Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins: from closed for transport to open for exchange Wirtz, KWA Schouten, A Gros, P Adv Enzyme Regul 46:301-11 21915936 Pubmed 2011 Phosphatidylinositol transfer proteins: negotiating the regulatory interface between lipid metabolism and lipid signaling in diverse cellular processes Ghosh, R Bankaitis, VA Biofactors 37:290-308 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Acyl chain remodelling of PC Acyl chain remodelling of PC This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3.1.1.4 PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLA2[5] PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLA2[5] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524028 1 1-O-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(1+) [ChEBI:17504] 1-O-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(1+) ChEBI 17504 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800623 PLA2(5) [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pla2g4d [cytosol] Plaat3 [cytosol] Plbd1 [cytosol] Pla2g6 [cytosol] Pla2g4b [cytosol] Pla2g4f [cytosol] Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800624 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800624 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800626 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800626 Reactome R-MMU-1482856 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482856.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolyzed and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off by a phospholipase A2 to form 1-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). The phospholipases are either cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha/beta/delta/zeta (PLA2G4A/B/D/F) (Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Clarke et al. 1991, Sharp et al. 1994, Song et al. 1999, Chiba et al. 2004), 85 kDa calcium-independent phospholipase A2 (PLA2G6) (Larsson et al. 1998, Ma et al. 1999, Larsson Forsell et al. 1999), group XVI phospholipase A2 (PLA2G16) (Duncan et al. 2008), or Phospholipase B-like 1 (PLBD1) (Xu et al. 2009). PLBD1 acts as a phospholipase A2 but in addition has the propensity to hydrolyze the lysophospholipid formed in its initial reaction. 9705332 Pubmed 1998 A novel calcium-independent phospholipase A2, cPLA2-gamma, that is prenylated and contains homology to cPLA2 Underwood, KW Song, C Kriz, RW Chang, XJ Knopf, JL Lin, LL J Biol Chem 273:21926-32 8083230 Pubmed 1994 Serine 228 is essential for catalytic activities of 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 Sharp, JD Pickard, RT Chiou, XG Manetta, JV Kovacevic, S Miller, JR Varshavsky, AD Roberts, EF Strifler, BA Brems, DN J Biol Chem 269:23250-4 10358058 Pubmed 1999 Molecular characterization of cytosolic phospholipase A2-beta Song, C Chang, XJ Bean, KM Proia, MS Knopf, JL Kriz, RW J Biol Chem 274:17063-7 14709560 Pubmed 2004 Cloning of a gene for a novel epithelium-specific cytosolic phospholipase A2, cPLA2delta, induced in psoriatic skin Chiba, H Michibata, H Wakimoto, K Seishima, M Kawasaki, S Okubo, K Mitsui, H Torii, H Imai, Y J Biol Chem 279:12890-7 1904318 Pubmed 1991 A novel arachidonic acid-selective cytosolic PLA2 contains a Ca(2+)-dependent translocation domain with homology to PKC and GAP Clark, JD Lin, LL Kriz, RW Ramesha, CS Sultzman, LA Lin, AY Milona, N Knopf, JL Cell 65:1043-51 10085124 Pubmed 1999 Molecular cloning of two new human paralogs of 85-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 Pickard, RT Strifler, BA Kramer, RM Sharp, JD J Biol Chem 274:8823-31 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLA2[6] PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLA2[6] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524028 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800596 PLA2(6) [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pnpla8 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Pla2g4c [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800597 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800597 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800599 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800599 Reactome R-MMU-1482816 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482816.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by a membrane-associated phospholipase A2 to form 1-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). The phospholipases are either phospholipase A2 group II alpha (PLA2G2A) (Seihamer et al. 1989, Singer et al. 2002), cytosolic phospholipase A2 group IV gamma (PLA2G4C) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Pickard et al. 1999, Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Yamashita et al. 2009), or calcium-independent phospholipase A2-gamma (PNPLA8) (Murakami et al. 2005, Underwood et al. 1998). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.51 1-acyl LPC is acylated to PC by LPCAT 1-acyl LPC is acylated to PC by LPCAT This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524028 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800388 LPCAT [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Lpcat1 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lpcat2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Mboat2 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lpcat4 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Lpcat3 [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] UniProt Q8BYI6 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800422 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800422 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800424 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800424 Reactome R-MMU-1482547 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482547.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, lysophospholipid acyltransferases acylate 1-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to form phosphatidylcholine (PC). The lysophospholipid acyltransferases involved are: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) (Nakanishi et al. 2006, Chen et al. 2006); lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) (Shindou et al. 2006); lysophospholipid acyltransferase 5 (LPCAT3) (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008, Jain et al. 2009, Kazachkov et al. 2008); lysophospholipid acyltransferase LPCAT4 (LPCAT4) aka LPEAT2 (Cao et al. 2008, Ye et al. 2005); or lysophospholipid acyltransferase 2 (MBOAT2) aka LPCAT4 (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008). 16243729 Pubmed 2005 Cloning and characterization a novel human 1-acyl-sn-glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase gene AGPAT7 Ye, GM Chen, C Huang, S Han, DD Guo, JH Wan, B Yu, L DNA Seq 16:386-90 17182612 Pubmed 2007 A single enzyme catalyzes both platelet-activating factor production and membrane biogenesis of inflammatory cells. Cloning and characterization of acetyl-CoA:LYSO-PAF acetyltransferase Shindou, H Hishikawa, D Nakanishi, H Harayama, T Ishii, S Taguchi, R Shimizu, T J Biol Chem 282:6532-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.32 PC is hydrolysed to 2-acyl LPC by PLA2[7] PC is hydrolysed to 2-acyl LPC by PLA2[7] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 975614 1 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(1+) [ChEBI:16728] 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine(1+) ChEBI 16728 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800631 PLA2(7) [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pla2g4d [cytosol] Pla2g4e [cytosol] Pla2g4b [cytosol] Pla2g4f [cytosol] Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800632 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800632 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800634 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800634 Reactome R-MMU-1482862 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482862.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolysed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha/beta/delta/epsilon/zeta (PLA2G4A/B/D/E/F) (Ghomashchi et al. 2010). This produces 2-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Cytosolic phospholipase A2 enzymes show not only PLA2 hydrolysing activity to form the 1-acyl lysophospholipid but also have a degree of PLA1 activity, producing a 2-acyl lysophospholipid. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.32 PC is hydrolyzed to 2-acyl LPC by PLA2G4C PC is hydrolyzed to 2-acyl LPC by PLA2G4C This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 975614 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800411 1 EQUAL 538 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800607 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800607 Reactome R-MMU-1482827 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482827.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolyzed, and has one of its acyl chains cleaved off, by membrane-associated phospholipase A2 gamma 4C, PLA2G4C (Yamashita et al. 2005, Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Yamashita et al. 2009), to form 2-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Cytosolic phospholipase A2 enzymes show not only PLA2 hydrolysing activity to form the 1-acyl lysophospholipid but also have a degree of PLA1 activity, producing a 2-acyl lysophospholipid. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 2.3.1.52 2-acyl LPC is acylated to PC by LPCAT 2-acyl LPC is acylated to PC by LPCAT This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 975614 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1500578 1 Reactome DB_ID: 426925 1 Reactome DB_ID: 76194 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800388 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800389 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800389 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800391 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800391 Reactome R-MMU-1482533 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482533.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, lysophospholipid acyltransferases acylate 2-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to form phosphatidylcholine (PC). The lysophospholipid acyltransferases involved are: lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 (LPCAT1) (Nakanishi et al. 2006, Chen et al. 2006); lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 2 (LPCAT2) (Shindou et al. 2006); lysophospholipid acyltransferase 5 (LPCAT3) (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008, Jain et al. 2009, Kazachkov et al. 2008); lysophospholipid acyltransferase LPCAT4 (LPCAT4) aka LPEAT2 (Cao et al. 2008, Ye et al. 2005); or lysophospholipid acyltransferase 2 (MBOAT2) aka LPCAT4 (Hishikawa et al. 2008, Gijon et al. 2008). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.4 PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLA2[16] PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLA2[16] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 109276 1 Reactome DB_ID: 429802 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602366 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602390 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9801869 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801891 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801891 Reactome R-MMU-1602417 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1602417.1 At the plasma membrane, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolyzed, removing one of its acyl groups, to 1-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by secretory phospholipase A2 proteins (Singer et al. 2002, Ishizaki et al. 1999). These include: Group IB (PLA2G1B) (Grataroli et al. 1982); Group IIA (PLA2G2A) (Seilhamer et al. 1989); Group IID (PLA2G2D) (Ishizaki et al. 1999); Group IIE (PLA2G2E) (Suzuki et al. 2000); Group IIF (PLA2G2F) (Valentin et al. 2000); Group III (PLA2G3) (Murakami et al. 2003, Murakami et al. 2005); Calcium-dependent Group V (PLA2G5) (Chen et al. 1994); Group X (PLA2G10) (Cupillard et al. 1997, Pan et al. 2002); and Group XIIA (PLA2G12A) (Gelb et al. 2000, Murakami et al. 2003). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA INHIBITION Reactome DB_ID: 9801874 21 EQUAL -1 EQUAL 3.1.1.4 PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLB1 PC is hydrolyzed to 1-acyl LPC by PLB1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 109276 1 Reactome DB_ID: 429802 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602366 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1602390 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9791461 UniProt:Q3TTY0 Plb1 UniProt Q3TTY0 22 EQUAL 1458 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801887 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801887 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9801889 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9801889 Reactome R-MMU-1602399 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1602399.1 At the plasma membrane, phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolyzed, removing one of its acyl groups, to 1-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) by membrane-associated phospholipase B1 (PLB1) (Maury et al. 2002, Gassama-Diagne et al. 1992). 1618844 Pubmed 1992 Substrate specificity of phospholipase B from guinea pig intestine. A glycerol ester lipase with broad specificity Gassama-Diagne, A Rogalle, P Fauvel, J Willson, M Klaébé, A Chap, H J Biol Chem 267:13418-24 12150957 Pubmed 2002 Human epidermis is a novel site of phospholipase B expression Maury, E Prévost, MC Nauze, M Redoulès, D Tarroux, R Charvéron, M Salles, JP Perret, B Chap, H Gassama-Diagne, A Biochem Biophys Res Commun 295:362-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.3.2 THEM86B hydrolyses PMCHO, PMETAM THEM86B hydrolyses PMCHO, PMETAM This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 8874447 1 PMCHO, PMETAM [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity PMETAM [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] PMCHO [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] ChEBI 17476 ChEBI 17810 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 8874450 1 GPCHO, GPETAM [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity GPETAM [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] GPCHO [endoplasmic reticulum membrane] ChEBI 36314 ChEBI 36313 Reactome DB_ID: 5696116 1 fatty aldehyde [ChEBI:35746] fatty aldehyde ChEBI 35746 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9848139 UniProt:Q497J1 Tmem86b UniProt Q497J1 1 EQUAL 226 EQUAL GO 0016803 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848140 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848140 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848142 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848142 Reactome R-MMU-8874435 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8874435.1 Plasmalogens (1-alk-1'-enyl- 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) are abundant (4-32% of total membrane phospholipids) membrane glycerophospholipids found throughout bacterial, invertebrate and vertebrate animal kingdoms. They differ from other membrane glycerophospholipids by having an alk-1'-enyl ether-linked chain at the glycerol sn-1 carbon. Plasmalogens are critical for normal cell function and development and their levels are altered in disease states; decreased in peroxisomal disorders, Alzheimer disease and Down syndrome, and elevated in tumours. Plasmalogens can be hydrolysed into lysoplasmalogens (1-alk-1'-enyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine or 1-alk-1'-enyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine). Lysoplasmalogens are bioactive metabolites which have membrane-perturbing and cell lysis effects. Their levels are normally maintained at very low levels in cells, with lysoplasmalogens formed by plasmalogen hydrolysis converted back to plasmalogen in a transacylation reaction (a remodelling pathway). Alternatively, lysoplasmalogen may be degraded enzymatically by several hydrolytic enzymes that includes lysoplasmalogenase (THEM86B). THEM86B catalyses the hydrolysis of the vinyl ether bond of lysoplasmenylcholine (PMCHO) and lysoplasmenylethanolamine (PMETAM) to form a fatty aldehyde and glycerophosphocholine (GPCHO) and glycerophosphoethanolamine (GPETAM) respectively. THEM86B is localised to the ER membrane of liver and small intestinal mucosal cells where it is highly active and is probably an important enzyme there, maintaining the balance between plasmalogen and lysoplasmalogen, thereby preserving membrane stability and function (Wu et al. 2011, Honsho et al. 2015). 26463208 Pubmed 2015 Dysregulation of Plasmalogen Homeostasis Impairs Cholesterol Biosynthesis Honsho, Masanori Abe, Yuichi Fujiki, Yukio J. Biol. Chem. 290:28822-33 21515882 Pubmed 2011 Purification, identification, and cloning of lysoplasmalogenase, the enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis of the vinyl ether bond of lysoplasmalogen Wu, Lai-Chu Pfeiffer, Douglas R Calhoon, Elisabeth A Madiai, Francesca Marcucci, Guido Liu, Shujun Jurkowitz, Marianne S J. Biol. Chem. 286:24916-30 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9862202 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9862202 Reactome R-MMU-1482788 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482788.1 GO 0036151 GO biological process In the acyl chain remodelling pathway (Lands cycle), phosphatidylcholine (PC) is hydrolysed by phopholipases and subsequently reacylated by acyltransferases. These cycles modify the fatty acid composition of glycerophospholipids to generate diverse molecules asymmetrically distributed in the cell membrane (Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Singer et al. 2002, Cao et al. 2008, Zhao et al. 2008). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Hydrolysis of LPC Hydrolysis of LPC This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3.1.1.5 1-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2[8] 1-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2[8] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524028 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498750 1 choline alfoscerate [ChEBI:16870] choline alfoscerate ChEBI 16870 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800471 PLA2(8) [cytosol] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pla2g4d [cytosol] Plbd1 [cytosol] Pla2g4e [cytosol] Pla2g4b [cytosol] Pla2g4f [cytosol] Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800472 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800472 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800527 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800527 Reactome R-MMU-1482685 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482685.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, 1-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is hydrolyzed to glycerophosphocholine (GPCho) by cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha/beta/delta/epsilon/zeta (PLA2G4A/B/D/E/F) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Yamashita et al. 2009, Sharp et al. 1994) or by Phospholipase B1-like (PLBD1) (Xu et al. 2009). PLBD1 also acts as a phospholipase A2 but in addition has the propensity to hydrolyze the lysophospholipid formed in its initial reaction. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.5 1-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2G4C 1-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2G4C This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 1524028 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498750 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800411 1 EQUAL 538 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800540 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800540 Reactome R-MMU-1482696 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482696.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, 1-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is hydrolyzed to glycerophosphocholine (GPCho) by membrane-bound cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (PLA2G4C) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Yamashita et al. 2009). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.5 2-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2[8] 2-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2[8] This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 975614 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498750 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9800471 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800474 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800474 Reactome R-MMU-1482612 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482612.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, 2-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is hydrolyzed to glycerophosphocholine (GPCho) by cytosolic phospholipase A2 alpha/beta/delta/epsilon/zeta (PLA2G4A/B/D/E/F) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Yamashita et al. 2009, Sharp et al. 1994) or by Phospholipase B1-like (PLBD1) (Xu et al. 2009). PLBD1 also acts as a phospholipase A2 but in addition has the propensity to hydrolyze the lysophospholipid formed in its initial reaction. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.1.1.5 2-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2G4C 2-acyl LPC is hydrolyzed to GPCho by PLA2G4C This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 975614 1 Reactome DB_ID: 29356 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1498750 1 Reactome DB_ID: 1524021 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9800411 1 EQUAL 538 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9800479 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9800479 Reactome R-MMU-1482629 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-1482629.1 At the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, 2-acyl lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is hydrolyzed to glycerophosphocholine (GPCho) by membrane-bound cytosolic phospholipase A2 gamma (PLA2G4C) (Yamashita et al. 2005, Ghomashchi et al. 2010, Yamashita et al. 2009). inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA PLA2G15 hydrolyses LPC to GPCho and LCFA(-) PLA2G15 hydrolyses LPC to GPCho and LCFA(-) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 109276 1 Reactome DB_ID: 2173763 1 lysophosphatidylcholine [ChEBI:60479] lysophosphatidylcholine lysophosphatidylcholines ChEBI 60479 Reactome DB_ID: 8952253 1 Reactome DB_ID: 8954142 1 PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9851800 UniProt:Q8VEB4 Pla2g15 UniProt Q8VEB4 34 EQUAL 412 EQUAL GO 0047499 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9851801 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9851801 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9851803 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9851803 Reactome R-MMU-8952251 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8952251.1 Lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is a key enzyme in the esterification of plasma cholesterol. Group XV phospholipase A2 (PLA2G15 aka LCAT-like lysophospholipase, LLPL or lysosomal phospholipase A2, LPLA2) bears 49% sequence similarity to LCAT (Taniyama et al. 1999) and is present in plasma. PLA2G15 possesses both calcium-independent phospholipase A(2) and transacylase activities (Abe & Shayman 1998) and could hydrolyse lysophosphatidylcholine (lysoPC), a proatherogenic lipid, to glycerophosphorylcholine (GPCho) and a free fatty acid anion (LCFA(-)) (Taniyama et al. 1999, Hiraoka et al. 2002). 10092508 Pubmed 1999 Cloning and expression of a novel lysophospholipase which structurally resembles lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase Taniyama, Y Shibata, S Kita, S Horikoshi, K Fuse, H Shirafuji, H Sumino, Y Fujino, M Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 257:50-6 9525960 Pubmed 1998 Purification and characterization of 1-O-acylceramide synthase, a novel phospholipase A2 with transacylase activity Abe, A Shayman, J A J. Biol. Chem. 273:8467-74 11790796 Pubmed 2002 Cloning and characterization of a lysosomal phosp