BioPAX pathway converted from "Signaling by GPCR" in the Reactome database. Signaling by GPCR Signaling by GPCR This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> GPCR ligand binding GPCR ligand binding This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors) Class A/1 (Rhodopsin-like receptors) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Peptide ligand-binding receptors Peptide ligand-binding receptors This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> AGT(34-41) binds to AGTR1 AGT(34-41) binds to AGTR1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775715 1 plasma membrane GO 0005886 UniProt:P29754 Agtr1a Reactome http://www.reactome.org Mus musculus NCBI Taxonomy 10090 UniProt P29754 Chain Coordinates 1 EQUAL 359 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775719 1 extracellular region GO 0005576 UniProt:P11859 Agt UniProt P11859 34 EQUAL 41 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775721 1 AGTR1:AGT(34-41) [plasma membrane] AGTR1:AGT(34-41) Reactome DB_ID: 9775715 1 1 EQUAL 359 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775719 1 34 EQUAL 41 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775721 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775721 Reactome R-MMU-389876 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389876.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775725 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775725 Reactome R-MMU-374173 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374173.1 The cardiovascular and other actions of the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II are mediated by the type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2), which are seven transmembrane glycoproteins with 30% sequence similarity. AT1 receptors (Bergsma DJ et al, 1992) couple to G(q/11), and signal through phospholipases A, C, D, inositol phosphates, calcium channels, and a variety of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. The AT2 receptor (Tsuzuki S et al, 1994) is expressed mainly during fetal development. It is much less abundant in adult tissues and is up-regulated in pathological conditions. Its signaling pathways include serine and tyrosine phosphatases, phospholipase A2, nitric oxide, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The AT2 receptor counteracts several of the growth responses initiated by the AT1 and growth factor receptors. <br> 1567413 Pubmed 1992 Cloning and characterization of a human angiotensin II type 1 receptor Bergsma, DJ Ellis, C Kumar, C Nuthulaganti, P Kersten, H Elshourbagy, N Griffin, E Stadel, JM Aiyar, N Biochem Biophys Res Commun 183:989-95 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA INHIBITION Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775726 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775726 Reactome DB_ID: 9775723 ARBs:AGTR1 [plasma membrane] ARBs:AGTR1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9615246 1 ARBs [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity forasartan [extracellular region] irbesartan [extracellular region] eprosartan [extracellular region] olmesartan [extracellular region] telmisartan [extracellular region] valsartan [extracellular region] losartan [extracellular region] candesartan [extracellular region] Guide to Pharmacology 6896 Guide to Pharmacology 589 Guide to Pharmacology 588 Guide to Pharmacology 591 Guide to Pharmacology 592 Guide to Pharmacology 3937 Guide to Pharmacology 590 Guide to Pharmacology 587 Reactome DB_ID: 9775715 1 1 EQUAL 359 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775723 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775723 Reactome R-MMU-9615251 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-9615251.1 AGT(34-41) binds to AGTR2 AGT(34-41) binds to AGTR2 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9778056 1 UniProt:P35374 Agtr2 UniProt P35374 1 EQUAL 363 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775719 1 34 EQUAL 41 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778058 1 AGTR2:AGT(34-41) [plasma membrane] AGTR2:AGT(34-41) Reactome DB_ID: 9778056 1 1 EQUAL 363 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775719 1 34 EQUAL 41 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778058 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778058 Reactome R-MMU-389873 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389873.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9856865 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9856865 Reactome R-MMU-9615348 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-9615348.1 The cardiovascular and other actions of the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II are mediated by the type 1 and type 2 angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2), which are seven transmembrane glycoproteins with 30% sequence similarity. AT1 receptors (Bergsma DJ et al, 1992) couple to G(q/11), and signal through phospholipases A, C, D, inositol phosphates, calcium channels, and a variety of serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. The AT2 receptor (Tsuzuki S et al, 1994) is expressed mainly during fetal development. It is much less abundant in adult tissues and is up-regulated in pathological conditions. Its signaling pathways include serine and tyrosine phosphatases, phospholipase A2, nitric oxide, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate. The AT2 receptor counteracts several of the growth responses initiated by the AT1 and growth factor receptors. <br> 8185599 Pubmed 1994 Molecular cloning and expression of the gene encoding human angiotensin II type 2 receptor Tsuzuki, S Ichiki, T Nakakubo, H Kitami, Y Guo, DF Shirai, H Inagami, T Biochem Biophys Res Commun 200:1449-54 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA ARBs bind AGRT1 ARBs bind AGRT1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9615246 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775715 1 1 EQUAL 359 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775723 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9856863 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9856863 Reactome R-MMU-9615249 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-9615249.1 The vasoconstricting actions of the peptide angiotensin II (AGT(34-41)) are mediated by type 1 angiotensin II receptors (AGTR1), which belongs to class A/1 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs, also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists, AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans) are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). ARBs block the activation of AGTR1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Blockage of AGTR1 receptors directly causes vasodilation, reduces secretion of vasopressin, and reduces production and secretion of aldosterone. These combined effects reduce blood pressure by reducing peripheral vascular resistance usually without a rise in heart rate (Israili 2000, Unger 2001). ARBs are primarily used for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy but also for diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. ARBs do not inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin or other kinins, and are thus rarely associated with the persistent dry cough or angioedema that limit ACE inhibitor therapy.<br><br>Losartan (Cozaar) was the first successful ARB drug, approved in the United States in 1995. It is primarily used to treat hypertension (Goldberg et al. 1995, Mallion & Goldberg 1996) but can also be used to treat diabetic kidney disease (Ruilope & Segura 2003) and congestive heart failure (Konstam et al. 2009). Irbesartan (Avapro) is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, to delay progression of diabetic nephropathy and for the reduction of renal disease progression in patients with type 2 diabetes (Gialama & Maniadakis 2013). Olmesartan medoxomil (Benicar) is an ester prodrug which is completely and rapidly hydrolyzed to the active acid form, olmesartan (RNH-6270) (Brunner 2002). Olmesartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension, alone or in combination with other antihypertensive agents. The prodrug candesartan cilexetil is hydrolysed to the active form candesartan (Ishizuka et al. 2013). It is indicated for hypertension and congestive heart failure (Zheng et al. 2011).<br><br>Valsartan (Diovan) is mainly used for the treatment of hypertension (Black et al. 1997), congestive heart failure, and to increase survivability after a heart attack (Cohn et al. 2001). Eprosartan (Teveten) is used for the treatment of hypertension (Sega 1999) and is generally better tolerated than enalapril (an ACE inhibitor), especially among the elderly (Ruilope et al. 2001). Telmisartan (Micardis) is indicated in the treatment of essential hypertension and possesses a long duration of action (Littlejohn et al. 2000). Forasartan (compound SC-52458) is sparingly used in the treatment of hypertension because of its short duration of action and being less potent than losartan (Hagmann et al. 1997). 14749145 Pubmed 2003 Losartan and other angiotensin II antagonists for nephropathy in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a review of the clinical trial evidence Ruilope, Luis M Segura, Julian Clin Ther 25:3044-64 10451039 Pubmed 1999 Efficacy and safety of eprosartan in severe hypertension. Eprosartan Multinational Study Group Sega, R Blood Press. 8:114-21 7717281 Pubmed 1995 Safety and tolerability of losartan potassium, an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, compared with hydrochlorothiazide, atenolol, felodipine ER, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for the treatment of systemic hypertension Goldberg, A I Dunlay, M C Sweet, C S Am. J. Cardiol. 75:793-5 11759645 Pubmed 2001 A randomized trial of the angiotensin-receptor blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure Cohn, J N Tognoni, G N. Engl. J. Med. 345:1667-75 9156352 Pubmed 1997 SC-52458, an orally active angiotensin II-receptor antagonist: inhibition of blood pressure response to angiotensin II challenges and pharmacokinetics in normal volunteers Hagmann, M Nussberger, J Naudin, R B Burns, T S Karim, A Waeber, B Brunner, H R J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 29:444-50 21421652 Pubmed 2011 A systematic review and meta-analysis of candesartan and losartan in the management of essential hypertension Zheng, Zhenfeng Shi, Huilan Jia, Junya Li, Dong Lin, Shan J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst 12:365-74 10854085 Pubmed 2000 Clinical pharmacokinetics of angiotensin II (AT1) receptor blockers in hypertension Israili, Z H J Hum Hypertens 14:S73-86 11021956 Pubmed 2000 A prospective, randomized, open-label trial comparing telmisartan 80 mg with valsartan 80 mg in patients with mild to moderate hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring Littlejohn, T Mroczek, W Marbury, T VanderMaelen, C P Dubiel, R F Can J Cardiol 16:1123-32 23946449 Pubmed 2013 Different hydrolases involved in bioactivation of prodrug-type angiotensin receptor blockers: carboxymethylenebutenolidase and carboxylesterase 1 Ishizuka, Tomoko Yoshigae, Yasushi Murayama, Nobuyuki Izumi, Takashi Drug Metab. Dispos. 41:1888-95 19922995 Pubmed 2009 Effects of high-dose versus low-dose losartan on clinical outcomes in patients with heart failure (HEAAL study): a randomised, double-blind trial Konstam, Marvin A Neaton, James D Dickstein, Kenneth Drexler, Helmut Komajda, Michel Martinez, Felipe A Riegger, Gunter A J Malbecq, William Smith, Ronald D Guptha, Soneil Poole-Wilson, Philip A Lancet 374:1840-8 11800061 Pubmed 2001 Eprosartan versus enalapril in elderly patients with hypertension: a double-blind, randomized trial Ruilope, L Jäger, B Prichard, B Blood Press. 10:223-9 11683476 Pubmed 2001 Pharmacology of AT1-receptor blockers Unger, T Blood Press Suppl5-10 24124375 Pubmed 2013 Comprehensive overview: efficacy, tolerability, and cost-effectiveness of irbesartan Gialama, Fotini Maniadakis, Nikos Vasc Health Risk Manag 9:575-92 11967728 Pubmed 2002 The new oral angiotensin II antagonist olmesartan medoxomil: a concise overview Brunner, Hans R J Hum Hypertens 16:S13-6 8913546 Pubmed 1996 Global efficacy and tolerability of losartan, an angiotensin II subtype 1-receptor antagonist, in the treatment of hypertension Mallion, J M Goldberg, A I Blood Press Suppl 2:82-6 9322828 Pubmed 1997 Valsartan, a new angiotensin II antagonist for the treatment of essential hypertension: efficacy, tolerability and safety compared to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril Black, H R Graff, A Shute, D Stoltz, R Ruff, D Levine, J Shi, Y Mallows, S J Hum Hypertens 11:483-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Apelin receptor binds to apelin Apelin receptor binds to apelin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775841 1 UniProt:Q9WV08 Aplnr UniProt Q9WV08 1 EQUAL 380 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775831 1 UniProt:Q9R0R4 Apln UniProt Q9R0R4 65 EQUAL 77 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775843 1 APLNR:Apelin peptides [plasma membrane] APLNR:Apelin peptides Reactome DB_ID: 9775841 1 1 EQUAL 380 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775831 1 65 EQUAL 77 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775843 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775843 Reactome R-MMU-374316 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374316.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775845 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775845 Reactome R-MMU-374337 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374337.1 Apelin (Tatemoto K et al, 1998) is an endogenous ligand for the apelin (APJ) receptor (O'Dowd BF et al, 1993) and is widely expressed in the human body including the heart and brain. Apelin is one of the most potent stimulators of cardiac contractility and mediates blood pressure and blood flow. Several active peptides can be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor (apelin-36, 31, 28 and 13). APJ is related to the angiotensin receptor (40-50% identity) and couples to G proteins that inhibit adenylate cyclase activity. It is an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Binding of apelin to its receptor inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. 8294032 Pubmed 1993 A human gene that shows identity with the gene encoding the angiotensin receptor is located on chromosome 11 O'Dowd, BF Heiber, M Chan, A Heng, HH Tsui, LC Kennedy, JL Shi, X Petronis, A George, SR Nguyen, T Gene 136:355-60 9792798 Pubmed 1998 Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor Tatemoto, K Hosoya, M Habata, Y Fujii, R Kakegawa, T Zou, MX Kawamata, Y Fukusumi, S Hinuma, S Kitada, C Kurokawa, T Onda, H Fujino, M Biochem Biophys Res Commun 251:471-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Bombesin-like receptors bind bombesin homologues Bombesin-like receptors bind bombesin homologues This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9776548 1 Bombesin-like peptide [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Nmb [extracellular region] Grp [extracellular region] UniProt Q9CR53 UniProt Q8R1I2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9776562 1 Bombesin-like receptor [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Grpr [plasma membrane] Nmbr [plasma membrane] UniProt P21729 UniProt O54799 Reactome DB_ID: 9776564 1 Bombesin-like receptor:bombesin-like peptide [plasma membrane] Bombesin-like receptor:bombesin-like peptide Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9776548 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9776562 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9776564 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9776564 Reactome R-MMU-375359 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-375359.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9776566 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9776566 Reactome R-MMU-375384 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-375384.1 Bombesin-like receptors are widely distributed in the CNS as well as in the GI tract where they modulate smooth-muscle contraction, exocrine and endocrine processes, metabolism, and behaviour through the binding of bombesin-like peptides. They include gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRP-R), neuromedin B receptor (NMB-R) (Corjay MH et al, 1991) and bombesin-like receptor-3 (BRS-3) (Fathi Z et al, 1993). BRS-3 binds bombesin peptides with low affinity and is often classed as an orphan receptor. There are two homologues of bombesin-like peptides; Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) (Sausville EA et al, 1986) and Neuromedin-B (NMB) (Krane IM et al, 1988). GRP regulates gastric acid secretion and motor function and is a negative feedback operator regulating fear. NMB is involved in the regulation of many functions such as cell growth, body temperature and blood pressure and glucose levels. 2458345 Pubmed 1988 Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding the human bombesin-like peptide neuromedin B. Chromosomal localization and comparison to cDNAs encoding its amphibian homolog ranatensin Krane, IM Naylor, SL Helin-Davis, D Chin, WW Spindel, ER J Biol Chem 263:13317-23 1655761 Pubmed 1991 Two distinct bombesin receptor subtypes are expressed and functional in human lung carcinoma cells Corjay, MH Dobrzanski, DJ Way, JM Viallet, J Shapira, H Worland, P Sausville, EA Battey, JF J Biol Chem 266:18771-9 3003116 Pubmed 1986 Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide gene in human small cell lung cancer. Evidence for alternative processing resulting in three distinct mRNAs Sausville, EA Lebacq-Verheyden, AM Spindel, ER Cuttitta, F Gazdar, AF Battey, JF J Biol Chem 261:2451-7 8383682 Pubmed 1993 BRS-3: a novel bombesin receptor subtype selectively expressed in testis and lung carcinoma cells Fathi, Z Corjay, MH Shapira, H Wada, E Benya, R Jensen, R Viallet, J Sausville, EA Battey, JF J Biol Chem 268:5979-84 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Bradykinin receptors B1 and B2 bind to bradykinin Bradykinin receptors B1 and B2 bind to bradykinin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775823 1 Bradykinin receptor [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Bdkrb2 [plasma membrane] Bdkrb1 [plasma membrane] UniProt P32299 UniProt Q61125 Reactome DB_ID: 9761232 1 UniProt:Q6S9I3 Kng2 UniProt Q6S9I3 381 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775825 1 Bradykinin receptor:Bradykinin [plasma membrane] Bradykinin receptor:Bradykinin Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775823 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9761232 1 381 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775825 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775825 Reactome R-MMU-374321 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374321.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775827 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775827 Reactome R-MMU-374331 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374331.1 Bradykinin (Rocha e Silva M, et al, 1949) is a 9 amino-acid peptide belonging to the kinin group of proteins. It causes blood vessel dilation via the release of prostacyclin, nitric oxide and endothelial-derived hyperpolarizing factor, resulting in lower blood pressure. It is also involved in the pain mechanism. Bradykinin exerts its effects through two receptors, bradykinin receptor B1 and 2 (B1R and B2R respectively). B1R (Menke JG et al, 1994) is synthesized de novo following tissue injury and receptor binding leads to an increase in cytosolic calcium concentration, resulting in chronic and acute inflammatory responses. Unlike B1R, B2R (Hess JF et al, 1992) is ubiquitously and constitutively expressed in healthy tissues. It also increase cytosolic calcium concentration and stimulates the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. 18127230 Pubmed 1949 Bradykinin, a hypotensive and smooth muscle stimulating factor released from plasma globulin by snake venoms and by trypsin ROCHA E SILVA, M Beraldo, WT ROSENFELD, G Am J Physiol 156:261-73 3366244 Pubmed 1988 Isolation and identification of hydroxyproline analogues of bradykinin in human urine Kato, H Matsumura, Y Maeda, H FEBS Lett 232:252-4 8063797 Pubmed 1994 Expression cloning of a human B1 bradykinin receptor Menke, JG Borkowski, JA Bierilo, KK MacNeil, T Derrick, AW Schneck, KA Ransom, RW Strader, CD Linemeyer, DL Hess, JF J Biol Chem 269:21583-6 1314587 Pubmed 1992 Cloning and pharmacological characterization of a human bradykinin (BK-2) receptor Hess, JF Borkowski, JA Young, GS Strader, CD Ransom, RW Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184:260-8 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA C5AR2 binds anaphylatoxins and thier desArginated derivatives C5AR2 binds anaphylatoxins and thier desArginated derivatives This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9789851 1 UniProt:Q8BW93 C5ar2 UniProt Q8BW93 1 EQUAL 337 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9789847 1 C5AR2 ligands [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity C5 [extracellular region] UniProt P06684 Reactome DB_ID: 9789853 1 C5AR2:C5AR2 ligands [plasma membrane] C5AR2:C5AR2 ligands Reactome DB_ID: 9789851 1 1 EQUAL 337 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9789847 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9789853 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9789853 Reactome R-MMU-964812 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-964812.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9789855 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9789855 Reactome R-MMU-964811 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-964811.1 C5AR2 (GPR77, C5L2) has been described as a receptor for the chemotactic and inflammatory peptides anaphylatoxin C5a, C4a and C3a and even their des-arginated derivatives. Highest binding affinity was for C3a-desArg, also called Acylation Stimulating Protein (ASP), produced from C3a following arginine removal by carboxypeptidases. Binding of C3a and its derivatives has been disputed (Johswich et al. 2006) leading to suggestions that this receptor may be a C5a scavenger. It is weakly coupled to G(i)-mediated signaling pathways and believed to function primarily as a decoy receptor though it can interact with beta arrestin (Van Lith et al. 2009). 17068344 Pubmed 2006 Ligand specificity of the anaphylatoxin C5L2 receptor and its regulation on myeloid and epithelial cell lines Johswich, K Martin, M Thalmann, J Rheinheimer, C Monk, PN Klos, A J Biol Chem 281:39088-95 11773063 Pubmed 2002 The orphan receptor C5L2 has high affinity binding sites for complement fragments C5a and C5a des-Arg(74) Cain, SA Monk, PN J Biol Chem 277:7165-9 12540846 Pubmed 2003 The chemoattractant receptor-like protein C5L2 binds the C3a des-Arg77/acylation-stimulating protein Kalant, D Cain, SA Maslowska, M Sniderman, AD Cianflone, K Monk, PN J Biol Chem 278:11123-9 19641221 Pubmed 2009 C5a-stimulated recruitment of beta-arrestin2 to the nonsignaling 7-transmembrane decoy receptor C5L2 Van Lith, LH Oosterom, J Van Elsas, A Zaman, GJ J Biomol Screen 14:1067-75 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA C5a receptor binds C5a anaphylatoxin C5a receptor binds C5a anaphylatoxin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9776570 1 UniProt:P30993 C5ar1 UniProt P30993 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9764888 1 UniProt:P06684 C5 678 EQUAL 751 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9776572 1 C5AR1:C5a [plasma membrane] C5AR1:C5a Reactome DB_ID: 9776570 1 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9764888 1 678 EQUAL 751 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9776572 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9776572 Reactome R-MMU-375354 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-375354.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9776574 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9776574 Reactome R-MMU-375395 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-375395.1 C5a (Fernandez HN and Hugli TE, 1978) is a protein fragment released from complement component C5. C5a is a potent anaphylatoxin, causing the release of histamine from mast cells and also being an effective leukocyte attractant. The C5a receptor (complement component 5a receptor 1, C5AR1; Cluster of Differentiation 88, CD88) (Gerard NP and Gerard C, 1991) mediates the pro-inflammatory and chemotactic actions of C5a. 1847994 Pubmed 1991 The chemotactic receptor for human C5a anaphylatoxin Gerard, NP Gerard, C Nature 349:614-7 690134 Pubmed 1978 Primary structural analysis of the polypeptide portion of human C5a anaphylatoxin. Polypeptide sequence determination and assignment of the oligosaccharide attachment site in C5a Fernandez, HN Hugli, TE J Biol Chem 253:6955-64 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA C3a receptor binds anaphylatoxin C3a C3a receptor binds anaphylatoxin C3a This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9778050 1 UniProt:O09047 C3ar1 UniProt O09047 1 EQUAL 482 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9763788 1 UniProt:P01027 C3 UniProt P01027 672 EQUAL 748 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778052 1 C3AR1:C3a [plasma membrane] C3AR1:C3a Reactome DB_ID: 9778050 1 1 EQUAL 482 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9763788 1 672 EQUAL 748 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778052 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778052 Reactome R-MMU-444688 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-444688.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784393 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784393 Reactome R-MMU-444647 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-444647.1 The complement component 3a receptor (C3AR) binds C3a, a 77-amino acid anaphylatoxin generated after proteolytic cleavage of C3 and C5 in response to complement activation. C3a is involved in a variety of inflammatory responses including chemotaxis and activation of granulocytes, mast cells and macrophages (Peng et al. 200, Klos et al. 2009). 8702752 Pubmed 1996 Molecular cloning and characterization of the human anaphylatoxin C3a receptor Ames, RS Li, Y Sarau, HM Nuthulaganti, P Foley, JJ Ellis, C Zeng, Z Su, K Jurewicz, AJ Hertzberg, RP Bergsma, DJ Kumar, C J Biol Chem 271:20231-4 19477527 Pubmed 2009 The role of the anaphylatoxins in health and disease Klos, A Tenner, Andrea J Johswich, Kay-Ole Ager, Rahasson R Reis, Edimara S Köhl, J Mol. Immunol. 46:2753-66 19601884 Pubmed 2009 The role of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses Peng, Q Li, K Sacks, SH Zhou, W Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 8:236-46 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 binds estrogen non-classically G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 binds estrogen non-classically This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 374146 1 estrogen [ChEBI:50114] estrogen ChEBI 50114 Reactome DB_ID: 9775730 1 UniProt:Q8BMP4 Gper1 UniProt Q8BMP4 1 EQUAL 375 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775732 1 GPER1:ESTG [plasma membrane] GPER1:ESTG Reactome DB_ID: 374146 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775730 1 1 EQUAL 375 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775732 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775732 Reactome R-MMU-374150 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374150.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775734 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775734 Reactome R-MMU-374207 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374207.1 G protein-coupled estrogen receptor 1 (GPER; CEPR; G-protein coupled receptor 30, GPR30) (Feng Y and Gregor P, 1997) has a ubiquitous tissue distribution. This orphan receptor is unrelated to nuclear estrogen receptors, but shows all the binding and signaling characteristics of a membrane estrogen receptor (mER). This suggests a role for GPCRs in nonclassical steroid hormone actions. 15539556 Pubmed 2005 Identity of an estrogen membrane receptor coupled to a G protein in human breast cancer cells Thomas, P Pang, Y Filardo, Edward J Dong, J Endocrinology 146:624-32 9070864 Pubmed 1997 Cloning of a novel member of the G protein-coupled receptor family related to peptide receptors Feng, Y Gregor, P Biochem Biophys Res Commun 231:651-4 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA GPCR neuropeptide receptor binds neuropeptides B and W GPCR neuropeptide receptor binds neuropeptides B and W This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9776000 1 UniProt:P49681 Npbwr1 UniProt P49681 1 EQUAL 328 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775996 1 Neuropeptides B/W [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Npw [extracellular region] Npb [extracellular region] UniProt F7B5D6 UniProt Q8K4P1 Reactome DB_ID: 9776002 1 Neuropeptides B/W receptor:neuropeptides B/W [plasma membrane] Neuropeptides B/W receptor:neuropeptides B/W Reactome DB_ID: 9776000 1 1 EQUAL 328 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775996 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9776002 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9776002 Reactome R-MMU-374779 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374779.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9776004 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9776004 Reactome R-MMU-374787 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374787.1 The structurally related (70% identity) orphan G-protein-coupled receptors, neuropeptides B/W receptor 1 and 2 (GPR7 and GPR8 respectively) (O'Dowd BF et al, 1995), are wideley expressed in the central nervous system of humans. Natural ligands identified for these receptors are involved in the regulation of feeding. Neuropeptide B is cleaved into two chains; NPB23 (L7) and NPB29 (L7C). Neuropeptide W is also cleaved into two chains; NPW23 (L8) and NPW30 (L8C) (Tanaka H et al, 2003). Both these peptides can bind to either GPR7 or 8 to elicit their effects downstream. 7590751 Pubmed 1995 The cloning and chromosomal mapping of two novel human opioid-somatostatin-like receptor genes, GPR7 and GPR8, expressed in discrete areas of the brain O'Dowd, BF Scheideler, MA Nguyen, T Cheng, R Rasmussen, JS Marchese, A Zastawny, R Heng, HH Tsui, LC Shi, X Genomics 28:84-91 12719537 Pubmed 2003 Characterization of a family of endogenous neuropeptide ligands for the G protein-coupled receptors GPR7 and GPR8 Tanaka, Hiroshi Yoshida, T Miyamoto, N Motoike, T Kurosu, H Shibata, K Yamanaka, A Williams, SC Richardson, JA Tsujino, N Garry, MG Lerner, MR King, DS O'Dowd, BF Sakurai, T Yanagisawa, M Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:6251-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Nociceptin receptor binds to nociceptin Nociceptin receptor binds to nociceptin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775941 1 UniProt:Q64387 Pnoc UniProt Q64387 130 EQUAL 146 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775945 1 UniProt:P35377 Oprl1 UniProt P35377 1 EQUAL 370 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775947 1 Nociceptin receptor:Nociceptin [plasma membrane] Nociceptin receptor:Nociceptin Reactome DB_ID: 9775941 1 130 EQUAL 146 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775945 1 1 EQUAL 370 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775947 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775947 Reactome R-MMU-374725 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374725.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775949 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775949 Reactome R-MMU-374723 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374723.1 The orphan nociceptin (ORL1) receptor (Mollereau C et al, 1994) is most closely related to opioid receptors on structural (sequence) and functional grounds but is not a typical opioid receptor. It may play a role in instinctive behaviours and emotions. Its natural ligand is nociceptin (orphanin FQ) (Mollereau C et al, 1996), a 17 amino acid neuropeptide which acts as a potent anti-analgesic. Both receptor and ligand are widely expressed in the CNS. 8137918 Pubmed 1994 ORL1, a novel member of the opioid receptor family. Cloning, functional expression and localization Mollereau, C Parmentier, M Mailleux, P Butour, JL Moisand, C Chalon, P Caput, D Vassart, G Meunier, JC FEBS Lett 341:33-8 9521323 Pubmed 1998 Nocistatin, a peptide that blocks nociceptin action in pain transmission Okuda-Ashitaka, E Minami, T Tachibana, S Yoshihara, Y Nishiuchi, Y Kimura, T Ito, S Nature 392:286-9 8710928 Pubmed 1996 Structure, tissue distribution, and chromosomal localization of the prepronociceptin gene Mollereau, C Simons, MJ Soularue, P Liners, F Vassart, G Meunier, JC Parmentier, M Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 93:8666-70 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Opioid receptors bind opioid peptides Opioid receptors bind opioid peptides This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775785 1 Opioid receptors [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Oprk1 [plasma membrane] Oprd1 [plasma membrane] Oprm1 [plasma membrane] UniProt P33534 UniProt P32300 UniProt P42866 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775809 1 Opioid ligands [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Pomc [extracellular region] Pdyn [extracellular region] Penk [extracellular region] UniProt P01193 UniProt O35417 UniProt P22005 Reactome DB_ID: 9775811 1 Opioid receptor:opioid ligand [plasma membrane] Opioid receptor:opioid ligand Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775809 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775785 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775811 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775811 Reactome R-MMU-374302 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374302.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775813 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775813 Reactome R-MMU-374298 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374298.1 There are three well-characterized families of opioid peptides produced by the body: endorphins, enkephalins and dynorphins. Endorphins are processed from the precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC) (Takahashi H et al, 1981), which can also be processed to yield adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and alpha- and gamma-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH). Beta-endorphin (Dragon N et al, 1977) is a 31 amino acid peptide found in neurons of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. It is released into the blood (from the pituitary gland) and into the spinal cord and brain from hypothalamic neurons during vigourous exercise, excitement and orgasm. Beta-endorphin binds with the highest affinity to the mu-opioid receptor but it also possesses some affinity towards the delta- and kappa-opioid receptors. Once bound, it acts as an analgesic in the body by dulling pain. It does this by breaking down bradykinins which are peptides which accumulate in response to injury. The mu-opioid receptor (MOR) (Wang JB et al, 1994) possesses high affinity for enkephalins and beta-endorphin but low affinity for dynorphins.<br>The enkephalins are endogenous ligands, or specifically endorphins, as they are internally derived and bind to the body's opioid receptors. There are two forms of enkephalin, one containing leucine ("leu"), while the other contains methionine ("met"). The met-enkephalin peptide sequence is coded by the POMC gene whereas leu-enkephalin is coded by both POMC and dynorphin genes. Enkephalins are pentapeptides involved in regulating pain and nociception in the body. Their action is mediated through the delta-opioid receptor (DOR) (Knapp RJ et al, 1994).<br>Dynorphins constitute a class of opioid peptides that arise from the precursor protein prodynorphin. When prodynorphin is cleaved during processing by proprotein convertase 2 (PC2), multiple active peptides are released, amongst which are dynorphin A, dynorphin B, big-dyn and alpha/beta-neoendorphin (Day R et al, 1998). Dynorphins primarily exert their effects through the kappa-opioid receptor (KOR), a G-protein coupled receptor (Simonin F et al, 1995). Two subtypes of KORs have been identified: K1 and K2. Although KOR is the primary receptor for all dynorphins (James IF et al, 1982), the peptides do have some affinity for MOR and DOR. 6128656 Pubmed 1982 Selectivity of dynorphin for kappa opioid receptors James, IF Chavkin, C Goldstein, A Life Sci 31:1331-4 6281660 Pubmed 1982 Isolation and structural organization of the human preproenkephalin gene Noda, M Teranishi, Y Takahashi, H Toyosato, M Notake, M Nakanishi, S Numa, S Nature 297:431-4 7624359 Pubmed 1995 kappa-Opioid receptor in humans: cDNA and genomic cloning, chromosomal assignment, functional expression, pharmacology, and expression pattern in the central nervous system Simonin, F Gaveriaux-Ruff, Claire Befort, K Matthes, H Lannes, B Micheletti, G Mattéi, MG Charron, G Bloch, B Kieffer, B Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 92:7006-10 8201839 Pubmed 1994 Identification of a human delta opioid receptor: cloning and expression Knapp, RJ Malatynska, E Fang, L Li, X Babin, E Nguyen, M Santoro, G Varga, EV Hruby, VJ Roeske, WR Life Sci 54:PL463-9 7057924 Pubmed 1982 Primary structure of the human Met- and Leu-enkephalin precursor and its mRNA Comb, M Seeburg, PH Adelman, J Eiden, L Herbert, E Nature 295:663-6 6274691 Pubmed 1981 Isolation and structural organization of the human corticotropin--beta-lipotropin precursor gene Takahashi, H Teranishi, Y Nakanishi, S Numa, S FEBS Lett 135:97-102 7905839 Pubmed 1994 Human mu opiate receptor. cDNA and genomic clones, pharmacologic characterization and chromosomal assignment Wang, JB Johnson, PS Persico, AM Hawkins, AL Griffin, CA Uhl, GR FEBS Lett 338:217-22 9422738 Pubmed 1998 Prodynorphin processing by proprotein convertase 2. Cleavage at single basic residues and enhanced processing in the presence of carboxypeptidase activity Day, R Lazure, C Basak, A Boudreault, A Limperis, P Dong, W Lindberg, I J Biol Chem 273:829-36 195688 Pubmed 1977 Primary structure and morphine-like activity of human beta-endorphin Dragon, N Seidah, NG Lis, M Routhier, R Chretien, M Can J Biochem 55:666-70 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Chemokine receptors bind chemokines Chemokine receptors bind chemokines This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Receptor CCR10 binds CCL27 and 28 ligands Receptor CCR10 binds CCL27 and 28 ligands This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775433 1 UniProt:Q9JL21 Ccr10 UniProt Q9JL21 1 EQUAL 362 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775443 1 CCL27,28 [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ccl28 [extracellular region] Ccl27 [extracellular region] UniProt Q9JIL2 UniProt Q9Z1X0 Reactome DB_ID: 9775445 1 CCR10:CCL27,28 [plasma membrane] CCR10:CCL27,28 Reactome DB_ID: 9775433 1 1 EQUAL 362 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775443 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775445 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775445 Reactome R-MMU-373236 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373236.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775447 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775447 Reactome R-MMU-373086 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373086.1 CCR10 (previously known as GPR2) (Jarmin DI et al, 2000) is implicated in skin inflammation and recruits regulatory T cells to mucosal layers. CCR10 binds both CCL27 (ESkine, CTACK) (Homey B et al, 2000) and CCL28 (Mucosae-associated epithelial chemokine, MEC) (Wang W et al, 2000) and signal transduction is via increase of intracellular calcium levels. 10781587 Pubmed 2000 Identification of a novel chemokine (CCL28), which binds CCR10 (GPR2) Wang, Wei Soto, H Oldham, ER Buchanan, ME Homey, B Catron, D Jenkins, N Copeland, NG Gilbert, DJ Nguyen, N Abrams, J Kershenovich, D Smith, K McClanahan, T Vicari, AP Zlotnik, A J Biol Chem 275:22313-23 10725697 Pubmed 2000 Cutting edge: the orphan chemokine receptor G protein-coupled receptor-2 (GPR-2, CCR10) binds the skin-associated chemokine CCL27 (CTACK/ALP/ILC) Homey, B Wang, Wei Soto, H Buchanan, ME Wiesenborn, A Catron, D Müller, A McClanahan, TK Dieu-Nosjean, MC Orozco, R Ruzicka, T Lehmann, P Oldham, E Zlotnik, A J Immunol 164:3465-70 10725696 Pubmed 2000 Cutting edge: identification of the orphan receptor G-protein-coupled receptor 2 as CCR10, a specific receptor for the chemokine ESkine Jarmin, DI Rits, M Bota, D Gerard, NP Graham, GJ Clark-Lewis, I Gerard, C J Immunol 164:3460-4 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CCR6 binds CCL20 ligand Receptor CCR6 binds CCL20 ligand This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775451 1 UniProt:O54689 Ccr6 UniProt O54689 1 EQUAL 374 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775455 1 UniProt:O89093 Ccl20 UniProt O89093 27 EQUAL 96 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775457 1 CCR6:CCL20 [plasma membrane] CCR6:CCL20 Reactome DB_ID: 9775451 1 1 EQUAL 374 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775455 1 27 EQUAL 96 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775457 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775457 Reactome R-MMU-373235 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373235.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775459 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775459 Reactome R-MMU-373087 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373087.1 CCR6 (Baba M et al, 1997) is expressed on inactive memory T-cells and on Th17 cells. CCR6 is down-regulated in activated T-cells. CCL20 (macrophage inflammatory protein 3-alpha, MIP 3-alpha) binds and activates CCR6 and it does not share the binding site of CCR6 with any other chemokine. 9169459 Pubmed 1997 Identification of CCR6, the specific receptor for a novel lymphocyte-directed CC chemokine LARC Baba, M Imai, T Nishimura, M Kakizaki, M Takagi, S Hieshima, K Nomiyama, H Yoshie, O J Biol Chem 272:14893-8 12149255 Pubmed 2002 The structure of human macrophage inflammatory protein-3alpha /CCL20. Linking antimicrobial and CC chemokine receptor-6-binding activities with human beta-defensins Hoover, DM Boulegue, C Yang, D Oppenheim, JJ Tucker, K Lu, W Lubkowski, J J Biol Chem 277:37647-54 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CCR7 binds CCL19 and 21 ligands Receptor CCR7 binds CCL19 and 21 ligands This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775361 1 CCL19,21 [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ccl19 [extracellular region] Ccl21b [extracellular region] Ccl21a [extracellular region] UniProt O70460 UniProt P86792 UniProt P84444 Reactome DB_ID: 9775345 1 UniProt:P47774 Ccr7 UniProt P47774 25 EQUAL 378 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775363 1 CCR7:CCL19,21 [plasma membrane] CCR7:CCL19,21 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775361 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775345 1 25 EQUAL 378 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775363 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775363 Reactome R-MMU-373319 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373319.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775365 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775365 Reactome R-MMU-373071 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373071.1 CCR7 (Epstein-Barr virus-induced gene 1, EBI1) (Birkenbach M, 1993; Schweickart VL et al, 1994) plays an important role in the trafficking of B and T lymphocytes and dendritic cells across high endothelial venules. Both CCL19 (Macrophage inflammatory protein 3 beta, MIP-3-beta; EBI1-ligand chemokine, ELC) (Yoshida R et al, 1997) and CCL21 (Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine, SLC; Beta chemokine exodus-2) (Yoshida R et al, 1998) bind specifically to CCR7. 7851893 Pubmed 1994 Cloning of human and mouse EBI1, a lymphoid-specific G-protein-coupled receptor encoded on human chromosome 17q12-q21.2 Schweickart, VL Raport, CJ Godiska, R Byers, MG Shows, Thomas B Gray, PW Genomics 23:643-50 9507024 Pubmed 1998 Secondary lymphoid-tissue chemokine is a functional ligand for the CC chemokine receptor CCR7 Yoshida, R Nagira, M Kitaura, M Imagawa, N Imai, T Yoshie, O J Biol Chem 273:7118-22 8383238 Pubmed 1993 Epstein-Barr virus-induced genes: first lymphocyte-specific G protein-coupled peptide receptors Birkenbach, M Josefsen, K Yalamanchili, R Lenoir, G Kieff, E J Virol 67:2209-20 9153236 Pubmed 1997 Molecular cloning of a novel human CC chemokine EBI1-ligand chemokine that is a specific functional ligand for EBI1, CCR7 Yoshida, R Imai, T Hieshima, K Kusuda, J Baba, M Kitaura, M Nishimura, M Kakizaki, M Nomiyama, H Yoshie, O J Biol Chem 272:13803-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CCR9 binds CCL25 ligand Receptor CCR9 binds CCL25 ligand This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775379 1 UniProt:O35903 Ccl25 UniProt O35903 24 EQUAL 150 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775383 1 UniProt:Q9WUT7 Ccr9 UniProt Q9WUT7 1 EQUAL 369 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775385 1 CCR9:CCL25 [plasma membrane] CCR9:CCL25 Reactome DB_ID: 9775379 1 24 EQUAL 150 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775383 1 1 EQUAL 369 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775385 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775385 Reactome R-MMU-373329 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373329.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775387 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775387 Reactome R-MMU-373074 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373074.1 CCR9 (previously called orphan receptor GPR 9-6) is highly expressed in the thymus on both mature and immature T-cells. It is also abundant in T-cells of the intestine but is lowly expressed in lymph nodes and the spleen. Alternative splicing produces two receptors, called CCR9A and CCR9B, CCR9A containing 12 additional amino acids at its N terminus as compared with CCR9B (Yu CR et al, 2000). The A and B forms of the receptor were expressed at a ratio of approximately 10:1. CCR9 has a specific ligand in CCL25 (Thymus-expressed chemokine, TECK) (Zaballos A et al, 1999) and transduces the signal by intracellular calcium mobilization. 10640743 Pubmed 2000 CCR9A and CCR9B: two receptors for the chemokine CCL25/TECK/Ck beta-15 that differ in their sensitivities to ligand Yu, CR Peden, KW Zaitseva, MB Golding, H Farber, JM J Immunol 164:1293-305 10229797 Pubmed 1999 Cutting edge: identification of the orphan chemokine receptor GPR-9-6 as CCR9, the receptor for the chemokine TECK Zaballos, A Gutiérrez, J Varona, R Ardavin, C Márquez, G J Immunol 162:5671-5 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA CX3CR1 binds CX3CL1 CX3CR1 binds CX3CL1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775475 1 UniProt:O35188 Cx3cl1 UniProt O35188 Reactome DB_ID: 9775479 1 UniProt:Q9Z0D9 Cx3cr1 UniProt Q9Z0D9 1 EQUAL 355 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775481 1 CX3CR1:CX3CL1 [plasma membrane] CX3CR1:CX3CL1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775475 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775479 1 1 EQUAL 355 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775481 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775481 Reactome R-MMU-373352 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373352.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775483 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775483 Reactome R-MMU-373342 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373342.1 CX3CL1 (fractalkine) is a member of the chemokine superfamily and functions as a human leukocyte chemoattractant protein (Bazan JF et al, 1997). Unlike other human chemokines, the chemokine domain of fractalkine has three amino acids between two conserved cysteines, referred to as the CX3C motif. This molecule can exist in two forms: either membrane-anchored or as a shed 95K glycoprotein. The soluble form has potent chemoattractant activity for T-cells and monocytes, and the membrane-bound protein, which is induced on activated primary endothelial cells, promotes strong adhesion of those leukocytes. The seven-transmembrane high-affinity receptor for fractalkine, termed CX3C1, mediates both the adhesive and migratory functions of fractalkine (Imai T et al, 1997). CX3CL1 is reported to signal via Gi (Brandt et al. 2002). 9024663 Pubmed 1997 A new class of membrane-bound chemokine with a CX3C motif Bazan, JF Bacon, KB Hardiman, G Wang, Wei Soo, K Rossi, D Greaves, DR Zlotnik, A Schall, TJ Nature 385:640-4 11781291 Pubmed 2002 Fractalkine-mediated signals regulate cell-survival and immune-modulatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells Brand, Stephan Sakaguchi, Takanori Gu, Xiubin Colgan, Sean P Reinecker, Hans-Christian Gastroenterology 122:166-77 9390561 Pubmed 1997 Identification and molecular characterization of fractalkine receptor CX3CR1, which mediates both leukocyte migration and adhesion Imai, T Hieshima, K Haskell, C Baba, M Nagira, M Nishimura, M Kakizaki, M Takagi, S Nomiyama, H Schall, TJ Yoshie, O Cell 91:521-30 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CXC1 binds to the ligands lymphotactin and cytokine SCM-1 beta Receptor CXC1 binds to the ligands lymphotactin and cytokine SCM-1 beta This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775463 1 UniProt:P47993 Xcl1 UniProt P47993 22 EQUAL 114 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775467 1 UniProt:Q9R0M1 Xcr1 UniProt Q9R0M1 1 EQUAL 333 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775469 1 XCR1:XCL1,XCL2 [plasma membrane] XCR1:XCL1,XCL2 Reactome DB_ID: 9775463 1 22 EQUAL 114 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775467 1 1 EQUAL 333 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775469 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775469 Reactome R-MMU-373357 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373357.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775471 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775471 Reactome R-MMU-373339 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373339.1 Single C motif-1 (SCM-1; lymphotactin, CXC1) is a member of the chemokine receptor family (Yoshida T et al, 1995). CXC differs from the CC chemokines by one amino acid separating two of the four conserved cysteine residues (to give the motif CXC) whereas two adjacent cysteines denote CC. In humans, there are two highly conserved SCM-1 genes, SCYC1 and 2, which encode two SCM-1 proteins, SCM1-alpha and beta (Yoshida T et al, 1996). These proteins act as specific ligands for the CXC1 receptor. This receptor is highly expressed in placenta but lowly in spleen and thymus. 7602097 Pubmed 1995 Molecular cloning and functional characterization of human lymphotactin Kennedy, J Kelner, GS Kleyensteuber, S Schall, TJ Weiss, MC Yssel, H Schneider, PV Cocks, BG Bacon, KB Zlotnik, A J Immunol 155:203-9 7875320 Pubmed 1995 Molecular cloning of a novel C or gamma type chemokine, SCM-1 Yoshida, T Imai, T Kakizaki, M Nishimura, M Yoshie, O FEBS Lett 360:155-9 8849694 Pubmed 1996 Structure and expression of two highly related genes encoding SCM-1/human lymphotactin Yoshida, T Imai, T Takagi, S Nishimura, M Ishikawa, I Yaoi, T Yoshie, O FEBS Lett 395:82-8 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CXCR1 binds CXCL6 and CXCL8 ligands Receptor CXCR1 binds CXCL6 and CXCL8 ligands This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775668 1 UniProt:P50228 Cxcl5 UniProt P50228 38 EQUAL 114 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775664 1 UniProt:Q810W6 Cxcr1 UniProt Q810W6 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775670 1 CXCR1:CXCR1 ligands [plasma membrane] CXCR1:CXCR1 ligands Reactome DB_ID: 9775668 1 38 EQUAL 114 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775664 1 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775670 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775670 Reactome R-MMU-373801 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373801.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775672 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775672 Reactome R-MMU-373791 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373791.1 CXCR1 (high affinity interleukin-8 receptor A) (Holmes WE et al, 1991) is closely related to CXCR2. They recognize CXC chemokines that possess an E-L-R amino acid motif immediately adjacent to their CXC motif. CXCL8 (interleukin-8, IL-8) (Matsushima K et al, 1988) and CXCL6 (Rovai LE et al, 1997) can both bind CXCR1 in humans and elicit various effects. CXCL8 attracts neutrophils, basophils, and T-cells, but not monocytes. It is also involved in neutrophil activation. CXCL6 is a chemotactic factor for neutrophil granulocytes. 1840701 Pubmed 1991 Structure and functional expression of a human interleukin-8 receptor Holmes, WE Lee, J Kuang, WJ Rice, GC Wood, WI Science 253:1278-80 9164944 Pubmed 1997 Cloning and characterization of the human granulocyte chemotactic protein-2 gene Rovai, LE Herschman, HR Smith, JB J Immunol 158:5257-66 3260265 Pubmed 1988 Molecular cloning of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) and the induction of MDNCF mRNA by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor Matsushima, K Morishita, K Yoshimura, T Lavu, S Kobayashi, Y Lew, W Appella, E Kung, HF Leonard, EJ Oppenheim, JJ J Exp Med 167:1883-93 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CXCR2 binds ligands CXCL1 to 7 Receptor CXCR2 binds ligands CXCL1 to 7 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775702 1 CXCR2 ligands [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ppbp [extracellular region] Cxcl3 [extracellular region] Cxcl1 [extracellular region] Cxcl2 [extracellular region] Cxcl5 [extracellular region] UniProt Q9EQI5 UniProt Q6W5C0 UniProt P12850 UniProt P10889 Reactome DB_ID: 9775676 1 UniProt:P35343 Cxcr2 UniProt P35343 1 EQUAL 360 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775704 1 CXCR2:CXCR2 ligands [plasma membrane] CXCR2:CXCR2 ligands Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775702 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775676 1 1 EQUAL 360 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775704 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775704 Reactome R-MMU-373773 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373773.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775706 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775706 Reactome R-MMU-373813 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373813.1 CXCR2 (High affinity interleukin-8 receptor B) (Murphy PM and Tiffany HL, 1991) is closely related to CXCR1 and binding of IL-8 to the receptor causes activation of neutrophils. Other ELR-positive chemokines (CXCL1 to CXCL7) can also bind with CXCR2 to cause various effects as described below.<br>CXCL1 (previously known as GRO1 oncogene; NAP-3; MSGA-alpha) (Richmond A et al, 1988) is expressed by neutrophils, macrophages and epithelial cells and possesses neutrophil chemoattractant activity. It is secreted by melanoma cells and is implicated in melanoma pathogenesis. CXCL2 (MIP2-alpha;Gro-beta;Gro-2) (Iida N and Grotendorst GR, 1990; Haskill S et al, 1990) is closely related to CXCL1 (90% amino acid sequence). It is secreted by monocytes and macrophages and attracts polymorphonuclear leukocytes and hematopoietic stem cells. CXCL3 (GRO3; GROg; MIP2-beta) (Haskill S et al, 1990) controls the migration and adhesion of monocytes.<br>CXCL4 (platelet factor 4, PF4) (Poncz M et al, 1987) is released from platelets during aggregation and promotes blood coagulation by neutralization of heparin-like molecules. It is chemotactic for neutrophils, fibroblasts and monocytes. Due to all these roles, CXCL4 is implicated in wound repair and inflammation. CXCL5 (ENA-78) (Walz A et al, 1991) is produced by cells which have been stimulated by interleulin-1 or tumor necrosis factor-alpha. CXCL7 (pro-platelet basic protein, PPBP) (Holt JC et al, 1986) is released from platelets once they are activated. It can stimulate various processes including glucose metabolism, mitogenesis and syntheses of plasminogen activator and extracellular matrix. 1891716 Pubmed 1991 Cloning of complementary DNA encoding a functional human interleukin-8 receptor Murphy, PM Tiffany, HL Science 253:1280-3 2423119 Pubmed 1986 Characterization of human platelet basic protein, a precursor form of low-affinity platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin Holt, JC Harris, ME Holt, AM Lange, E Henschen, Agnes Niewiarowski, S Biochemistry 25:1988-96 3098319 Pubmed 1987 Cloning and characterization of platelet factor 4 cDNA derived from a human erythroleukemic cell line Poncz, M Surrey, S LaRocco, P Weiss, MJ Rappaport, EF Conway, TM Schwartz, E Blood 69:219-23 2078213 Pubmed 1990 Cloning and sequencing of a new gro transcript from activated human monocytes: expression in leukocytes and wound tissue Iida, N Grotendorst, GR Mol Cell Biol 10:5596-9 2970963 Pubmed 1988 Molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of melanoma growth stimulatory activity, a growth factor structurally related to beta-thromboglobulin Richmond, A Balentien, E Thomas, HG Flaggs, G Barton, DE Spiess, J Bordoni, R Francke, U Derynck, R EMBO J 7:2025-33 2217207 Pubmed 1990 Identification of three related human GRO genes encoding cytokine functions Haskill, S Peace, A Morris, J Sporn, SA Anisowicz, A Lee, SW Smith, T Martin, G Ralph, P Sager, R Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 87:7732-6 1744577 Pubmed 1991 Structure and neutrophil-activating properties of a novel inflammatory peptide (ENA-78) with homology to interleukin 8 Walz, A Burgener, R Car, B Baggiolini, M Kunkel, SL Strieter, RM J Exp Med 174:1355-62 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CXCR3 binds ligands CXCL9 to 11 Receptor CXCR3 binds ligands CXCL9 to 11 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775766 1 CXCR3 ligands [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Cxcl9 [extracellular region] Cxcl10 [extracellular region] Cxcl11 [extracellular region] UniProt P18340 UniProt P17515 UniProt Q9JHH5 Reactome DB_ID: 9775770 1 UniProt:O88410 Cxcr3 UniProt O88410 1 EQUAL 368 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775772 1 CXCR3:CXCR3 ligands [plasma membrane] CXCR3:CXCR3 ligands Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775766 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775770 1 1 EQUAL 368 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775772 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775772 Reactome R-MMU-374141 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374141.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775774 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775774 Reactome R-MMU-374248 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374248.1 CXCR3 (Loetscher M et al, 1996) is predominantly expressed on T lymphocytes, and on other lymphocytes (some B cells and NK cells). It is highly induced following cell activation. There are three isoforms, CXCR3-A, CXCR3-B and CXCR3-alt. CXCR3 binds to three highly related ligands in mammals, CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 (Xanthou G et al, 2003). The ligands then elicit their chemoattractant functions. CXCL9 (CMK; monokine induced by gamma-interferon, MIG; SCYB9) is a T cell chemoattractant (Farber JM, 1993). CXCL10 (IP-10) (Booth V et al, 2002) is secreted by monocytes, endothelial cells and fibroblasts in response to gamma-interferon. It can act as a chemoattractant for monocytes, macrophages, T cells, NK cells and dendritic cells, promote T cell adhesion to endothelial cells and inhibit angiogenesis and bone marrow colony formation. CXCL11 (I-TAC,; iIP-9) (Cole KE et al, 1998) is highly expressed in peripheral blood leukocytes, pancreas and liver. It is regulated by interferon and has potent chemoattractant activity for interleukin-2-activated T cells. 12173928 Pubmed 2002 The CXCR3 binding chemokine IP-10/CXCL10: structure and receptor interactions Booth, V Keizer, DW Kamphuis, MB Clark-Lewis, I Sykes, BD Biochemistry 41:10418-25 9064356 Pubmed 1996 Chemokine receptor specific for IP10 and mig: structure, function, and expression in activated T-lymphocytes Loetscher, M Gerber, B Loetscher, P Jones, SA Piali, L Clark-Lewis, I Baggiolini, M Moser, B J Exp Med 184:963-9 9625760 Pubmed 1998 Interferon-inducible T cell alpha chemoattractant (I-TAC): a novel non-ELR CXC chemokine with potent activity on activated T cells through selective high affinity binding to CXCR3 Cole, KE Strick, CA Paradis, TJ Ogborne, KT Loetscher, M Gladue, RP Lin, W Boyd, JG Moser, B Wood, DE Sahagan, BG Neote, K J Exp Med 187:2009-21 12884299 Pubmed 2003 CCR3 functional responses are regulated by both CXCR3 and its ligands CXCL9, CXCL10 and CXCL11 Xanthou, G Duchesnes, CE Williams, TJ Pease, JE Eur J Immunol 33:2241-50 8476424 Pubmed 1993 HuMig: a new human member of the chemokine family of cytokines Farber, JM Biochem Biophys Res Commun 192:223-30 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptors CXCR4 and 7 bind CXCL12 ligand Receptors CXCR4 and 7 bind CXCL12 ligand This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775744 1 CXCR4,7 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ackr3 [plasma membrane] Cxcr4 [plasma membrane] UniProt P56485 UniProt P70658 Reactome DB_ID: 9775748 1 UniProt:P40224 Cxcl12 UniProt P40224 22 EQUAL 93 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775750 1 CXCR4,7:CXCL12 [plasma membrane] CXCR4,7:CXCL12 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775744 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775748 1 22 EQUAL 93 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775750 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775750 Reactome R-MMU-374203 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374203.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775752 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775752 Reactome R-MMU-374214 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374214.1 CXCL12 (stromal cell-derived factor-1, SDF-1) (Shirozu M et al, 1995) is produced in two forms, CXCL12alpha and CXCL12beta, by alternate splicing of the same gene (De La Luz Sierra M et al, 2004). It is a chemoattractant for T-lymphocytes and monocytes, but not neutrophils. In adult humans it plays an important role in angiogenesis by recruiting endothelial progenitor cells from the bone morrow through a CXCR4-dependent mechanism. CXCR4 (fusin) (Herzog H et al, 1993) is the receptor for CXCL12 and, like CCR5, is utilized by HIV-1 to gain entry into target cells. This receptor has a wide cellular distribution, with expression on most immature and mature hematopoietic cell types and also on vascular endothelial cells and neuronal/nerve cells. CXCR7 (RDC-1) (Infantino S et al, 2006) is expressed in monocytes, basophils and B cells and was originally an orphan receptor. 16455976 Pubmed 2006 Expression and regulation of the orphan receptor RDC1 and its putative ligand in human dendritic and B cells Infantino, S Moepps, B Thelen, M J Immunol 176:2197-207 7490086 Pubmed 1995 Structure and chromosomal localization of the human stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF1) gene Shirozu, M Nakano, T Inazawa, J Tashiro, K Tada, H Shinohara, T Honjo, Tasuku Genomics 28:495-500 14525775 Pubmed 2004 Differential processing of stromal-derived factor-1alpha and stromal-derived factor-1beta explains functional diversity De La Luz Sierra, M Yang, F Narazaki, M Salvucci, O Davis, D Yarchoan, R Zhang, HH Fales, H Tosato, G Blood 103:2452-9 9618518 Pubmed 1998 Crystal structure of chemically synthesized [N33A] stromal cell-derived factor 1alpha, a potent ligand for the HIV-1 "fusin" coreceptor Dealwis, C Fernandez, EJ Thompson, DA Simon, RJ Siani, MA Lolis, E Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:6941-6 16107333 Pubmed 2005 The chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12 binds to and signals through the orphan receptor RDC1 in T lymphocytes Balabanian, K Lagane, B Infantino, S Chow, KY Harriague, J Moepps, B Arenzana-Seisdedos, F Thelen, M Bachelerie, F J Biol Chem 280:35760-6 8329116 Pubmed 1993 Molecular cloning, characterization, and localization of the human homolog to the reported bovine NPY Y3 receptor: lack of NPY binding and activation Herzog, H Hort, YJ Shine, J Selbie, LA DNA Cell Biol 12:465-71 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA CXCR5 binds CXCL13 CXCR5 binds CXCL13 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9778066 1 UniProt:O55038 Cxcl13 UniProt O55038 23 EQUAL 109 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778062 1 UniProt:Q04683 Cxcr5 UniProt Q04683 1 EQUAL 372 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778068 1 CXCR5:CXCL13 [plasma membrane] CXCR5:CXCL13 Reactome DB_ID: 9778066 1 23 EQUAL 109 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778062 1 1 EQUAL 372 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778068 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778068 Reactome R-MMU-444551 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-444551.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784383 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784383 Reactome R-MMU-444523 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-444523.1 CXC-Chemokine receptor 5 (CXCR5) was originally called Burkitts Lymphoma receptor 1 after the source tissue. The primary ligand for this receptor is CXCL13 (B-cell attracting chemokine 1 also known as B-lymphocyte chemoattractant). 9463416 Pubmed 1998 B cell-attracting chemokine 1, a human CXC chemokine expressed in lymphoid tissues, selectively attracts B lymphocytes via BLR1/CXCR5 Legler, DF Loetscher, M Roos, RS Clark-Lewis, I Baggiolini, M Moser, B J Exp Med 187:655-60 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CXCR6 binds CXCL16 ligand Receptor CXCR6 binds CXCL16 ligand This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775487 1 UniProt:Q9EQ16 Cxcr6 UniProt Q9EQ16 1 EQUAL 342 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775491 1 UniProt:Q8BSU2 Cxcl16 UniProt Q8BSU2 30 EQUAL 254 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775493 1 CXCR6:CXCL16 [plasma membrane] CXCR6:CXCL16 Reactome DB_ID: 9775487 1 1 EQUAL 342 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775491 1 30 EQUAL 254 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775493 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775493 Reactome R-MMU-373797 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373797.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775495 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775495 Reactome R-MMU-373358 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373358.1 CXCR6 (formerly called STRL33, BONZO, and TYMSTR) was assigned this name based on its chromosomal location (within the chemokine receptor cluster on human chromosome 3p21) and its similarity to other chemokine receptors in its gene sequence (Liao F et al, 1997). CXCR6 is structurally more closely related to CC chemokine receptors than to other CXC chemokine receptors. It is expressed in lymphoid tissues and activated T cells and is induced in activated peripheral blood lymphocytes. CXCR6 binds the ligand CXCL16 (Shimaoka T et al, 2000) which acts as a scavenger receptor on macrophages. It specifically binds to oxidized low density lipoprotein, suggesting that it may be involved in pathophysiology such as atherogenesis. 9166430 Pubmed 1997 STRL33, A novel chemokine receptor-like protein, functions as a fusion cofactor for both macrophage-tropic and T cell line-tropic HIV-1 Liao, F Alkhatib, G Peden, KW Sharma, G Berger, EA Farber, JM J Exp Med 185:2015-23 11060282 Pubmed 2000 Molecular cloning of a novel scavenger receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein, SR-PSOX, on macrophages Shimaoka, T Kume, N Minami, M Hayashida, K Kataoka, H Kita, T Yonehara, S J Biol Chem 275:40663-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptors CCR3, 4 and 5 bind CCL5 ligand Receptors CCR3, 4 and 5 bind CCL5 ligand This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775337 1 CCR3,4,5 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ccr4 [plasma membrane] Ccr5 [plasma membrane] Ccr3 [plasma membrane] UniProt P51680 UniProt P51682 UniProt P51678 Reactome DB_ID: 9775323 1 UniProt:P30882 Ccl5 UniProt P30882 24 EQUAL 91 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9775339 1 CCR3,4,5:CCL5(24-91) [plasma membrane] CCR3,4,5:CCL5(24-91) Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775337 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775323 1 24 EQUAL 91 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775339 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775339 Reactome R-MMU-373299 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373299.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775341 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775341 Reactome R-MMU-373061 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-373061.1 Three receptors have a common CC chemokine CCL5 that can signal through them. CCR3 (Combadiere C et al, 1995) is highly expressed in eosinophils and basophils and also found in airway epithelial cells, thus implicating this receptor in allergic reactions. CCR4 (Power CA et al, 1995) is expressed in Th2 T lymphocytes and upregulated by T-cell receptor activation. CCR5 (Samson M et al, 1996) mediates the recruitment of cells involved in immune and inflammatory processes. 7622448 Pubmed 1995 Cloning and functional expression of a human eosinophil CC chemokine receptor Combadiere, C Ahuja, SK Murphy, PM J Biol Chem 270:16491-4 7642634 Pubmed 1995 Molecular cloning and functional expression of a novel CC chemokine receptor cDNA from a human basophilic cell line Power, CA Meyer, A Nemeth, K Bacon, KB Hoogewerf, AJ Proudfoot, AE Wells, TN J Biol Chem 270:19495-500 8639485 Pubmed 1996 Molecular cloning and functional expression of a new human CC-chemokine receptor gene Samson, M Labbe, O Mollereau, C Vassart, G Parmentier, M Biochemistry 35:3362-7 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor ACKR2 binds most inflammatory CC chemokines Receptor ACKR2 binds most inflammatory CC chemokines This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9784232 1 UniProt:O08707 Ackr2 UniProt O08707 1 EQUAL 384 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9784256 1 CCBP2 ligands [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ccl12 [extracellular region] Ccl4 [extracellular region] Ccl17 [extracellular region] Ccl22 [extracellular region] Ccl5 [extracellular region] Ccl3 [extracellular region] Ccl7 [extracellular region] UniProt Q62401 UniProt P14097 UniProt F6R5P4 UniProt O88430 UniProt P10855 UniProt Q03366 Reactome DB_ID: 9784258 1 ACKR2:CCBP2 ligands [plasma membrane] ACKR2:CCBP2 ligands Reactome DB_ID: 9784232 1 1 EQUAL 384 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9784256 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784258 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784258 Reactome R-MMU-443988 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-443988.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784260 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784260 Reactome R-MMU-443986 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-443986.1 Atypical chemokine receptor 2 (ACKR2, CCBP2, D6) is a promiscuous chemokine receptor which has no known signalling function and is therefore considered to be a 'silent' or 'scavenger' receptor. ACKR2 negatively regulates inflammatory responses by binding CC chemokines, targeting them for degradation following receptor internalization (Fra et al. 2003, Bonecchi et al. 2004, Graham & Locati 2013). 12594248 Pubmed 2003 Cutting edge: scavenging of inflammatory CC chemokines by the promiscuous putatively silent chemokine receptor D6 Fra, AM Locati, M Otero, K Sironi, M Signorelli, P Massardi, ML Gobbi, M Vecchi, A Sozzani, S Mantovani, A J Immunol 170:2279-82 23125030 Pubmed 2013 Regulation of the immune and inflammatory responses by the 'atypical' chemokine receptor D6 Graham, Gerard J Locati, Massimo J. Pathol. 229:168-75 15067078 Pubmed 2004 Differential recognition and scavenging of native and truncated macrophage-derived chemokine (macrophage-derived chemokine/CC chemokine ligand 22) by the D6 decoy receptor Bonecchi, R Locati, M Galliera, E Vulcano, M Sironi, M Fra, AM Gobbi, M Vecchi, A Sozzani, S Haribabu, B van Damme, J Mantovani, A J Immunol 172:4972-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Receptor CCR11 binds CCL19, CCL21 & CCL25 Receptor CCR11 binds CCL19, CCL21 & CCL25 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9784224 1 CCL19, CCL21, CCL25 [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ccl19 [extracellular region] Ccl21b [extracellular region] Ccl21a [extracellular region] Ccl25 [extracellular region] Reactome DB_ID: 9784222 1 UniProt:Q924I3 Ackr4 UniProt Q924I3 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9784226 1 CCR11:CCL19,21,25 [plasma membrane] CCR11:CCL19,21,25 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9784224 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9784222 1 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784226 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784226 Reactome R-MMU-443970 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-443970.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784228 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784228 Reactome R-MMU-443978 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-443978.1 CCR11 binds CCL19, CCL21, and CCL25 but calcium signalling is low level, consequently it is regarded by some as a scavenger receptor (Comerford et al. 2006). 10706668 Pubmed 2000 Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK Gosling, J Dairaghi, DJ Wang, Y Hanley, M Talbot, D Miao, Z Schall, TJ J Immunol 164:2851-6 16791897 Pubmed 2006 The chemokine receptor CCX-CKR mediates effective scavenging of CCL19 in vitro Comerford, I Milasta, S Morrow, V Milligan, G Nibbs, R Eur J Immunol 36:1904-16 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA CCRL2 binds CCL19 CCRL2 binds CCL19 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775349 1 UniProt:O70460 Ccl19 22 EQUAL 98 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9816092 1 UniProt:O35457 Ccrl2 UniProt O35457 1 EQUAL 344 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9816094 1 CCRL2:CCL19 [plasma membrane] CCRL2:CCL19 Reactome DB_ID: 9775349 1 22 EQUAL 98 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9816092 1 1 EQUAL 344 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9816094 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9816094 Reactome R-MMU-3296272 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-3296272.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9816096 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9816096 Reactome R-MMU-3296301 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-3296301.1 CCRL2 binds the chemokine CCL19 with an affinity similar to the binding of CCL19 to its other receptor CCR7. In contrast to the known CCL19:CCR7 ligand:receptor interaction, binding to CCRL2 does not result in cellular activation. Instead CCRL2 is constitutively recycled via clathrin-coated pits. Thus CCRL2 may have a role in modulating chemokine-triggered immune responses by capturing and internalizing CCL19. 20002784 Pubmed 2010 CCL19 is a specific ligand of the constitutively recycling atypical human chemokine receptor CRAM-B Leick, Marion Catusse, Julie Follo, Marie Nibbs, Robert J Hartmann, Tanja N Veelken, Hendrik Burger, Meike Immunology 129:536-46 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA CCR8 binds CCL1 CCR8 binds CCL1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9775373 1 UniProt:P56484 Ccr8 UniProt P56484 1 EQUAL 355 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778470 1 UniProt:P10146 Ccl1 UniProt P10146 24 EQUAL 96 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778472 1 CCR8:CCL1 [plasma membrane] CCR8:CCL1 Reactome DB_ID: 9775373 1 1 EQUAL 355 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778470 1 24 EQUAL 96 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778472 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778472 Reactome R-MMU-8851339 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8851339.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9844161 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9844161 Reactome R-MMU-8851352 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8851352.1 CCR8 is the receptor for CCL1 (Roos et al. 1997, Tiffany et al. 1997)Goya et al. 1998, Dairaghi et al. 1999). CCL1-induced mobilization of intracellular calcium was inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting that CCR8 is coupled to the Gi class of Galpha subunits (Tiffany et al. 1997, Goya et al. 1998) 10419462 Pubmed 1999 HHV8-encoded vMIP-I selectively engages chemokine receptor CCR8. Agonist and antagonist profiles of viral chemokines Dairaghi, D J Fan, R A McMaster, B E Hanley, M R Schall, T J J. Biol. Chem. 274:21569-74 9211859 Pubmed 1997 Identification of CCR8, the receptor for the human CC chemokine I-309 Roos, R S Loetscher, M Legler, D F Clark-Lewis, I Baggiolini, M Moser, B J. Biol. Chem. 272:17251-4 9207005 Pubmed 1997 Identification of CCR8: a human monocyte and thymus receptor for the CC chemokine I-309 Tiffany, HL Lautens, LL Gao, JL Pease, J Locati, M Combadiere, C Modi, W Bonner, TI Murphy, PM J Exp Med 186:165-70 9469461 Pubmed 1998 Identification of CCR8 as the specific receptor for the human beta-chemokine I-309: cloning and molecular characterization of murine CCR8 as the receptor for TCA-3 Goya, I Gutiérrez, J Varona, R Kremer, L Zaballos, A Márquez, G J. Immunol. 160:1975-81 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9861488 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9861488 Reactome R-MMU-380108 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-380108.1 Chemokine receptors are cytokine receptors found on the surface of certain cells, which interact with a type of cytokine called a chemokine. Following interaction, these receptors trigger a flux of intracellular calcium which leads to chemotaxis. Chemokine receptors are divided into different families, CXC chemokine receptors, CC chemokine receptors, CX3C chemokine receptors and XC chemokine receptors that correspond to the 4 distinct subfamilies of chemokines they bind. 11544102 Pubmed 2001 Chemokine receptors Horuk, R Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 12:313-35 15578986 Pubmed 2004 Chemokine-chemokine receptor network in immune cell trafficking Kim, CH Curr Drug Targets Immune Endocr Metabol Disord 4:343-61 10807766 Pubmed 2000 Chemokine receptors and their role in inflammation and infectious diseases Murdoch, C Finn, A Blood 95:3032-43 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Somatostatin receptors bind somatostatin and cortistatin Somatostatin receptors bind somatostatin and cortistatin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775956 1 Somatostatin, cortistatin [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Cort [extracellular region] Sst(89-116) [extracellular region] Sst(103-116) [extracellular region] UniProt P56469 UniProt P60041 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775978 1 Somatostatin receptors [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Sstr1 [plasma membrane] Sstr2 [plasma membrane] Sstr3 [plasma membrane] Sstr5 [plasma membrane] Sstr4 [plasma membrane] UniProt P30873 UniProt P30875 UniProt P30935 UniProt O08858 UniProt P49660 Reactome DB_ID: 9775980 1 Somatostatin receptor:somatostatin [plasma membrane] Somatostatin receptor:somatostatin Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775956 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9775978 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775980 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775980 Reactome R-MMU-374763 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374763.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9775982 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9775982 Reactome R-MMU-374758 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-374758.1 Somatostatin (growth hormone inhibiting hormone, GHIH; somatotropin release-inhibiting factor, SRIF) (Shen LP et al, 1992) is a peptide hormone that regulates the endocrine system and affects neurotransmission and cell proliferation via interaction with somatostatin receptors 1-5 (Hoyer D et al, 1995). Somatostatin has two active forms produced by alternative cleavage of the single preproprotein and named according to the number of amino acids in the chain; Somatostatin-28 and somatostatin-14. The 5 receptors known to date all couple with pertussis toxin-sensitive G proteins to inhibit adenylate cyclase after ligand binding. They were classified according to the dates they were discovered; SSTR1 and 2 (Yamada Y et al, Jan. 1992), SSTR3 (Yamada Y et al, Dec. 1992) and SSTR4 and SSTR5 (Yamada Y et al, Sep. 1993). 1346068 Pubmed 1992 Cloning and functional characterization of a family of human and mouse somatostatin receptors expressed in brain, gastrointestinal tract, and kidney Yamada, Y Post, SR Wang, K Tager, HS Bell, Graeme I Seino, S Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 89:251-5 7792934 Pubmed 1995 Classification and nomenclature of somatostatin receptors Hoyer, D Bell, Graeme I Berelowitz, M Epelbaum, J Feniuk, W Humphrey, PP O'Carroll, AM Patel, YC Schonbrunn, A Taylor, JE Trends Pharmacol Sci 16:86-8 6126875 Pubmed 1982 Human somatostatin I: sequence of the cDNA Shen, LP Pictet, RL Rutter, WJ Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 79:4575-9 1337145 Pubmed 1992 Somatostatin receptors, an expanding gene family: cloning and functional characterization of human SSTR3, a protein coupled to adenylyl cyclase Yamada, Y Reisine, T Law, SF Ihara, Y Kubota, A Kagimoto, S Seino, M Seino, Y Bell, Graeme I Seino, S Mol Endocrinol 6:2136-42 8373420 Pubmed 1993 Cloning, functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a fourth (hSSTR4) and a fifth (hSSTR5) human somatostatin receptor subtype Yamada, Y Kagimoto, S Kubota, A Yasuda, K Masuda, K Someya, Y Ihara, Y Li, Q Imura, H Seino, S Biochem Biophys Res Commun 195:844-52 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Tachykinin receptors bind tachykinins Tachykinin receptors bind tachykinins This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Tachykinin receptor 1 (NK1) binds to substance P Tachykinin receptor 1 (NK1) binds to substance P This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777713 1 UniProt:P30548 Tacr1 UniProt P30548 1 EQUAL 407 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777709 1 UniProt:P41539 Tac1 UniProt P41539 58 EQUAL 68 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777715 1 TACR1:TAC1(58-68) [plasma membrane] TACR1:TAC1(58-68) Reactome DB_ID: 9777713 1 1 EQUAL 407 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777709 1 58 EQUAL 68 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777715 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777715 Reactome R-MMU-380119 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-380119.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778574 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778574 Reactome R-MMU-380076 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-380076.1 Substance P (Harmar AJ et al, 1986) is an neuropeptide, 11 amino-acids in length, that acts as a neurotransmitter for pain response neurons. It does this by binding to its endogenous receptor neurokinin 1 (NK1R, substance P receptor) which belongs to the tachykinin receptor sub-family of GPCRs (Takeda Y et al, 1991). 3770210 Pubmed 1986 cDNA sequence of human beta-preprotachykinin, the common precursor to substance P and neurokinin A Harmar, AJ Armstrong, A Pascall, JC Chapman, K Rosie, R Curtis, A Going, J Edwards, CR Fink, G FEBS Lett 208:67-72 1718267 Pubmed 1991 Molecular cloning, structural characterization and functional expression of the human substance P receptor Takeda, Y Chou, KB Takeda, J Sachais, BS Krause, JE Biochem Biophys Res Commun 179:1232-40 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Tachykinin receptor 2 (NK2) binds to nuerokinin A Tachykinin receptor 2 (NK2) binds to nuerokinin A This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777717 1 98 EQUAL 107 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777721 1 UniProt:P30549 Tacr2 UniProt P30549 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777723 1 TACR2:TAC1(98-107) [plasma membrane] TACR2:TAC1(98-107) Reactome DB_ID: 9777717 1 98 EQUAL 107 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777721 1 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777723 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777723 Reactome R-MMU-383351 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-383351.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779403 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779403 Reactome R-MMU-383363 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-383363.1 Neurokinin A (substance K) (Gerard NP et al, 1990) is a peptide neurotransmitter of the tachykinin family which can act as a mediator in human airway and gastrointestinal tissues. Neurokinin A acts via the substance K receptor (NK-2 receptor) (Harmar AJ et al, 1986), believed to be localized on smooth muscle cells and pharmacologically coupled to a GTP-binding protein. 2173708 Pubmed 1990 The human neurokinin A (substance K) receptor. Molecular cloning of the gene, chromosome localization, and isolation of cDNA from tracheal and gastric tissues Gerard, NP Eddy, Roger L Shows, Thomas B Gerard, C J Biol Chem 265:20455-62 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Tachykinin receptor 3 (NK3) binds to neurokinin B Tachykinin receptor 3 (NK3) binds to neurokinin B This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777727 1 UniProt:P55099 Tac3 UniProt P55099 81 EQUAL 90 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777731 1 UniProt:P47937 Tacr3 UniProt P47937 1 EQUAL 465 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777733 1 TACR3:TAC3 [plasma membrane] TACR3:TAC3 Reactome DB_ID: 9777727 1 81 EQUAL 90 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777731 1 1 EQUAL 465 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777733 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777733 Reactome R-MMU-383372 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-383372.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779405 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779405 Reactome R-MMU-383373 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-383373.1 Neurokinin B peptide (NKB) (Torricelli M et al, 2007) is a tachykinin-related neuropeptide that is highly expressed in the placenta.It can bind to its receptor, NK3 (Huang RR et al, 1992), which is associated with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. Elevated levels of NKB in early pregnancy may be an indicator of hypertension and pre-eclampsia (Page NM et al, 2000), and treatment with certain neurokinin receptor antagonists may be useful in alleviating the symptoms. 17561251 Pubmed 2007 Placental neurokinin B mRNA expression increases at preterm labor Torricelli, M Giovannelli, A Leucci, E Florio, P De Falco, G Torres, PB Reis, FM Leoncini, L Petraglia, F Placenta 28:1020-3 1374246 Pubmed 1992 cDNA sequence and heterologous expression of the human neurokinin-3 receptor Huang, RR Cheung, AH Mazina, KE Strader, CD Fong, TM Biochem Biophys Res Commun 184:966-72 10866201 Pubmed 2000 Excessive placental secretion of neurokinin B during the third trimester causes pre-eclampsia Page, NM Woods, RJ Gardiner, SM Lomthaisong, K Gladwell, RT Butlin, DJ Manyonda, IT Lowry, PJ Nature 405:797-800 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9861556 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9861556 Reactome R-MMU-380095 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-380095.1 Tachykinin peptides are one of the largest family of neuropeptides, so named due to their ability to rapidly induce contraction of gut tissue. Tachykinins excite neurons, elicit behavioural responses, are potent vasodilators and contract many smooth muscles. The tachykinin family is characterized by a common C-terminal sequence, Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2 (where X can be either an aromatic or an aliphatic amino acid) and are ten to twelve residues long.<br><br>These peptides elicit their effects via the tachykinin receptors, of which there are three types in humans (NK1,2 and 3). There are two human tachykinin peptide genes in humans, TAC1 and TAC3. TAC1 encodes substance P and substance K while TAC3 encodes neurokinin B.<br><br>Antagonists of these receptors are promising candidates for classes of antidepressants, anxiolytics and antipsychotics. 16918325 Pubmed 2006 Overview of the primary structure, tissue-distribution, and functions of tachykinins and their receptors Satake, H Kawada, T Curr Drug Targets 7:963-74 15224188 Pubmed 2004 Hemokinins and endokinins Page, NM Cell Mol Life Sci 61:1652-63 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Vasopressin-like receptors Vasopressin-like receptors This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> AVP(20-28) binds AVPR1A,B AVP(20-28) binds AVPR1A,B This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777524 1 AVPR1A,B [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Avpr1a [plasma membrane] Avpr1b [plasma membrane] UniProt Q62463 UniProt Q9WU02 Reactome DB_ID: 9777068 1 UniProt:P35455 Avp Avp Avp FUNCTION Neurophysin 2 specifically binds vasopressin.FUNCTION Vasopressin has a direct antidiuretic action on the kidney, it also causes vasoconstriction of the peripheral vessels. Acts by binding to vasopressin receptors (V1bR/AVPR1B, V1aR/AVPR1A, and V2R/AVPR2) (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with vasopressin receptors V1bR/AVPR1B (Ki=85 pM), V1aR/AVPR1A (Ki=0.6 nM) and V2R/AVPR2 (Ki=4.9 nM) (By similarity). Interacts with oxytocin receptor (OXTR) (Ki=110 nM) (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the vasopressin/oxytocin family. UniProt P35455 20 EQUAL 28 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777526 1 AVPR1A,B:AVP(20-28) [plasma membrane] AVPR1A,B:AVP(20-28) Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777524 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9777068 1 20 EQUAL 28 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777526 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777526 Reactome R-MMU-388502 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388502.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779407 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779407 Reactome R-MMU-388468 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388468.1 In humans there are three main arginine vasopressin receptors; AVPR1A, 1B and 2. AVPR1A (Thibonnier et al. 1994) and AVPR1B (Sugimoto et al. 1994) act as receptors for the signal peptide Arg-vasopressin (AVP(20-28)), a cleaved peptide from the precursor AVP protein (Mohr et al. 1985, Sausville et al. 1985) and are expressed mainly in the brain. The 1A and 1B forms use G protein alpha q/11 subunits as their second messenger system. 2991279 Pubmed 1985 The human vasopressin gene is linked to the oxytocin gene and is selectively expressed in a cultured lung cancer cell line Sausville, E Carney, D Battey, J J Biol Chem 260:10236-41 7929452 Pubmed 1994 Molecular cloning and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the human V1b vasopressin receptor Sugimoto, T Saito, M Mochizuki, S Watanabe, Y Hashimoto, S Kawashima, H J Biol Chem 269:27088-92 8106369 Pubmed 1994 Molecular cloning, sequencing, and functional expression of a cDNA encoding the human V1a vasopressin receptor Thibonnier, M Auzan, C Madhun, Z Wilkins, P Berti-Mattera, L Clauser, E J Biol Chem 269:3304-10 4065330 Pubmed 1985 Expression of the vasopressin and oxytocin genes in human hypothalami Mohr, E Hillers, M Ivell, R Haulica, ID Richter, D FEBS Lett 193:12-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA AVP(20-28) binds AVPR2 AVP(20-28) binds AVPR2 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777072 1 UniProt:O88721 Avpr2 UniProt O88721 1 EQUAL 371 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777068 1 20 EQUAL 28 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777074 1 AVPR2:AVP(20-28) [plasma membrane] AVPR2:AVP(20-28) Reactome DB_ID: 9777072 1 1 EQUAL 371 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777068 1 20 EQUAL 28 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777074 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777074 Reactome R-MMU-392261 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-392261.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9780377 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9780377 Reactome R-MMU-392263 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-392263.1 Arginine vasopressin receptor 2 (AVPR2) (Birnbaumer et al. 1992) is expressed in the kidneys and can bind the signal peptide Arg-vasopressin (AVP(20-28)), a cleaved peptide from the precursor AVP protein (Mohr et al. 1985, Sausville et al. 1985). This receptor uses the G protein alpha s subunit as its second messenger system. 1534149 Pubmed 1992 Molecular cloning of the receptor for human antidiuretic hormone Birnbaumer, M Seibold, A Gilbert, S Ishido, M Barberis, C Antaramian, A Brabet, P Rosenthal, W Nature 357:333-5 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Oxytocin receptor bind oxytocin Oxytocin receptor bind oxytocin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777791 1 UniProt:P97926 Oxtr UniProt P97926 1 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777787 1 UniProt:P35454 Oxt UniProt P35454 20 EQUAL 28 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777793 1 OXTR:OXT(20-28) [plasma membrane] OXTR:OXT(20-28) Reactome DB_ID: 9777791 1 1 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777787 1 20 EQUAL 28 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777793 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777793 Reactome R-MMU-388495 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388495.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779409 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779409 Reactome R-MMU-388503 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388503.1 Oxytocin is a nonapetide closely related to vasopressin (Mohr E et al, 1985; Sausville E et al, 1985). It is best known for its roles in female reproduction: it is released in large amounts during labour facilitating birth and afterwards, breastfeeding. It also acts as a neurotransmitter in the brain. The actions of oxytocin via the oxytocin receptor (Kimura T et al, 1992) are mediated by G proteins which activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. 1313946 Pubmed 1992 Structure and expression of a human oxytocin receptor Kimura, T Tanizawa, O Mori, K Brownstein, MJ Okayama, H Nature 356:526-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9861592 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9861592 Reactome R-MMU-388479 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388479.1 The vasopressins are peptide hormones consisting of nine amino acids (nonapeptides). They include arginine vasopressin (AVP; anti-diuretic hormone, ADH) and oxytocin. They are synthesized in the hypothalamus from a precursor and released from stores in the posterior pituitary into the blood stream. One of the most important roles of vasopressins is the regulation of water retention in the body. Oxytocin is important in uterine contraction during birth. The vasopressins act via AVP and oxytocin receptors. These are connected to G proteins which act as second messengers and convey the signal inside the cell. 11274341 Pubmed 2001 The oxytocin receptor system: structure, function, and regulation Gimpl, G Fahrenholz, F Physiol Rev 81:629-83 8734452 Pubmed 1996 Vasopressin and oxytocin receptors Zingg, HH Baillieres Clin Endocrinol Metab 10:75-96 8719042 Pubmed 1995 Molecular neurobiology and pharmacology of the vasopressin/oxytocin receptor family Peter, J Burbach, H Adan, RA Lolait, SJ van Leeuwen, FW Mezey, E Palkovits, M Barberis, C Cell Mol Neurobiol 15:573-95 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Cholecystokinin receptors bind cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin receptors bind cholecystokinin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777592 1 UniProt:P09240 Cck UniProt P09240 21 EQUAL 115 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777602 1 CCKAR,CCKBR [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Cckbr [plasma membrane] Cckar [plasma membrane] UniProt P56481 UniProt O08786 Reactome DB_ID: 9777604 1 CCKAR,CCKBR:CCK [plasma membrane] CCKAR,CCKBR:CCK Reactome DB_ID: 9777592 1 21 EQUAL 115 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777602 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777604 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777604 Reactome R-MMU-388532 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388532.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779411 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779411 Reactome R-MMU-388529 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388529.1 Cholecystokinin (CCK, previously called pancreozymin) (Takahashi Y et al,1985) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. CCK is synthesized by I-cells in the small intestine and secreted in the duodenum, causing the release of digestive enzymes and bile from the pancreas and gall-bladder respectively. It also acts as a hunger suppressant. CCK receptors bind CCK. In humans, there are two receptor types, A (Ulrich CD et al, 1993) and B (Pisegna JR et al, 1992). The A type are primarily distributed in the GI tract whereas the B type are primarily in the CNS. In the CNS, type B receptors modulate anxiety, analgesia, arousal, and neuroleptic activity.These receptors mediates the action of CCK by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. 8503909 Pubmed 1993 Molecular cloning and functional expression of the human gallbladder cholecystokinin A receptor Ulrich, CD Ferber, I Holicky, E Hadac, E Buell, G Miller, LJ Biochem Biophys Res Commun 193:204-11 3856870 Pubmed 1985 Molecular cloning of the human cholecystokinin gene by use of a synthetic probe containing deoxyinosine Takahashi, Y Kato, K Hayashizaki, Y Wakabayashi, T Ohtsuka, E Matsuki, S Ikehara, M Matsubara, K Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82:1931-5 1280419 Pubmed 1992 Molecular cloning of the human brain and gastric cholecystokinin receptor: structure, functional expression and chromosomal localization Pisegna, JR de Weerth, A Huppi, K Wank, SA Biochem Biophys Res Commun 189:296-303 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.4.24.64 3.4.24.21 3.4.24.11 3.4.24.22 3.4.24.55 3.4.24.70 3.4.24.71 3.4.24.61 3.4.24.72 3.4.24.17 3.4.24.18 3.4.24.19 3.4.24.23 3.4.24.56 3.4.24.24 3.4.24.35 3.4.24.57 3.4.24.14 3.4.24.69 3.4.24.37 3.4.24.59 ECE1 cleaves EDN1(53-90) ECE1 cleaves EDN1(53-90) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9848702 1 UniProt:P22387 Edn1 UniProt P22387 53 EQUAL 90 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777614 1 53 EQUAL 73 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9848706 UniProt:Q4PZA2 Ece1 UniProt Q4PZA2 1 EQUAL 770 EQUAL GO 0004222 GO molecular function Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848707 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848707 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848709 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848709 Reactome R-MMU-8876868 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8876868.1 Endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE1) is a type II membrane-bound zinc metalloprotease. It cleaves the longer form of endothelin (EDN1(53-90), also known as Big ET-1, by an unusual selective hydrolysis of Trp21-Val22, producing EDN1. ECE1 exhibits maximal activity at pH 7.0. It comprises a short cytoplasmic N-terminal tail, a membrane-spanning region, and a large extracellular domain containing a zinc-binding motif essential for enzymatic activity (Schweizer et al. 1997, Valdenaire et al.1999, Jeng et al. 2002). 26956245 Pubmed 2016 Endothelin Davenport, Anthony P Hyndman, Kelly A Dhaun, Neeraj Southan, Christopher Kohan, Donald E Pollock, Jennifer S Pollock, David M Webb, David J Maguire, Janet J Pharmacol. Rev. 68:357-418 10462527 Pubmed 1999 Two di-leucine-based motifs account for the different subcellular localizations of the human endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE-1) isoforms Valdenaire, O Barret, A Schweizer, A Rohrbacher, E Mongiat, F Pinet, F Corvol, P Tougard, C J. Cell. Sci. 112:3115-25 8062389 Pubmed 1994 ECE-1: a membrane-bound metalloprotease that catalyzes the proteolytic activation of big endothelin-1 Xu, D Emoto, N Giaid, A Slaughter, C Kaw, S deWit, D Yanagisawa, M Cell 78:473-85 12056551 Pubmed 2002 Nonpeptidic endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitors and their potential therapeutic applications Jeng, Arco Y Mulder, Paul Kwan, Aij-Lie Battistini, Bruno Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 80:440-9 9396733 Pubmed 1997 Human endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE-1): three isoforms with distinct subcellular localizations Schweizer, A Valdenaire, O Nelböck, P Deuschle, U Dumas Milne Edwards, J B Stumpf, J G Löffler, B M Biochem. J. 328:871-7 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.4.24.64 3.4.24.21 3.4.24.11 3.4.24.22 3.4.24.55 3.4.24.70 3.4.24.71 3.4.24.61 3.4.24.72 3.4.24.17 3.4.24.18 3.4.24.19 3.4.24.23 3.4.24.56 3.4.24.24 3.4.24.35 3.4.24.57 3.4.24.14 3.4.24.69 3.4.24.37 3.4.24.59 ECE2 cleaves EDN1(53-90) ECE2 cleaves EDN1(53-90) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9848870 1 transport vesicle GO 0030133 53 EQUAL 90 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9848872 1 53 EQUAL 73 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9848876 transport vesicle membrane GO 0030658 UniProt:P0DPD9 Eef1akmt4-Ece2 UniProt P0DPD9 1 EQUAL 811 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848877 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9848879 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9848879 Reactome R-MMU-8877620 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8877620.1 Endothelin-converting enzyme 2 (ECE2) belongs to the type II membrane-bound zinc metalloprotease family and shares 59% sequence similarity to ECE1 (Emoto & Yanagisawa1995, Yanagisawa et al. 2000, Lorenzo et al. 2001). In contrast to ECE1, the optimum pH for ECE2 activity is acidic (pH 5.5), which would favor an intracellular localization and a potential role under low pH conditions, for example in ischemia. This difference provides an experimental method for distinguishing between the activities of the two enzymes. ECE2 was found to be localized to the acidified environment of vesicles of the secretory pathway in human endothelial cells but was not detected in Weibel-Palade storage granules (Russell & Davenport 1999). 7797512 Pubmed 1995 Endothelin-converting enzyme-2 is a membrane-bound, phosphoramidon-sensitive metalloprotease with acidic pH optimum Emoto, N Yanagisawa, M J. Biol. Chem. 270:15262-8 12560336 Pubmed 2003 Characterization of endothelin-converting enzyme-2. Implication for a role in the nonclassical processing of regulatory peptides Mzhavia, Nino Pan, Hui Che, Fa-Yun Fricker, Lloyd D Devi, Lakshmi A J. Biol. Chem. 278:14704-11 11718899 Pubmed 2001 Human endothelin converting enzyme-2 (ECE2): characterization of mRNA species and chromosomal localization Lorenzo, M N Khan, R Y Wang, Y Tai, S C Chan, G C Cheung, A H Marsden, P A Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1522:46-52 10222335 Pubmed 1999 Evidence for intracellular endothelin-converting enzyme-2 expression in cultured human vascular endothelial cells Russell, F D Davenport, A P Circ. Res. 84:891-6 10811845 Pubmed 2000 Disruption of ECE-1 and ECE-2 reveals a role for endothelin-converting enzyme-2 in murine cardiac development Yanagisawa, H Hammer, R E Richardson, J A Emoto, N Williams, S C Takeda, S i Clouthier, D E Yanagisawa, M J. Clin. Invest. 105:1373-82 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA 3.4.24.64 3.4.24.21 3.4.24.11 3.4.24.22 3.4.24.55 3.4.24.70 3.4.24.71 3.4.24.61 3.4.24.72 3.4.24.17 3.4.24.18 3.4.24.19 3.4.24.23 3.4.24.56 3.4.24.24 3.4.24.35 3.4.24.57 3.4.24.14 3.4.24.69 3.4.24.37 3.4.24.59 XK:KEL:Zn2+ cleaves EDN3 XK:KEL:Zn2+ cleaves EDN3 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9832051 1 UniProt:P48299 Edn3 UniProt P48299 97 EQUAL 238 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9832053 1 118 EQUAL 238 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777622 1 97 EQUAL 117 EQUAL PHYSIOL-LEFT-TO-RIGHT ACTIVATION Reactome DB_ID: 9832063 XK:KEL:Zn2+ [plasma membrane] XK:KEL:Zn2+ Reactome DB_ID: 9832061 1 UniProt:Q9QXY7 Xk UniProt Q9QXY7 1 EQUAL 444 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 109265 1 zinc(2+) [ChEBI:29105] zinc(2+) ChEBI 29105 Reactome DB_ID: 9832057 1 UniProt:Q9EQF2 Kel UniProt Q9EQF2 1 EQUAL 732 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832063 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832063 Reactome R-MMU-5694128 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5694128.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832064 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832064 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9832066 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9832066 Reactome R-MMU-5694082 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-5694082.1 The Kell blood group glycoprotein (KEL) is a zinc endopeptidase with endothelin-3-converting enzyme activity which can preferentially cleave endothelin-3 (EDN3), an endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide. EDN3 is cleaved at Trp21-Ile22 to form the bioactive peptide EDN3(97-117) (Lee et al. 1999). KEL forms a heterodimer with membrane transport protein XK (Russo et al. 1998). 9593744 Pubmed 1998 Association of XK and Kell blood group proteins Russo, D Redman, C Lee, S J. Biol. Chem. 273:13950-6 10438732 Pubmed 1999 Proteolytic processing of big endothelin-3 by the kell blood group protein Lee, S Lin, M Mele, A Cao, Y Farmar, J Russo, D Redman, C Blood 94:1440-50 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA EDNRA,EDNRB bind EDNs EDNRA,EDNRB bind EDNs Endothelin receptors bind endothelin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777624 1 EDNs [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Edn1 [extracellular region] Edn3 [extracellular region] Edn2 [extracellular region] UniProt P22389 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777634 1 EDNRA,EDNRB [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ednrb [plasma membrane] Ednra [plasma membrane] UniProt P48302 UniProt Q61614 Reactome DB_ID: 9777636 1 EDNRA,EDNRB:EDNs [plasma membrane] EDNRA,EDNRB:EDNs Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777624 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777634 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777636 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777636 Reactome R-MMU-388546 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388546.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779413 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779413 Reactome R-MMU-388560 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388560.1 Endothelins (EDNs) are 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptides produced primarily in the endothelium that play a key role in vascular homeostasis. An imbalance and over-expression of EDNs can contribute to hypertension (high blood pressure). EDNs are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain. There are 3 isoforms derived from the genes EDN1, EDN2 and EDN3 (Inoue et al. 1989).<br><br>EDNs bind to two receptors (Elshourbagy et al. 1993), EDNRA (Adachi et al. 1991) and EDNRB (Nakamuta et al. 1991). EDNRA is primarily located in the smooth muscle of blood vessels. EDN binding to EDNRA results in vasoconstriction and sodium retention, leading to increased blood pressure. EDNRB is primarily located on endothelial cells lining the internal walls of vasculature. EDN binding to EDNRB leads to the release of NO (nitric oxide), a powerful vasodilator. 2649896 Pubmed 1989 The human endothelin family: three structurally and pharmacologically distinct isopeptides predicted by three separate genes Inoue, A Yanagisawa, M Kimura, S Kasuya, Y Miyauchi, T Goto, K Masaki, T Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 86:2863-7 8440682 Pubmed 1993 Molecular characterization and regulation of the human endothelin receptors Elshourbagy, NA Korman, DR Wu, HL Sylvester, DR Lee, JA Nuthalaganti, P Bergsma, DJ Kumar, CS Nambi, P J Biol Chem 268:3873-9 1710450 Pubmed 1991 Cloning and sequence analysis of a cDNA encoding human non-selective type of endothelin receptor Nakamuta, M Takayanagi, R Sakai, Y Sakamoto, S Hagiwara, H Mizuno, T Saito, Y Hirose, S Yamamoto, M Nawata, H Biochem Biophys Res Commun 177:34-9 1719979 Pubmed 1991 Cloning and characterization of cDNA encoding human A-type endothelin receptor Adachi, M Yang, YY Furuichi, Y Miyamoto, C Biochem Biophys Res Commun 180:1265-72 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA EDNRA binds EDNs EDNRA binds EDNs Endothelin receptor A bind endothelins This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777624 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9777628 1 UniProt:Q61614 Ednra 21 EQUAL 427 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9859825 1 EDNRA:EDNs [plasma membrane] EDNRA:EDNs Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777624 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9777628 1 21 EQUAL 427 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9859825 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9859825 Reactome R-MMU-9731930 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-9731930.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9859827 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9859827 Reactome R-MMU-9731924 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-9731924.1 Endothelins (EDNs) are 21-amino acid vasoconstricting peptides produced primarily in the endothelium that play a key role in vascular homeostasis. An imbalance and over-expression of EDNs can contribute to hypertension (high blood pressure). EDNs are implicated in vascular diseases of several organ systems, including the heart, general circulation and brain. There are 3 isoforms derived from the genes EDN1, EDN2 and EDN3 (Inoue et al. 1989).<br><br>EDNs bind to two receptors (Elshourbagy et al. 1993), EDNRA (Adachi et al. 1991) and EDNRB. EDNRA is primarily located in the smooth muscle of blood vessels. EDNs binding to EDNRA result in vasoconstriction and sodium retention, leading to increased blood pressure. EDNRB is primarily located on endothelial cells lining the internal walls of vasculature. Conversely, EDNs binding to EDNRB leads to vasodilation due to the release of NO (nitric oxide), a powerful vasodilator. inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Melanocortin receptors bind melanocortins Melanocortin receptors bind melanocortins This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777308 1 Melanocortin receptors [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Mc4r [plasma membrane] Mc1r [plasma membrane] Mc3r [plasma membrane] Mc5r [plasma membrane] UniProt P56450 UniProt Q01727 UniProt P33033 UniProt P41149 Reactome DB_ID: 9777286 1 UniProt:P01193 Pomc Pomc Pomc Pomc1 TISSUE SPECIFICITY ACTH and MSH are produced by the pituitary gland.PTM Specific enzymatic cleavages at paired basic residues yield the different active peptides.SIMILARITY Belongs to the POMC family. 138 EQUAL 150 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777310 1 MSH:Melanocortin receptors [plasma membrane] MSH:Melanocortin receptors Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777308 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9777286 1 138 EQUAL 150 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777310 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777310 Reactome R-MMU-388602 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388602.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779415 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779415 Reactome R-MMU-388596 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388596.1 Melanocortins are a group of pituitary peptide hormones that include corticotropin (ACTH) and the alpha, beta and gamma melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSH) derived from the prohormone proopiomelanocortin (Takahashi H et al, 1981). Melanocortins can act through multiple melanocortin receptors (MC1R-MC5R) (Mountjoy KG et al, 1992). The majority of melanocortin receptors (MC1R, MC3R, MC4R and MC5R) are semi-selective in their ability to bind multiple melanocortins (MSH and ACTH). MSH regulates pigmentation. 1325670 Pubmed 1992 The cloning of a family of genes that encode the melanocortin receptors Mountjoy, KG Robbins, LS Mortrud, MT Cone, RD Science 257:1248-51 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA POMC(138-176) binds MC2R POMC(138-176) binds MC2R ACTH binds MC2R This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777282 1 UniProt:Q64326 Mc2r UniProt Q64326 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777278 1 138 EQUAL 176 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777284 1 POMC(138-176):MC2R [plasma membrane] POMC(138-176):MC2R Reactome DB_ID: 9777282 1 1 EQUAL 297 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777278 1 138 EQUAL 176 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777284 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777284 Reactome R-MMU-388603 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388603.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779417 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779417 Reactome R-MMU-388605 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388605.1 MC2R (aka ACTH receptor) selectively binds POMC(138-176) (ACTH, corticotropin) (Gantz et al. 1993, Lee et al. 1961, Mountjoy et al. 1992). ACTH regulates adrenal cortical function via the G protein alpha-s subunit. 8463333 Pubmed 1993 Molecular cloning of a novel melanocortin receptor Gantz, I Konda, Y Tashiro, T Shimoto, Y Miwa, H Munzert, G Watson, SJ DelValle, J Yamada, T J Biol Chem 268:8246-50 14463577 Pubmed 1961 On the structure of human corticotropin (adrenocorticotropic hormone) Lee, TH Lerner, AB Buettner-Janusch, V J Biol Chem 236:2970-4 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Prolactin-releasing hormone receptor binds PRH Prolactin-releasing hormone receptor binds PRH This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9779565 1 UniProt:Q6VMN6 Prlhr UniProt Q6VMN6 1 EQUAL 370 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9779569 1 UniProt:G3UWC3 Prlh UniProt G3UWC3 34 EQUAL 53 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9779573 1 PRLHR:PRLH peptides [plasma membrane] PRLHR:PRLH peptides Reactome DB_ID: 9779565 1 1 EQUAL 370 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9779569 1 34 EQUAL 53 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779573 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779573 Reactome R-MMU-388889 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388889.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779575 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779575 Reactome R-MMU-388855 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388855.1 The prolactin-releasing peptide receptor (PrRP; GRP10) (Marchese A et al, 1995) is expressed in the pituitary gland (Fujii R et al, 1999) and binds prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) (Hinuma S et al, 1998). PrRP is implicated in lactation, regulation of food intake and pain-signal processing. Human PrRP-20 failed to alter basal or forskolin-stimulated levels of intracellular cyclic AMP in HEK293-GPR10 cells, suggesting that GPR10 does not couple via either Gs or Gi (Langmead et al. 2000). 11030716 Pubmed 2000 Characterization of the binding of [(125)I]-human prolactin releasing peptide (PrRP) to GPR10, a novel G protein coupled receptor Langmead, CJ Szekeres, PG Chambers, JK Ratcliffe, SJ Jones, DN Hirst, WD Price, GW Herdon, HJ Br J Pharmacol 131:683-8 8666380 Pubmed 1995 Cloning and chromosomal mapping of three novel genes, GPR9, GPR10, and GPR14, encoding receptors related to interleukin 8, neuropeptide Y, and somatostatin receptors Marchese, A Heiber, M Nguyen, T Heng, HH Saldivia, VR Cheng, R Murphy, PM Tsui, LC Shi, X Gregor, P Genomics 29:335-44 9607765 Pubmed 1998 A prolactin-releasing peptide in the brain Hinuma, S Habata, Y Fujii, R Kawamata, Y Hosoya, M Fukusumi, S Kitada, C Masuo, Y Asano, T Matsumoto, H Sekiguchi, M Kurokawa, T Nishimura, O Onda, H Fujino, M Nature 393:272-6 10498338 Pubmed 1999 Tissue distribution of prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) and its receptor Fujii, R Fukusumi, S Hosoya, M Kawamata, Y Habata, Y Hinuma, S Sekiguchi, M Kitada, C Kurokawa, T Nishimura, O Onda, H Sumino, Y Fujino, M Regul Pept 83:1-10 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Neuropeptide Y receptors can bind neuropeptide Y-related peptides Neuropeptide Y receptors can bind neuropeptide Y-related peptides This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9778258 1 Neuropeptide Y receptors [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Npy5r [plasma membrane] Npy1r [plasma membrane] Npy2r [plasma membrane] Npy4r [plasma membrane] UniProt O70342 UniProt Q04573 UniProt P97295 UniProt Q61041 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9778240 1 NPY receptor ligands [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ppy [extracellular region] Npy [extracellular region] Pyy [extracellular region] UniProt P10601 UniProt P57774 UniProt Q9EPS2 Reactome DB_ID: 9778260 1 Neuropeptide Y receptors:NPY receptor ligands [plasma membrane] Neuropeptide Y receptors:NPY receptor ligands Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9778258 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9778240 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778260 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778260 Reactome R-MMU-388866 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388866.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779577 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779577 Reactome R-MMU-388863 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388863.1 At least four neuropeptide Y receptor subtypes each with specific affinities to neuropeptide Y peptides, serve as regulators of mucosal function, gastrointestinal motility and secretion. Four receptors have been characterized to date; NPY1R (Larhammar D et al, 1992), NPY2R (Gerald C et al, 1995), NPY4R (Bard JA et al, 1995) and NPY5R (Parker EM and Xia L, 1999).<br><br> Neuropeptide Y peptides are also implicated as mediators in the pathogenesis of many gastrointestinal disorders, including malabsorption, short gut, inflammatory bowel diseases, and forms of pancreatitis. The three peptides are neuropeptide Y (NPY) (Minth CD et al, 1984), peptide YY (PYY) (Tatemoto K et al, 1988) and pancreatic peptide (PP) (Boel E et al, 1984). <br><br>Although each peptide can bind to any of the four receptors, they each have preferred receptors. NPY binds preferentially to NPY1R, PYY to NYP2R and PP to NYP4R. 3202875 Pubmed 1988 Isolation and primary structure of human peptide YY Tatemoto, K Nakano, I Makk, G Angwin, P Mann, M Schilling, J Go, VL Biochem Biophys Res Commun 157:713-7 10461880 Pubmed 1999 Extensive alternative splicing in the 5'-untranslated region of the rat and human neuropeptide Y Y5 receptor genes regulates receptor expression Parker, EM Xia, L J Neurochem 73:913-20 6373251 Pubmed 1984 A cDNA encoding a small common precursor for human pancreatic polypeptide and pancreatic icosapeptide Boel, E Schwartz, TW Norris, KE Fiil, NP EMBO J 3:909-12 7592910 Pubmed 1995 Expression cloning and pharmacological characterization of a human hippocampal neuropeptide Y/peptide YY Y2 receptor subtype Gerald, C Walker, MW Vaysse, PJ He, C Branchek, TA Weinshank, RL J Biol Chem 270:26758-61 1317848 Pubmed 1992 Cloning and functional expression of a human neuropeptide Y/peptide YY receptor of the Y1 type Larhammar, D Blomqvist, AG Yee, F Jazin, E Yoo, H Wahlested, C J Biol Chem 267:10935-8 7592911 Pubmed 1995 Cloning and functional expression of a human Y4 subtype receptor for pancreatic polypeptide, neuropeptide Y, and peptide YY Bard, JA Walker, MW Branchek, TA Weinshank, RL J Biol Chem 270:26762-5 6589611 Pubmed 1984 Cloning, characterization, and DNA sequence of a human cDNA encoding neuropeptide tyrosine Minth, CD Bloom, SR Polak, JM Dixon, JE Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:4577-81 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Neurotensin receptors can bind neurotensins Neurotensin receptors can bind neurotensins This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777753 1 UniProt:Q9D3P9 Nts UniProt Q9D3P9 151 EQUAL 163 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777763 1 NTSR1,NTSR2 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Ntsr2 [plasma membrane] Ntsr1 [plasma membrane] UniProt P70310 UniProt O88319 Reactome DB_ID: 9777765 1 NTSR1,NTSR2:NTS(151-163) [plasma membrane] NTSR1,NTSR2:NTS(151-163) Reactome DB_ID: 9777753 1 151 EQUAL 163 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777763 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777765 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777765 Reactome R-MMU-388920 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388920.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779579 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779579 Reactome R-MMU-388900 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388900.1 Neurotensin (Dong Z et al, 1998) is a 13-amino acid neuropeptide that is implicated in the regulation of luteinizing hormone and prolactin release. It also has significant interaction with the dopaminergic system. Neurotensin is synthesized as part of a precursor protein that also contains the related neuropeptide neuromedin N. The neurotensin receptor binds neurotensin. There are two transmembrane receptors encoded by the NTSR1 (Vita N et al, 1993) and NTSR2 (Vita N et al, 1998) genes. 9530155 Pubmed 1998 DNA methylation contributes to expression of the human neurotensin/neuromedin N gene Dong, Z Wang, X Zhao, Q Townsend CM, Jr Evers, BM Am J Physiol 274:G535-43 8381365 Pubmed 1993 Cloning and expression of a complementary DNA encoding a high affinity human neurotensin receptor Vita, N Laurent, P Lefort, S Chalon, P Dumont, X Kaghad, M Gully, D Le Fur, G Ferrara, P Caput, D FEBS Lett 317:139-42 9851594 Pubmed 1998 Neurotensin is an antagonist of the human neurotensin NT2 receptor expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells Vita, N Oury-Donat, F Chalon, P Guillemot, M Kaghad, M Bachy, A Thurneyssen, O Garcia, S Poinot-Chazel, C Casellas, P Keane, P Le Fur, G Maffrand, JP Soubrie, P Caput, D Ferrara, P Eur J Pharmacol 360:265-72 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Galanin receptors can bind galanin Galanin receptors can bind galanin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9778190 1 UniProt:P47212 Gal UniProt P47212 33 EQUAL 62 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9778204 1 GALR1-3 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Galr2 [plasma membrane] Galr1 [plasma membrane] Galr3 [plasma membrane] UniProt O88854 UniProt P56479 UniProt O88853 Reactome DB_ID: 9778206 1 GALR1-3:GAL [plasma membrane] GALR1-3:GAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778190 1 33 EQUAL 62 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9778204 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778206 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778206 Reactome R-MMU-389042 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389042.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779583 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779583 Reactome R-MMU-389026 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389026.1 Galanin is a 30-amino acid inhibitory neuropeptide encoded by the GAL gene (Schmidt WE et al, 1991; Bersani M et al, 1991). It is involved in a number of physiological processes such as regulation of food intake, metabolism and reproduction and regulation of neurotransmitter and hormone release. These actions are mediated via the galanin receptor which binds galanin. Three receptor subtypes exist; GALR1 (Habert-Ortoli E et al, 1994), GALR2 (Fathi Z et al, 1998; Kolakowski LF et al, 1998) and GALR3 (Smith KE et al, 1998; Kolakowski LF et al, 1998). These receptors are found throughtout the PNS, CNS and the endocrine system. 9722565 Pubmed 1998 Cloned human and rat galanin GALR3 receptors. Pharmacology and activation of G-protein inwardly rectifying K+ channels Smith, KE Walker, MW Artymyshyn, R Bard, J Borowsky, B Tamm, JA Yao, WJ Vaysse, PJ Branchek, TA Gerald, C Jones, KA J Biol Chem 273:23321-6 9832121 Pubmed 1998 Molecular characterization and expression of cloned human galanin receptors GALR2 and GALR3 Kolakowski LF, Jr O'Neill, GP Howard, AD Broussard, SR Sullivan, KA Feighner, SD Sawzdargo, M Nguyen, T Kargman, S Shiao, LL Hreniuk, DL Tan, CP Evans, J Abramovitz, M Chateauneuf, A Coulombe, N Ng, G Johnson, MP Tharian, A Khoshbouei, H George, SR Smith, RG O'Dowd, BF J Neurochem 71:2239-51 1722333 Pubmed 1991 Isolation and primary structure of pituitary human galanin, a 30-residue nonamidated neuropeptide Schmidt, WE Kratzin, H Eckart, K Drevs, D Mundkowski, G Clemens, A Katsoulis, S Schäfer, H Gallwitz, B Creutzfeldt, W Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 88:11435-9 1710578 Pubmed 1991 Human galanin: primary structure and identification of two molecular forms Bersani, M Johnsen, AH Højrup, P Dunning, BE Andreasen, JJ Holst, JJ FEBS Lett 283:189-94 7524088 Pubmed 1994 Molecular cloning of a functional human galanin receptor Habert-Ortoli, E Amiranoff, B Loquet, I Laburthe, M Mayaux, JF Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:9780-3 9685625 Pubmed 1998 Molecular characterization, pharmacological properties and chromosomal localization of the human GALR2 galanin receptor Fathi, Z Battaglino, PM Iben, LG Li, H Baker, E Zhang, D McGovern, R Mahle, CD Sutherland, GR Iismaa, TP Dickinson, KE Zimanyi, IA Brain Res Mol Brain Res 58:156-69 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA The Kiss receptor GPR54 binds kisspeptin The Kiss receptor GPR54 binds kisspeptin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777671 1 UniProt:Q6Y4S4 Kiss1 UniProt Q6Y4S4 68 EQUAL 121 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777667 1 UniProt:Q91V45 Kiss1r UniProt Q91V45 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777673 1 KISS1R:KISS1(68-121) [plasma membrane] KISS1R:KISS1(68-121) Reactome DB_ID: 9777671 1 68 EQUAL 121 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777667 1 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777673 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777673 Reactome R-MMU-389016 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389016.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779581 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779581 Reactome R-MMU-388981 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-388981.1 The KiSS1-derived peptide receptor, GPR54 is a galanin-like GPCR (Lee DK et al, 1999) that can bind kisspeptin-54 (metastin), a natural ligand of the receptor (Kotani M et al, 2001). The GPR54 gene appears to be essential for normal puberty and gonadotropin-released hormone physiology (Seminara SB et al, 2003). Metastin is encoded by the KiSS-1 metastasis suppressor gene, a 54-amino acid peptide that suppresses metastases of human melanomas and breast carcinomas without affecting tumorigenicity (Ohtaki T et al, 2001). 11385580 Pubmed 2001 Metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1 encodes peptide ligand of a G-protein-coupled receptor Ohtaki, T Shintani, Y Honda, S Matsumoto, H Hori, A Kanehashi, K Terao, Y Kumano, S Takatsu, Y Masuda, Y Ishibashi, Y Watanabe, T Asada, M Yamada, T Suenaga, M Kitada, C Usuki, S Kurokawa, T Onda, H Nishimura, O Fujino, M Nature 411:613-7 10100623 Pubmed 1999 Discovery of a receptor related to the galanin receptors Lee, DK Nguyen, T O'Neill, GP Cheng, R Liu, Y Howard, AD Coulombe, N Tan, CP Tang-Nguyen, AT George, SR O'Dowd, BF FEBS Lett 446:103-7 14573733 Pubmed 2003 The GPR54 gene as a regulator of puberty Seminara, SB Messager, S Chatzidaki, EE Thresher, RR Acierno JS, Jr Shagoury, JK Bo-Abbas, Y Kuohung, W Schwinof, KM Hendrick, AG Zahn, D Dixon, J Kaiser, UB Slaugenhaupt, SA Gusella, JF O'Rahilly, S Carlton, MB Crowley WF, Jr Aparicio, SA Colledge, WH N Engl J Med 349:1614-27 11457843 Pubmed 2001 The metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1 encodes kisspeptins, the natural ligands of the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 Kotani, M Detheux, M Vandenbogaerde, A Communi, D Vanderwinden, JM Le Poul, E Brezillon, Stephane Tyldesley, R Suarez-Huerta, N Vandeput, F Blanpain, C Schiffmann, SN Vassart, G Parmentier, M J Biol Chem 276:34631-6 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Proteinase-activated receptors can bind thrombin Proteinase-activated receptors can bind thrombin This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9759928 1 activated thrombin (factor IIa) [extracellular region] activated thrombin (factor IIa) Reactome DB_ID: 9759924 1 UniProt:P19221 F2 UniProt P19221 364 EQUAL 622 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9759926 1 328 EQUAL 363 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 74112 6 calcium(2+) [ChEBI:29108] calcium(2+) ChEBI 29108 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759928 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759928 Reactome R-MMU-156786 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-156786.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777802 1 Proteinase-activated receptors [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity F2rl1 [plasma membrane] F2rl2 [plasma membrane] F2rl3 [plasma membrane] F2r [plasma membrane] UniProt P55086 UniProt O08675 UniProt O88634 UniProt P30558 Reactome DB_ID: 9777804 1 Thrombin:Proteinase-activated receptors [plasma membrane] Thrombin:Proteinase-activated receptors Reactome DB_ID: 9759928 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777802 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777804 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777804 Reactome R-MMU-389470 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389470.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779639 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779639 Reactome R-MMU-389463 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389463.1 Thrombin (Butkowski RJ et al, 1977) plays a vital role in blood homeostasis, inflammation and wound healing. Thrombin (which cleaves bonds after arginine and lysine) converts fibrinogen to fibrin and activates factors V, VII, VIII, XIII. Complexed with thrombomodulin it can also activate protein C. It performs these functions by binding to four proteinase-activated receptors (PAR1-4) (Kahn ML, et al, 1999; Bohm SK et al, 1996). These complexes couple to G proteins which stimulate phosphoinositide hydrolysis. 873923 Pubmed 1977 Primary structure of human prethrombin 2 and alpha-thrombin Butkowski, RJ Elion, J Downing, MR Mann, KG J Biol Chem 252:4942-57 10079109 Pubmed 1999 Protease-activated receptors 1 and 4 mediate activation of human platelets by thrombin Kahn, ML Nakanishi-Matsui, M Shapiro, MJ Ishihara, H Coughlin, SR J Clin Invest 103:879-87 8615752 Pubmed 1996 Molecular cloning, expression and potential functions of the human proteinase-activated receptor-2 Bohm, SK Kong, W Bromme, D Smeekens, SP Anderson, DC Connolly, A Kahn, M Nelken, NA Coughlin, SR Payan, DG Bunnett, NW Biochem J 314:1009-16 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Orexin and neuropeptides FF and QRFP bind to their respective receptors Orexin and neuropeptides FF and QRFP bind to their respective receptors This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Orexin 1 receptor can bind orexin-A neuropeptide Orexin 1 receptor can bind orexin-A neuropeptide This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777769 1 UniProt:O55241 Hcrt UniProt O55241 34 EQUAL 66 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777773 1 UniProt:P58307 Hcrtr1 UniProt P58307 1 EQUAL 425 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777775 1 HCRTR1:HCRT(34-66) [plasma membrane] HCRTR1:HCRT(34-66) Reactome DB_ID: 9777769 1 34 EQUAL 66 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777773 1 1 EQUAL 425 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777775 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777775 Reactome R-MMU-389441 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389441.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779641 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779641 Reactome R-MMU-389481 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389481.1 The orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides (A and B) both derive from a 131 residue precursor, prepro-orexin peptide (Sakurai T et al, 1999). Orexin A (Takai T et al, 2006) binds preferentially to the orphan GPCR orexin 1 receptor (Sakurai T et al, 1998). This activated complex can transduce its signal via the Gq class of G protein. 10364220 Pubmed 1999 Structure and function of human prepro-orexin gene Sakurai, T Moriguchi, T Furuya, K Kajiwara, N Nakamura, T Yanagisawa, M Goto, K J Biol Chem 274:17771-6 16429482 Pubmed 2006 Orexin-A is composed of a highly conserved C-terminal and a specific, hydrophilic N-terminal region, revealing the structural basis of specific recognition by the orexin-1 receptor Takai, T Takaya, T Nakano, M Akutsu, H Nakagawa, A Aimoto, S Nagai, K Ikegami, T J Pept Sci 12:443-54 9491897 Pubmed 1998 Orexins and orexin receptors: a family of hypothalamic neuropeptides and G protein-coupled receptors that regulate feeding behavior Sakurai, T Amemiya, A Ishii, M Matsuzaki, I Chemelli, RM Tanaka, Hiroshi Williams, SC Richardson, JA Kozlowski, GP Wilson, S Arch, JR Buckingham, RE Haynes, AC Carr, SA Annan, RS McNulty, DE Liu, WS Terrett, JA Elshourbagy, NA Bergsma, DJ Yanagisawa, M Cell 92:573-85 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Orexin 2 receptor can bind orexin-B neuropeptide Orexin 2 receptor can bind orexin-B neuropeptide This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777781 1 UniProt:P58308 Hcrtr2 UniProt P58308 1 EQUAL 444 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777777 1 70 EQUAL 97 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777783 1 HCRTR2:HCRT(70-97) [plasma membrane] HCRTR2:HCRT(70-97) Reactome DB_ID: 9777781 1 1 EQUAL 444 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777777 1 70 EQUAL 97 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777783 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777783 Reactome R-MMU-389449 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389449.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779643 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779643 Reactome R-MMU-389487 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389487.1 The orexin (hypocretin) neuropeptides (A and B) both derive from a 131 residue precursor, prepro-orexin peptide (Sakurai T et al, 1999). Orexin B (Lee JH et al, 1999) binds preferentially to the orphan GPCR orexin 2 receptor (Sakurai T et al, 1998). This activated complex can transduce its signal via the Gq class of G protein. Orexin deficiency is inferred in narcolepsy and regulation of feeding behaviour. 10583376 Pubmed 1999 Solution structure of a new hypothalamic neuropeptide, human hypocretin-2/orexin-B Lee, JH Bang, E Chae, KJ Kim, JY Lee, DW Lee, W Eur J Biochem 266:831-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Two NPFF receptors can bind neuropeptide FF Two NPFF receptors can bind neuropeptide FF This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777737 1 UniProt:Q9WVA8 Npff UniProt Q9WVA8 69 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777747 1 NPFFR1,NPFFR2 [plasma membrane] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Npffr1 [plasma membrane] Npffr2 [plasma membrane] UniProt E9Q468 UniProt Q924H0 Reactome DB_ID: 9777749 1 NPFFR1,NPFFR2:NPFF(69-76) [plasma membrane] NPFFR1,NPFFR2:NPFF(69-76) Reactome DB_ID: 9777737 1 69 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777747 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777749 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777749 Reactome R-MMU-389459 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389459.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779645 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779645 Reactome R-MMU-389491 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389491.1 The 8 residue neuropeptide FF (NPFF, morphine-modulating peptide) (Perry SJ et al, 1997) is believed to play a role in pain modulation and opiate tolerance. Two G protein-coupled receptors bind NPFF; NPFF1 and NPFF2 (Bonini JA et al, 2000). These receptors share the highest amino acid sequence homology with members of the orexin, NPY, and cholecystokinin families, which have been implicated in feeding. This may be a potential role for NPFF1/2. These receptors mediate the action of NPFF by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol-calcium second messenger system. 9224703 Pubmed 1997 A human gene encoding morphine modulating peptides related to NPFF and FMRFamide Perry, SJ Yi-Kung Huang, E Cronk, D Bagust, J Sharma, R Walker, RJ Wilson, S Burke, JF FEBS Lett 409:426-30 11024015 Pubmed 2000 Identification and characterization of two G protein-coupled receptors for neuropeptide FF Bonini, JA Jones, KA Adham, N Forray, C Artymyshyn, R Durkin, MM Smith, KE Tamm, JA Boteju, LW Lakhlani, PP Raddatz, R Yao, WJ Ogozalek, KL Boyle, N Kouranova, EV Quan, Y Vaysse, PJ Wetzel, JM Branchek, TA Gerald, C Borowsky, B J Biol Chem 275:39324-31 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA The orphan QRFP receptor can bind neuropeptide QRFP The orphan QRFP receptor can bind neuropeptide QRFP This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777830 1 UniProt:P83861 Qrfpr UniProt P83861 1 EQUAL 431 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777826 1 UniProt:Q8CE23 Qrfp UniProt Q8CE23 91 EQUAL 133 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777832 1 QRFPR:QRFP [plasma membrane] QRFPR:QRFP Reactome DB_ID: 9777830 1 1 EQUAL 431 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9777826 1 91 EQUAL 133 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777832 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777832 Reactome R-MMU-389407 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389407.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9779637 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9779637 Reactome R-MMU-389424 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389424.1 The orphan QRFP receptor (SP9155) (Lee DK et al, 2001) shares a high sequence homology with the neuropeptide FF receptor. It mediates the activity of neuropeptide QRFP (Jiang Y et al, 2003), which is suspected to have orexigenic activity, via the G alpha-q/11 subunit (Langmead CJ et al, 2000). 12714592 Pubmed 2003 Identification and characterization of a novel RF-amide peptide ligand for orphan G-protein-coupled receptor SP9155 Jiang, Y Luo, L Gustafson, EL Yadav, D Laverty, M Murgolo, N Vassileva, G Zeng, M Laz, TM Behan, J Qiu, P Wang, L Wang, S Bayne, M Greene, J Monsma F, Jr Zhang, FL J Biol Chem 278:27652-7 11574155 Pubmed 2001 Discovery and mapping of ten novel G protein-coupled receptor genes Lee, DK Nguyen, T Lynch, KR Cheng, R Vanti, WB Arkhitko, O Lewis, T Evans, Jilly F George, SR O'Dowd, BF Gene 275:83-91 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Reactome Database ID Release 78 9861604 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9861604 Reactome R-MMU-389397 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-389397.1 The orphan G protein-coupled receptors mentioned here regulate sleep and appetite. 17854890 Pubmed 2008 Modulatory role of neuropeptide FF system in nociception and opiate analgesia Yang, HY Tao, T Iadarola, MJ Neuropeptides 42:1-18 12072908 Pubmed 2002 Orexins: from neuropeptides to energy homeostasis and sleep/wake regulation Beuckmann, CT Yanagisawa, M J Mol Med 80:329-42 12613659 Pubmed 2003 Orexins and their receptors: structural aspects and role in peripheral tissues Voisin, T Rouet-Benzineb, P Reuter, N Laburthe, M Cell Mol Life Sci 60:72-87 16500002 Pubmed 2006 Recent advances in mammalian RFamide peptides: the discovery and functional analyses of PrRP, RFRPs and QRFP Fukusumi, S Fujii, R Hinuma, S Peptides 27:1073-86 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA Formyl peptide receptors bind formyl peptides and many other ligands Formyl peptide receptors bind formyl peptides and many other ligands This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> FPR is a receptor for formyl peptides FPR is a receptor for formyl peptides This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 444519 1 N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine [ChEBI:53490] N-formyl-L-methionyl-L-leucyl-L-phenylalanine ChEBI 53490 Reactome DB_ID: 9778290 1 UniProt:P33766 Fpr1 UniProt P33766 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome DB_ID: 9778292 1 FPR1:FMLP [plasma membrane] FPR1:FMLP Reactome DB_ID: 444519 1 Reactome DB_ID: 9778290 1 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9778292 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9778292 Reactome R-MMU-444509 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-444509.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9784385 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9784385 Reactome R-MMU-444527 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-444527.1 The formyl peptide receptor (FPR) is activated by small peptides derived from bacterial and mitochondrial proteins, often with a formylated N terminal methionine and usually a hydrophobic amino acid at the carboxy terminal end. Formyl-MetLeuPhe is the most commonly used peptide ligand, leading to a widespread use of the name fMetLeuPhe receptor. <br> Formyl peptides are produced by the degradation of either bacterial or host cells. They have a wide range of biological activities including the stimulation of chemotaxis and secretory activities of leukocytes, particularly neutrophils and monocytes. Formyl peptide receptors are involved in mediating immune cell responses to infection. 17084101 Pubmed 2006 Formyl peptide receptors: a promiscuous subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors controlling immune responses Migeotte, I Communi, D Parmentier, M Cytokine Growth Factor Rev 17:501-19 2161213 Pubmed 1990 Synthesis and use of a novel N-formyl peptide derivative to isolate a human N-formyl peptide receptor cDNA Boulay, F Tardif, M Brouchon, L Vignais, P Biochem Biophys Res Commun 168:1103-9 inferred by electronic annotation IEA GO IEA FPR2 binds FPR2 ligands FPR2 binds FPR2 ligands This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Reactome DB_ID: 9777640 1 UniProt:O88536 Fpr2 UniProt O88536 1 EQUAL 351 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777655 1 FPR2 ligands [extracellular region] Converted from EntitySet in Reactome. Each synonym is a name of a PhysicalEntity, and each XREF points to one PhysicalEntity Anxa1 [extracellular region] Ccl9 [extracellular region] Ccl6 [extracellular region] LXA4 [extracellular region] App [extracellular region] UniProt P10107 UniProt P51670 UniProt P27784 ChEBI 6498 UniProt P12023 Reactome DB_ID: 9777657 1 FPR2:FPR2 ligands [plasma membrane] FPR2:FPR2 ligands Reactome DB_ID: 9777640 1 1 EQUAL 351 EQUAL Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Reactome DB_ID: 9777655 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9777657 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9777657 Reactome R-MMU-416459 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-416459.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9780276 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9780276 Reactome R-MMU-391913 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-391913.1 The N-formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2, LXA4 receptor, FPRL1) (Ye et al. 1992, Fiore et al. 1994) has been reported to respond to numerous ligand with a broad range of structural diversity (Migeotte et al. 2006). It was originally identified as a low-affinity receptor for N-formyl-methionyl peptides but has greater affinity for many ligands including lipoxin A4 (Fiore et al. 1994, Migeotte et al. 2006), annexin-1 (Perretti et al. 2002), the truncated chemokine sCKbeta8-1 (Elagoz et al. 2004) and humanin (Ying et al. 2004). 12368905 Pubmed 2002 Endogenous lipid- and peptide-derived anti-inflammatory pathways generated with glucocorticoid and aspirin treatment activate the lipoxin A4 receptor Perretti, M Chiang, N La, M Fierro, IM Marullo, S Getting, SJ Solito, E