BioPAX pathway converted from "N-Glycan antennae elongation" in the Reactome database. N-Glycan antennae elongation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.4.1.145 Addition of GlcNAc to position 4 by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT)-IV This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> UDP-GlcNAc UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine(2-) UDP-N-acetyl-D-glucosamine UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine UDP-N-acetylglucosamine Reactome DB_ID: 914003 Golgi lumen GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005796 UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine(2-) [ChEBI:57705] UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine(2-) UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine dianion uridine 5'-[3-(acetamido-2-deoxy-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl) diphosphate] ChEBI CHEBI:57705 Reactome Database ID Release 81 914003 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=914003 Reactome R-ALL-914003 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-914003.4 Reactome http://www.reactome.org NGP N-glycoprotein N-glycan Reactome DB_ID: 975910 N-glycan [ChEBI:59520] N-glycan ChEBI CHEBI:59520 Reactome Database ID Release 81 975910 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975910 Reactome R-ALL-975910 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-975910.3 Glycoprotein with GlcNAc in position 4 Reactome DB_ID: 981616 Reactome Database ID Release 81 981616 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=981616 Reactome R-ALL-981616 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-981616.2 ChEBI 33837 additional information MI MI:0361 ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome MGAT4s Reactome DB_ID: 10559883 MGAT4A MGAT4A(1-535) Q5F407 Reactome DB_ID: 10559873 Golgi membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0000139 UniProt:Q5F407 MGAT4A Gallus gallus NCBI Taxonomy 9031 UniProt Q5F407 1 EQUAL 535 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559873 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559873 Reactome R-GGA-975895 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975895.1 MGAT4B MGAT4B A0A1D5PP75 Reactome DB_ID: 10559877 UniProt:A0A1D5PP75 MGAT4B UniProt A0A1D5PP75 1 EQUAL 548 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559877 Reactome R-GGA-975921 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975921.1 MGAT4C MGAT4C R4GKF3 Reactome DB_ID: 10559881 UniProt:R4GKF3 MGAT4C UniProt R4GKF3 1 EQUAL 478 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559881 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559881 Reactome R-GGA-975907 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975907.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559883 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559883 Reactome R-GGA-975913 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975913.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0008454 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559884 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559884 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559886 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559886 Reactome R-GGA-975903 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975903.1 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT)-IV catalyzes the addition of GlcNAc beta,1,4 on the GlcNAc beta1,2 Man,alpha1,3 arm of both complex and hybrid N-glycans (Oguri S et al, 2006). Two human GnT-IV isozymes have been characterized (MGAT4A, MGAT4B) , plus a putative MGAT4C on chromosome 2 (Furukawa T et al, 1999). Aberrant expression of MGAT4A or MGAT4B is associated with pancreatic cancer (Ide Y et al, 2006; Kudo T et al , 2007) 17488527 Pubmed 2007 N-glycan alterations are associated with drug resistance in human hepatocellular carcinoma Kudo, T Nakagawa, H Takahashi, M Hamaguchi, J Kamiyama, N Yokoo, H Nakanishi, K Nakagawa, T Kamiyama, T Deguchi, K Nishimura, S Todo, S Mol Cancer 6:32 17006639 Pubmed 2006 Kinetic properties and substrate specificities of two recombinant human N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IV isozymes Oguri, S Yoshida, A Minowa, MT Takeuchi, M Glycoconj J 23:473-80 16434023 Pubmed 2006 Aberrant expression of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase-IVa and IVb (GnT-IVa and b) in pancreatic cancer Ide, Y Miyoshi, E Nakagawa, T Gu, J Tanemura, M Nishida, T Ito, T Yamamoto, H Kozutsumi, Y Taniguchi, N Biochem Biophys Res Commun 341:478-82 10570912 Pubmed 1999 Cloning and characterization of the human UDP-N-acetylglucosamine: alpha-1,3-D-mannoside beta-1,4-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase IV-homologue (hGnT-IV-H) gene Furukawa, T Youssef, EM Yatsuoka, T Yokoyama, T Makino, N Inoue, H Fukushige, S Hoshi, M Hayashi, Y Sunamura, M Horii, A J Hum Genet 44:397-401 inferred from electronic annotation EVIDENCE CODE ECO:0000203 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.4.1.155 Addition of GlcNAc to position 5 by MGAT5 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Glycoprotein with GlcNAc in position 5 Reactome DB_ID: 981617 Reactome Database ID Release 81 981617 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=981617 Reactome R-ALL-981617 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-981617.2 ChEBI 33837 ACTIVATION MGAT5 MGAT5 F1NEL5 Reactome DB_ID: 10559890 UniProt:F1NEL5 MGAT5 UniProt F1NEL5 1 EQUAL 741 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559890 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559890 Reactome R-GGA-975896 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975896.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0030144 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559891 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559891 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559893 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559893 Reactome R-GGA-975916 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975916.1 N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (GnT)-V catalyzes the addition of GlcNAc beta 1,4 on the GlcNAc beta1,2 Man,alpha1,6 arm of complex type N-Glycans (Park C et al, 1999; Granowski M et al, 2000; Wang L et al, 2007). The activity of MGAT5 competes with MGAT3 (Pinho SS et al, 2009) and is associated with gastric cancer (Tian H et al, 2008) and multiple sclerosis (Brynedal B et al, 2010). 19403558 Pubmed 2009 The role of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase III and V in the post-transcriptional modifications of E-cadherin Pinho, SS Reis, CA Paredes, J Magalhães, AM Ferreira, AC Figueiredo, J Xiaogang, W Carneiro, F Gärtner, F Seruca, R Hum Mol Genet 18:2599-608 16924681 Pubmed 2007 Increase in beta1-6 GlcNAc branching caused by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V directs integrin beta1 stability in human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 Wang, L Liang, Y Li, Z Cai, X Zhang, W Wu, G Jin, J Fang, Z Yang, Y Zha, X J Cell Biochem 100:230-41 10700233 Pubmed 2000 Suppression of tumor growth and metastasis in Mgat5-deficient mice Granovsky, M Fata, J Pawling, J Muller, WJ Khokha, R Dennis, JW Nat Med 6:306-12 20117844 Pubmed 2010 MGAT5 alters the severity of multiple sclerosis Brynedal, B Wojcik, J Esposito, F Debailleul, V Yaouanq, J Martinelli-Boneschi, F Edan, G Comi, G Hillert, J Abderrahim, H J Neuroimmunol 220:120-4 18931531 Pubmed 2008 The implication of N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V expression in gastric cancer Tian, H Miyoshi, E Kawaguchi, N Shaker, M Ito, Y Taniguchi, N Tsujimoto, M Matsuura, N Pathobiology 75:288-94 10395745 Pubmed 1999 Characterization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine:alpha-6-d-mannoside beta-1,6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V from a human hepatoma cell line Hep3B Park, C Jin, UH Lee, YC Cho, TJ Kim, CH Arch Biochem Biophys 367:281-8 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.4.1.38 Addition of galactose by beta 4-galactosyltransferases This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> UDP-Gal UDPgalactose UDP-D-galactose UDP-D-galactopyranose Reactome DB_ID: 735682 UDP-D-galactose(2-) [ChEBI:58439] UDP-D-galactose(2-) UDP-D-galactose dianion uridine 5'-[3-(D-galactopyranosyl) diphosphate] ChEBI CHEBI:58439 Reactome Database ID Release 81 735682 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=735682 Reactome R-ALL-735682 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-735682.4 COMPOUND C00052 Glycoprotein with galactose Reactome DB_ID: 981618 Reactome Database ID Release 81 981618 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=981618 Reactome R-ALL-981618 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-981618.2 ChEBI 33837 ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome B4GALT1-6 homodimers Reactome DB_ID: 10559931 B4GALT1 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 10559899 B4GALT1 B4GALT1 A0A3Q3AL57 Reactome DB_ID: 10559897 UniProt:A0A3Q3AL57 B4GALT1 UniProt A0A3Q3AL57 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559897 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559897 Reactome R-GGA-528072 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-528072.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559899 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559899 Reactome R-GGA-975900 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975900.1 B4GALT2 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 10559905 B4GALT2 B4GALT2 A0A1D5PSH8 Reactome DB_ID: 10559903 UniProt:A0A1D5PSH8 B4GALT2 UniProt A0A1D5PSH8 1 EQUAL 372 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559903 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559903 Reactome R-GGA-975915 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975915.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559905 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559905 Reactome R-GGA-975923 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975923.1 B4GALT3 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 10559911 B4GALT3 B4GALT3 A0A1D5P3C1 Reactome DB_ID: 10559909 UniProt:A0A1D5P3C1 B4GALT3 UniProt A0A1D5P3C1 1 EQUAL 393 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559909 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559909 Reactome R-GGA-975922 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975922.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559911 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559911 Reactome R-GGA-975924 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975924.1 B4GALT4 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 10559917 E1C9B0 B4GALT4 B4GALT4 Reactome DB_ID: 10559915 UniProt:E1C9B0 B4GALT4 UniProt E1C9B0 1 EQUAL 344 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559915 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559915 Reactome R-GGA-975911 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975911.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559917 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559917 Reactome R-GGA-975909 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975909.1 B4GALT5 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 10559923 E1C298 B4GALT5 B4GALT5 Reactome DB_ID: 10559921 UniProt:E1C298 B4GALT5 UniProt E1C298 1 EQUAL 388 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559921 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559921 Reactome R-GGA-1015832 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1015832.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559923 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559923 Reactome R-GGA-1015827 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1015827.1 B4GALT6 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 10559929 B4GALT6 B4GALT6 A0A3S5ZPV4 Reactome DB_ID: 10559927 UniProt:A0A3S5ZPV4 B4GALT6 UniProt A0A3S5ZPV4 1 EQUAL 382 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559927 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559927 Reactome R-GGA-1015811 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1015811.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559929 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559929 Reactome R-GGA-1015817 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1015817.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559931 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559931 Reactome R-GGA-975898 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975898.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0003831 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559932 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559932 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559934 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559934 Reactome R-GGA-975919 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975919.1 Addition of a galactose residue on N-acetylglucosamine. The family of beta 4-galactosyltransferases is composed by at least six known members with different K(m) and acceptor specifities (Guo S et al, 2001) and probably originated by duplication (Lo NW et al, 1998). B4GALT1 is associated with Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation of type IId (Hansske B et al, 2002), and is expressed as two splicing isoforms of which only one is localizated in the Golgi system (Lopez LC et al, 1991; Schaub BE et al, 2006). B4GALT2 is key in the regulation of proteins involved in neuronal development (Sasaki N et <br>al, 2005). 9597550 Pubmed 1998 The expanding beta 4-galactosyltransferase gene family: messages from the databanks Lo, NW Shaper, JH Pevsner, J Shaper, NL Glycobiology 8:517-26 17021253 Pubmed 2006 Transition of galactosyltransferase 1 from trans-Golgi cisterna to the trans-Golgi network is signal mediated Schaub, BE Berger, B Berger, EG Rohrer, J Mol Biol Cell 17:5153-62 15939404 Pubmed 2005 beta4GalT-II is a key regulator of glycosylation of the proteins involved in neuronal development Sasaki, N Manya, H Okubo, R Kobayashi, K Ishida, Hiroko Toda, T Endo, T Nishihara, S Biochem Biophys Res Commun 333:131-7 1714903 Pubmed 1991 Evidence for a molecular distinction between Golgi and cell surface forms of beta 1,4-galactosyltransferase Lopez, LC Youakim, A Evans, SC Shur, BD J Biol Chem 266:15984-91 11588157 Pubmed 2001 Galactosylation of N-linked oligosaccharides by human beta-1,4-galactosyltransferases I, II, III, IV, V, and VI expressed in Sf-9 cells Guo, S Sato, T Shirane, K Furukawa, K Glycobiology 11:813-20 11901181 Pubmed 2002 Deficiency of UDP-galactose:N-acetylglucosamine beta-1,4-galactosyltransferase I causes the congenital disorder of glycosylation type IId Hansske, B Thiel, C Lübke, T Hasilik, M Höning, S Peters, V Heidemann, PH Hoffmann, GF Berger, EG von Figura, K Körner, C J Clin Invest 109:725-33 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.4.99.1 ST6GAL1 transfers Neu5Ac to terminal Gal of N-glycans Addition of alpha-2,6-sialic acid to terminal galactose of N-glycans by ST6GAL1 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Neu5Ac acetylneuraminic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid Sialic acid Reactome DB_ID: 975925 N-acetylneuraminic acid [ChEBI:17012] N-acetylneuraminic acid ChEBI CHEBI:17012 Reactome Database ID Release 81 975925 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975925 Reactome R-ALL-975925 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-975925.3 COMPOUND C03525 Glycoprotein-Neu5Ac Reactome DB_ID: 981615 Reactome Database ID Release 81 981615 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=981615 Reactome R-ALL-981615 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-981615.2 ChEBI 33837 ACTIVATION F1NRE4 ST6GAL1 ST6GAL1 Reactome DB_ID: 10559866 UniProt:F1NRE4 ST6GAL1 UniProt F1NRE4 1 EQUAL 406 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559866 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559866 Reactome R-GGA-975899 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975899.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0003835 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559867 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559867 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10559869 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10559869 Reactome R-GGA-975902 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975902.1 Addition of sialic acid to galactose-containing N-glycan. Sialic acid is usually found at terminal positions of the N-glycan. This imparts a negative charge at neutral pH which affects the chemico-physical and biological properties of the N-glycans (for review, see Schauer 2000); moreover, this modification can lead to the addition of extraordinarily long antennae such as polysialic acid (hundreds of sials) or polylactosamine repeats (dozens of disaccharide repeats) (Harduin-Lepers 2001), while the number of modifications on the antennae of N-glycans is usually lower.<br>There are over 20 sialyltransferases known in humans, 5 of which are known to act on N-glycans. Beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1) is the only sialyltransferase known to transfer sialic acid to galactose on N-Glycans (Dall'Olio 2000). A second beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase has been characterized, but this enzyme acts mainly on oligosaccharides (Krzewinski-Recchi et al. 2003). Neu5Ac can also be added via an alpha-2,3-linkage to galactose on N-glycans by CMP-N-acetylneuraminate-beta-galactosamide-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) (Ellies et al. 2002). ST8Sia II (ST8SIA2), ST8Sia III (ST8SIA3), and ST8Sia IV (ST8SIA6) have alpha-2,8-activity (Angata et al. 1997, Angata et al. 2000, Angata & Fuduka 2003). 10766765 Pubmed 2000 Differential biosynthesis of polysialic acid on neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) and oligosaccharide acceptors by three distinct alpha 2,8-sialyltransferases, ST8Sia IV (PST), ST8Sia II (STX), and ST8Sia III Angata, K Suzuki, M McAuliffe, J Ding, Y Hindsgaul, O Fukuda, M J Biol Chem 275:18594-601 9054414 Pubmed 1997 Human STX polysialyltransferase forms the embryonic form of the neural cell adhesion molecule. Tissue-specific expression, neurite outgrowth, and chromosomal localization in comparison with another polysialyltransferase, PST Angata, K Nakayama, J Fredette, B Chong, K Ranscht, B Fukuda, M J Biol Chem 272:7182-90 11421344 Pubmed 2000 Achievements and challenges of sialic acid research Schauer, R Glycoconj J 17:485-99 11425186 Pubmed 2000 The sialyl-alpha2,6-lactosaminyl-structure: biosynthesis and functional role Dall'Olio, F Glycoconj J 17:669-76 12097641 Pubmed 2002 Sialyltransferase ST3Gal-IV operates as a dominant modifier of hemostasis by concealing asialoglycoprotein receptor ligands Ellies, LG Ditto, D Levy, GG Wahrenbrock, M Ginsburg, D Varki, A Le, DT Marth, JD Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:10042-7 12603328 Pubmed 2003 Identification and functional expression of a second human beta-galactoside alpha2,6-sialyltransferase, ST6Gal II Krzewinski-Recchi, MA Julien, S Juliant, S Teintenier-Lelièvre, M Samyn-Petit, B Montiel, MD Mir, AM Cerutti, M Harduin-Lepers, A Delannoy, P Eur J Biochem 270:950-61 11530204 Pubmed 2001 The human sialyltransferase family Harduin-Lepers, A Vallejo-Ruiz, V Krzewinski-Recchi, MA Samyn-Petit, B Julien, S Delannoy, P Biochimie 83:727-37 12765789 Pubmed 2003 Polysialyltransferases: major players in polysialic acid synthesis on the neural cell adhesion molecule Angata, K Fukuda, M Biochimie 85:195-206 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.4.99.8 ST8SIA2,3,6 transfer Neu5Ac to terminal Gal of N-glycans Addition of alpha-2,8-sialic acid to N-glycan over a galactose by ST8SIAs This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome ST8SIA2,3,6 Reactome DB_ID: 10562979 F1NIM6 ST8SIA2 ST8SIA2 Reactome DB_ID: 10562969 UniProt:F1NIM6 ST8SIA2 UniProt F1NIM6 1 EQUAL 375 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562969 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562969 Reactome R-GGA-422392 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-422392.1 ST8SIA6 ST8SIA6 A0A1D5PEI3 Reactome DB_ID: 10562973 UniProt:A0A1D5PEI3 ST8SIA6 UniProt A0A1D5PEI3 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562973 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562973 Reactome R-GGA-1022137 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1022137.1 SIAT8C ST8SIA3 Q6ZXD0 Reactome DB_ID: 10562977 UniProt:Q6ZXD0 SIAT8C UniProt Q6ZXD0 1 EQUAL 380 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562977 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562977 Reactome R-GGA-1022124 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1022124.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562979 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562979 Reactome R-GGA-1022134 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1022134.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0003828 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562980 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562980 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562982 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562982 Reactome R-GGA-1022133 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1022133.1 Addition of sialic acid (Neu5Ac) to galactose-containing N-glycan. Sialic acid is usually found at terminal positions of the N-glycan. This imparts a negative charge at neutral pH which affects the chemico-physical and biological properties of the N-glycans (for a review, see Schauer 2000); moreover, this modification can lead to the addition of extraordinarily long antennae such as polysialic acid (hundreds of sials) or polylactosamine repeats (dozens of disaccharide repeats) (Harduin-Lepers 2001), while the number of modifications on the antennae of N-glycans is usually lower.<br>There are over 20 sialyltransferases known in humans, 5 of which are known to act on N-glycans. Beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1<br>(ST6GAL1) is the only sialyltransferase known to transfer Neu5Ac to Gal on N-Glycans (Dall'Olio 2000). A second beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase has been characterized, but this enzyme acts mainly on oligosaccharides (Krzewinski-Recchi et al. 2003). Neu5Ac can also be added via an alpha-2,3-linkage to Gal on N-glycans by CMP-N-acetylneuraminate-beta-galactosamide-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) (Ellies et al. 2002). ST8Sia II (ST8SIA2), ST8Sia III (ST8SIA3), and ST8Sia IV (ST8SIA6) have alpha-2,8-activity (Angata et al. 1997, Angata et al. 2000, Angata & Fuduka 2003). LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.4.99.4 ST3GAL4 transfers Neu5Ac to terminal Gal of N-glycans Addition of alpha-2,3-sialic acid to N-glycan over a galactose by ST3GAL4 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> ACTIVATION ST3GAL4 C20orf173 A0A1D5PWH2 Reactome DB_ID: 10560207 UniProt:A0A1D5PWH2 C20orf173 UniProt A0A1D5PWH2 1 EQUAL 333 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10560207 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10560207 Reactome R-GGA-981490 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-981490.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0003836 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562963 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562963 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10562965 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10562965 Reactome R-GGA-1022129 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-1022129.1 Addition of sialic acid (Neu5Ac) to galactose-containing N-glycan. Neu5Ac is usually found at terminal positions of the N-glycan. This imparts a negative charge at neutral pH which affects the chemico-physical and biological properties of the N-glycans (for a review, see Schauer 2000); moreover, this modification can lead to the addition of extraordinarily long antennae such as polysialic acid (hundreds of sials) or polylactosamine repeats (dozens of disaccharide repeats) (Harduin-Lepers 2001), while the number of modifications on the antennae of N-glycans is usually lower.<br>There are over 20 sialyltransferases known in humans, 5 of which are known to act on N-glycans. Beta-galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase 1 (ST6GAL1) is the only sialyltransferase known to transfer Neu5Ac to galactose (Gal) on N-Glycans (Dall'Olio 2000). A second beta-Galactoside alpha-2,6-sialyltransferase has been characterized, but this enzyme acts mainly on oligosaccharides (Krzewinski-Recchi et al. 2003). Neu5Ac can also be added via an alpha-2,3-linkage to Gal on N-glycans by CMP-N-acetylneuraminate-beta-galactosamide-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase 4 (ST3GAL4) (Ellies et al. 2002). ST8Sia II (ST8SIA2), ST8Sia III (ST8SIA3), and ST8Sia IV (ST8SIA6) have alpha-2,8-activity (Angata et al. 1997, Angata et al. 2000; Angata & Fuduka 2003). Reactome Database ID Release 81 10616921 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10616921 Reactome R-GGA-975577 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975577.1 N-glycans are further modified after the commitment to Complex or Hybrid N-glycans. The exact structure of the network of metabolic reactions involved is complex and not yet validated experimentally. Here we will show a generic reaction for each of the genes known to be involved in N-Glycosylation.<br>For a better annotation of the reactions and genes involved in the synthesis of Complex and Hybrid N-glycans we recommend the GlycoGene Database (Ito H. et al, 2010) (http://riodb.ibase.aist.go.jp/rcmg/ggdb/textsearch.jsp) for annotations of genes, and the Consortium for Functional Genomics (http://riodb.ibase.aist.go.jp/rcmg/ggdb/textsearch.jsp) for annotation of Glycan structures and reactions. Moreover, a computationally inferred prediction for the structure of this network is available through the software GlycoVis (Hossler P. et. al. 2006). 20816477 Pubmed 2010 In vitro and in vivo enzymatic syntheses and mass spectrometric database for N-glycans and o-glycans Ito, H Chiba, Y Kameyama, A Sato, T Narimatsu, H Methods Enzymol 478:127-49 16807922 Pubmed 2006 GlycoVis: visualizing glycan distribution in the protein N-glycosylation pathway in mammalian cells Hossler, P Goh, LT Lee, MM Hu, WS Biotechnol Bioeng 95:946-60