BioPAX pathway converted from "Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX)" in the Reactome database. Synthesis of Prostaglandins (PG) and Thromboxanes (TX) This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> LEFT-TO-RIGHT PGH2 is reduced to PGF2a by AKR1C3 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> H+ proton hydron Reactome DB_ID: 70106 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 hydron [ChEBI:15378] hydron ChEBI CHEBI:15378 Reactome Database ID Release 82 70106 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=70106 Reactome R-ALL-70106 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-70106.4 Reactome http://www.reactome.org COMPOUND C00080 additional information MI MI:0361 PGH2 (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate prostaglandin H2 Reactome DB_ID: 265283 prostaglandin H2 [ChEBI:15554] prostaglandin H2 ChEBI CHEBI:15554 Reactome Database ID Release 82 265283 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=265283 Reactome R-ALL-265283 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-265283.3 COMPOUND C00427 TPNH NADPH Reactome DB_ID: 29364 NADPH(4-) [ChEBI:57783] NADPH(4-) 2'-O-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoyl-1,4-dihydropyridin-1-yl)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] diphosphate} NADPH NADPH tetraanion ChEBI CHEBI:57783 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29364 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29364 Reactome R-ALL-29364 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29364.3 COMPOUND C00005 PGF2a prostaglandin F2alpha Reactome DB_ID: 879535 prostaglandin F2alpha [ChEBI:15553] prostaglandin F2alpha ChEBI CHEBI:15553 Reactome Database ID Release 82 879535 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=879535 Reactome R-ALL-879535 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-879535.3 TPN NADP+ NADP NADP(+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate beta-Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate Triphosphopyridine nucleotide NADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 29366 NADP(3-) [ChEBI:58349] NADP(3-) 2'-O-phosphonatoadenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoylpyridinio)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] diphosphate} NADP(+) NADP trianion ChEBI CHEBI:58349 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29366 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29366 Reactome R-ALL-29366 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29366.4 COMPOUND C00006 ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Homologues of AKR1C4 Reactome DB_ID: 10675605 ARY AKR1C4 D2A6K3 Reactome DB_ID: 10675589 UniProt:D2A6K3 ARY Drosophila melanogaster NCBI Taxonomy 7227 UniProt D2A6K3 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675589 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675589 Reactome R-DME-192142 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142.1 AKR1C4 M9PF61 Reactome DB_ID: 10675591 UniProt:M9PF61 UniProt M9PF61 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675591 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675591 Reactome R-DME-192142-2 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-2.1 AKR1C4 Q7JVH6 Reactome DB_ID: 10675593 UniProt:Q7JVH6 UniProt Q7JVH6 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675593 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675593 Reactome R-DME-192142-3 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-3.1 AKR1C4 Q9VHX4 Reactome DB_ID: 10675595 UniProt:Q9VHX4 UniProt Q9VHX4 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675595 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675595 Reactome R-DME-192142-4 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-4.1 AKR1C4 Q9VTL0 Reactome DB_ID: 10675597 UniProt:Q9VTL0 UniProt Q9VTL0 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675597 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675597 Reactome R-DME-192142-5 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-5.1 AKR1C4 Q9VTY2 Reactome DB_ID: 10675599 UniProt:Q9VTY2 UniProt Q9VTY2 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675599 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675599 Reactome R-DME-192142-6 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-6.1 AKR1C4 Q9VZK8 Reactome DB_ID: 10675601 UniProt:Q9VZK8 UniProt Q9VZK8 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675601 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675601 Reactome R-DME-192142-7 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-7.1 AKR1C4 Q9Y112 Reactome DB_ID: 10675603 UniProt:Q9Y112 UniProt Q9Y112 1 EQUAL 323 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675603 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675603 Reactome R-DME-192142-8 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-8.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10675605 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10675605 Reactome R-DME-192142-9 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-192142-9.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0036130 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704900 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704900 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704902 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704902 Reactome R-DME-2161549 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2161549.1 Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) aka PGFS is responsible for the reduction of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2a) (Suzuki-Yamamoto et al. 1999, Komoto et al. 2004, Komoto et al. 2006). There is an additional way of achieving this reaction involving the prostamide/prostaglandin F synthase, FAM213B and thioredoxin (TRX). 10622721 Pubmed 1999 cDNA cloning, expression and characterization of human prostaglandin F synthase Suzuki-Yamamoto, T Nishizawa, M Fukui, M Okuda-Ashitaka, E Nakajima, T Ito, S Watanabe, K FEBS Lett 462:335-40 14979715 Pubmed 2004 Crystal structure of human prostaglandin F synthase (AKR1C3) Komoto, J Yamada, T Watanabe, K Takusagawa, F Biochemistry 43:2188-98 16475787 Pubmed 2006 Prostaglandin F2alpha formation from prostaglandin H2 by prostaglandin F synthase (PGFS): crystal structure of PGFS containing bimatoprost Komoto, J Yamada, T Watanabe, K Woodward, DF Takusagawa, F Biochemistry 45:1987-96 inferred from electronic annotation EVIDENCE CODE ECO:0000203 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 5.3.99.3 PGH2 is isomerised to PGE2 by PTGES This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> PGE2 prostaglandin E2 Reactome DB_ID: 265287 prostaglandin E2 [ChEBI:15551] prostaglandin E2 ChEBI CHEBI:15551 Reactome Database ID Release 82 265287 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=265287 Reactome R-ALL-265287 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-265287.3 ACTIVATION PTGES trimer Reactome DB_ID: 10704929 endoplasmic reticulum membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005789 GSH Reduced glutathione glutathione 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycine gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine Reactome DB_ID: 2239524 glutathione [ChEBI:16856] glutathione ChEBI CHEBI:16856 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2239524 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2239524 Reactome R-ALL-2239524 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2239524.3 COMPOUND C00051 3 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Homologues of PTGES Reactome DB_ID: 10704927 PTGES Dmel\CG33177 Q86B54 Reactome DB_ID: 10704918 UniProt:Q86B54 Dmel\CG33177 UniProt Q86B54 1 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704918 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704918 Reactome R-DME-2142717 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142717.1 Mgstl PTGES Q8SY19 Reactome DB_ID: 10704920 UniProt:Q8SY19 Mgstl UniProt Q8SY19 1 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704920 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704920 Reactome R-DME-2142717-2 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142717-2.1 PTGES CG5579 X2JF29 Reactome DB_ID: 10704925 UniProt:X2JF29 CG5579 UniProt X2JF29 1 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704925 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704925 Reactome R-DME-2142717-3 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142717-3.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704927 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704927 Reactome R-DME-2142717-4 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142717-4.1 3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704929 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704929 Reactome R-DME-2142686 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142686.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0050220 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704930 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704930 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704932 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704932 Reactome R-DME-2161660 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2161660.1 Prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES) requires glutathione (GSH) as an essential cofactor for its enzymatic activity, and together they isomerise prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) (Jegerschold et al. 2008). After PGH2 has been produced by the prostaglandin G/H synthases (PTGS1 and 2) on the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum, it diffuses through the membrane to the active site of PTGES located on the cytoplasmic side. 18682561 Pubmed 2008 Structural basis for induced formation of the inflammatory mediator prostaglandin E2 Jegerschöld, C Pawelzik, SC Purhonen, P Bhakat, P Gheorghe, KR Gyobu, N Mitsuoka, K Morgenstern, R Jakobsson, PJ Hebert, H Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105:11110-5 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 5.3.99.3 Prostaglandin E synthase isomerizes PGH2 to PGE2 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PTGES2(88-377), PTGES3 Reactome DB_ID: 10680066 Su(P) PTGES2(88-377) Q9V420 Reactome DB_ID: 10680059 UniProt:Q9V420 Su(P) UniProt Q9V420 88 EQUAL 377 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10680059 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10680059 Reactome R-DME-5423596 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-5423596.1 PTGES3 Q9VH95 Reactome DB_ID: 10680064 UniProt:Q9VH95 UniProt Q9VH95 1 EQUAL 160 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10680064 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10680064 Reactome R-DME-265269 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-265269.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10680066 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10680066 Reactome R-DME-8864254 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-8864254.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10680067 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10680067 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10680069 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10680069 Reactome R-DME-265295 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-265295.1 Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is the most abundant prostanoid in the body and is a major mediator of inflammation in diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. The product of arachidonic acid, prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) serves as the substrate for the isomerization to PGE2. The conversion is carried out by prostaglandin E synthases. Of the three forms, two are predominanly cytosolic. Prostaglandin E synthase 3 (PTGES3) is also called cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase (cPGES). Prostaglandin E synthase 2 (mPGES-2, PTGES2) is synthesized as a Golgi membrane-associated protein which undergoes a spontaneous cleavage of the N-terminal hydrophobic domain leading to a truncated mature cytosolic protein. 12835322 Pubmed 2003 Cellular prostaglandin E2 production by membrane-bound prostaglandin E synthase-2 via both cyclooxygenases-1 and -2 Murakami, Makoto Nakashima, Karin Kamei, Daisuke Masuda, Seiko Ishikawa, Yukio Ishii, Toshiharu Ohmiya, Yoshihiro Watanabe, Kikuko Kudo, Ichiro J. Biol. Chem. 278:37937-47 10922363 Pubmed 2000 Molecular identification of cytosolic prostaglandin E2 synthase that is functionally coupled with cyclooxygenase-1 in immediate prostaglandin E2 biosynthesis Tanioka, T Nakatani, Y Semmyo, N Murakami, M Kudo, I J Biol Chem 275:32775-82 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 5.3.99.2 PGH2 is isomerised to PGD2 by PTGDS This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> PGH2 (5Z,13E)-(15S)-9alpha,11alpha-Epidioxy-15-hydroxyprosta-5,13-dienoate prostaglandin H2 Reactome DB_ID: 30138 endoplasmic reticulum lumen GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005788 Reactome Database ID Release 82 30138 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=30138 Reactome R-ALL-30138 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-30138.3 COMPOUND C00427 PGD2 prostaglandin D2 Reactome DB_ID: 2161634 prostaglandin D2 [ChEBI:15555] prostaglandin D2 ChEBI CHEBI:15555 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2161634 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2161634 Reactome R-ALL-2161634 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2161634.3 COMPOUND C00696 ACTIVATION PTGDS Dmel\CG44014 Q8IND7 Reactome DB_ID: 10704910 UniProt:Q8IND7 Dmel\CG44014 UniProt Q8IND7 23 EQUAL 190 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704910 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704910 Reactome R-DME-2142814 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142814.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004667 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704911 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704911 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704913 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704913 Reactome R-DME-2161620 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2161620.1 Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a structural isomer of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). There is a 9-keto and 11-hydroxy group on PGE2 with these substituents reversed on PGD2. PGD2 is formed by two evolutionarily distinct, but functionally convergent, prostaglandin D synthases: lipocalin-type prostaglandin-D synthase aka Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTDGS) and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS). One of the main differences between these two proteins is that HPGDS requires glutathione (GSH) for catalysis while PTDGS can function without this cofactor. Here, PTDGS promotes the isomerisation of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) (Zhou et al. 2010). 20667974 Pubmed 2010 Structure-function analysis of human l-prostaglandin D synthase bound with fatty acid molecules Zhou, Y Shaw, N Li, Y Zhao, Y Zhang, R Liu, ZJ FASEB J 24:4668-77 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 5.3.99.2 PGH2 is isomerised to PGD2 by HPGDS This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> PGD2 prostaglandin D2 Reactome DB_ID: 879629 Reactome Database ID Release 82 879629 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=879629 Reactome R-ALL-879629 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-879629.3 COMPOUND C00696 ACTIVATION HPGDS dimer Reactome DB_ID: 10704934 HPGDS P41043 Reactome DB_ID: 10674059 UniProt:P41043 UniProt P41043 2 EQUAL 199 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 10674059 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10674059 Reactome R-DME-2142706 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142706.1 2 GSH Reduced glutathione glutathione 5-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinylglycine N-(N-gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl)glycine gamma-L-Glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine glutathionate(1-) Reactome DB_ID: 29450 glutathionate(1-) [ChEBI:57925] glutathionate(1-) glutathionate ion glutathionate anion glutathionate glutathione ChEBI CHEBI:57925 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29450 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29450 Reactome R-ALL-29450 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29450.4 COMPOUND C00051 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704934 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704934 Reactome R-DME-2142683 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2142683.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704935 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704935 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704937 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704937 Reactome R-DME-2161701 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2161701.1 Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) is a structural isomer of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). There is a 9-keto and 11-hydroxy group on PGE2 with these substituents reversed on PGD2. PGD2 is formed by two evolutionarily distinct, but functionally convergent, prostaglandin D synthases: lipocalin-type prostaglandin-D synthase aka Prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase (PTDGS) and hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase (HPGDS). One of the main differences between these two proteins is that HPGDS requires glutathione (GSH) for catalysis while PTDGS can function without this cofactor. Here, HPGDS with GSH promotes the isomerisation of prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) to prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) (Jowsey et al. 2001, Inoue et al. 2003). 12627223 Pubmed 2003 Mechanism of metal activation of human hematopoietic prostaglandin D synthase Inoue, T Irikura, Daisuke Okazaki, N Kinugasa, S Matsumura, H Uodome, N Yamamoto, M Kumasaka, T Miyano, M Kai, Y Urade, Y Nat Struct Biol 10:291-6 11672424 Pubmed 2001 Mammalian class Sigma glutathione S-transferases: catalytic properties and tissue-specific expression of human and rat GSH-dependent prostaglandin D2 synthases Jowsey, IR Thomson, AM Flanagan, JU Murdock, PR Moore, GB Meyer, DJ Murphy, GJ Smith, SA Hayes, JD Biochem J 359:507-16 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 1.1.1.188 PGD2 is reduced to 11-epi-PGF2a by AKRIC3 This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 11epi-PGF2a 11-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha Reactome DB_ID: 2142710 11-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha [ChEBI:27595] 11-epi-prostaglandin F2alpha ChEBI CHEBI:27595 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2142710 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2142710 Reactome R-ALL-2142710 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2142710.3 ACTIVATION GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0036131 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704903 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704903 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10704905 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10704905 Reactome R-DME-2161614 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2161614.1 Aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3) aka PGFS is the enzyme involved in NADPH-dependent prostaglandin D2 11-keto reductase activity of reducing prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) to 11-epi-Prostaglandin F2alpha (11-epi-PGF2a) (Liston & Roberts 1985, Koda et al. 2004). 3862115 Pubmed 1985 Transformation of prostaglandin D2 to 9 alpha, 11 beta-(15S)-trihydroxyprosta-(5Z,13E)-dien-1-oic acid (9 alpha, 11 beta-prostaglandin F2): a unique biologically active prostaglandin produced enzymatically in vivo in humans Liston, TE Roberts LJ, 2nd Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 82:6030-4 15047184 Pubmed 2004 Synthesis of prostaglandin F ethanolamide by prostaglandin F synthase and identification of Bimatoprost as a potent inhibitor of the enzyme: new enzyme assay method using LC/ESI/MS Koda, N Tsutsui, Y Niwa, H Ito, S Woodward, DF Watanabe, K Arch Biochem Biophys 424:128-36 Reactome Database ID Release 82 10741367 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10741367 Reactome R-DME-2162123 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-DME-2162123.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0019371 gene ontology term for cellular process MI MI:0359 The bioactive prostaglandin (PG) signalling molecules, including PGA2, PGE2, PGF2a, and PGI2 (prostacyclin) are synthesised from arachidonic acid and its products by various prostaglandin synthase type enzymes. Prostaglandin H2 (PGH2) is the starting point for the synthesis of Thromboxanes (TXs) (Buczynski et al. 2009, Vance & Vance 2008). PGs and TXs are collectively known as the prostanoids.<br>Two enzymes, PTGS1 and 2 (COX1 and 2) both catalyze the two-step conversion of arachidonic acid to PGH2. PTGS1 is constitutively expressed in many cell types while PTGS2 is induced in response to stress and mediates the syntheses of prostaglandins associated with pain, fever, and inflammation. Aspirin irreversibly inactivates both enzymes (though it acts more efficiently on PTGS1), explaining both its antiinflammatory effects and side effects like perturbed gastic acid secretion. Drugs like celecoxib, by specifically inhibiting PTGS2, have a strong anti-inflammatory effect with fewer side effects. These PTGS2-specific drugs, however, probably because of their effects on the balance of prostaglandin synthesis in platelets and endothelial cells, can also promote blood clot formation (Buczynski et al. 2009; Stables & Gilroy 2011). 20655950 Pubmed 2011 Old and new generation lipid mediators in acute inflammation and resolution Stables, Melanie J Gilroy, Derek W Prog. Lipid Res. 50:35-51 19244215 Pubmed 2009 Thematic Review Series: Proteomics. An integrated omics analysis of eicosanoid biology Buczynski, MW Dumlao, DS Dennis, EA J Lipid Res 50:1015-38 978-0-444-53219-0 ISBN 2008 The eicosanoids: cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase, and epoxygenase pathways Smith, William L Murphy, RC Biochemistry of Lipids, Lipoproteins and Membranes, 5th Edition (Book): 331-362