BioPAX pathway converted from "Methylation" in the Reactome database. Methylation This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.5.1.6 MAT1A multimers transfer Ado from ATP to L-Met SAM is sythesized from methionine's reaction with ATP This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> H2O water Reactome DB_ID: 29356 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 water [ChEBI:15377] water ChEBI CHEBI:15377 Reactome Database ID Release 81 29356 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29356 Reactome R-ALL-29356 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29356.5 Reactome http://www.reactome.org COMPOUND C00001 additional information MI MI:0361 L-Met L-methionine L-methionine zwitterion Reactome DB_ID: 174390 L-methionine zwitterion [ChEBI:57844] L-methionine zwitterion C5H11NO2S (2S)-2-azaniumyl-4-(methylsulfanyl)butanoate FFEARJCKVFRZRR-BYPYZUCNSA-N L-methionine (2S)-2-ammonio-4-(methylsulfanyl)butanoate 149.21100 CSCC[C@H]([NH3+])C([O-])=O InChI=1S/C5H11NO2S/c1-9-3-2-4(6)5(7)8/h4H,2-3,6H2,1H3,(H,7,8)/t4-/m0/s1 ChEBI CHEBI:57844 Reactome Database ID Release 81 174390 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=174390 Reactome R-ALL-174390 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-174390.4 ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 113592 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) ATP atp Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:30616 Reactome Database ID Release 81 113592 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113592 Reactome R-ALL-113592 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113592.5 COMPOUND C00002 PPi pyrophosphate diphosphoric acid pyrophosphoric acid diphosphate Reactome DB_ID: 111294 diphosphate(3-) [ChEBI:33019] diphosphate(3-) ChEBI CHEBI:33019 Reactome Database ID Release 81 111294 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=111294 Reactome R-ALL-111294 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-111294.4 COMPOUND C00013 Pi Orthophosphate hydrogenphosphate Phosphate Inorganic Phosphate Reactome DB_ID: 29372 hydrogenphosphate [ChEBI:43474] hydrogenphosphate hydrogen phosphate phosphate [PO3(OH)](2-) INORGANIC PHOSPHATE GROUP HYDROGENPHOSPHATE ION HPO4(2-) [P(OH)O3](2-) ChEBI CHEBI:43474 Reactome Database ID Release 81 29372 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29372 Reactome R-ALL-29372 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29372.4 COMPOUND C00009 SAM AdoMet S-adenosylmethionine S-adenosyl-L-methionine Reactome DB_ID: 71284 S-adenosyl-L-methionine zwitterion [ChEBI:59789] S-adenosyl-L-methionine zwitterion S-adenosyl-L-methionine [(3S)-3-azaniumyl-3-carboxylatopropyl](5'-deoxyadenosin-5'-yl)(methyl)sulfonium ChEBI CHEBI:59789 Reactome Database ID Release 81 71284 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=71284 Reactome R-ALL-71284 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-71284.5 COMPOUND C00019 ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome MAT1A multimers Reactome DB_ID: 10827555 MAT1A:K+:2Mg2+ tetramer Reactome DB_ID: 10827551 MAT1A:K+:2Mg2+ Reactome DB_ID: 10827549 Mg2+ Magnesium magnesium(2+) Mg++ Reactome DB_ID: 29926 magnesium(2+) [ChEBI:18420] magnesium(2+) ChEBI CHEBI:18420 Reactome Database ID Release 81 29926 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29926 Reactome R-ALL-29926 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29926.5 COMPOUND C00305 2 sam1 MAT1A O60198 Reactome DB_ID: 10827547 UniProt:O60198 sam1 Schizosaccharomyces pombe NCBI Taxonomy 4896 UniProt O60198 1 EQUAL 395 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827547 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827547 Reactome R-SPO-174379 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174379.1 1 K+ Potassium potassium(1+) Reactome DB_ID: 29804 potassium(1+) [ChEBI:29103] potassium(1+) Potassium K+ ChEBI CHEBI:29103 Reactome Database ID Release 81 29804 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29804 Reactome R-ALL-29804 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29804.3 COMPOUND C00238 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827549 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827549 Reactome R-SPO-174402 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174402.1 4 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827551 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827551 Reactome R-SPO-174405 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174405.1 MAT1A:K+:2Mg2+ dimer Reactome DB_ID: 10827553 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827553 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827553 Reactome R-SPO-174395 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174395.1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827555 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827555 Reactome R-SPO-174383 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174383.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004478 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827556 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827556 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827558 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827558 Reactome R-SPO-174391 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174391.1 S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet, SAM) is an essential metabolite in all cells. AdoMet is a precursor in the synthesis of polyamines. Methionine adenosyltransferases (MAT) catalyse the only known AdoMet biosynthetic reaction from methionine (L-Met) and ATP. In mammalian tissues, three different forms of MAT (MAT I, MAT III and MAT II) have been identified that are the product of two different genes (MAT1A and MAT2A). MAT1A binds 1 K+ and 2 Mg2+ (or Co2+, not shown here) in tetrameric or dimeric form (Corrales et al. 2002, Mato et al. 1997). 12163696 Pubmed 2002 Regulation of mammalian liver methionine adenosyltransferase Corrales, FJ Pérez-Mato, I Sánchez Del Pino, MM Ruiz, F Castro, C García-Trevijano, ER Latasa, U Martinez-Chantar, ML Martinez-Cruz, A Avila, MA Mato, JM J Nutr 132:2377S-2381S 9175157 Pubmed 1997 S-adenosylmethionine synthesis: molecular mechanisms and clinical implications Mato, JM Alvarez, L Ortiz, P Pajares, MA Pharmacol Ther 73:265-80 inferred from electronic annotation EVIDENCE CODE ECO:0000203 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.1.1.6 COMT transfer CH3 from AdoMet to 3,4DHBNZ 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate can be O-methylated This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> 3,4DHBNZ 3,4-dihydroxybenzoate 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid protocatechuate Reactome DB_ID: 175977 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid [ChEBI:36062] 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid ChEBI CHEBI:36062 Reactome Database ID Release 81 175977 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=175977 Reactome R-ALL-175977 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-175977.3 COMPOUND C00230 SAH AdoHcy S-adenosylhomocysteine S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine Reactome DB_ID: 71285 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine zwitterion [ChEBI:57856] S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine zwitterion S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine 5'-S-[(3S)-3-azaniumyl-3-carboxylatopropyl]-5'-thioadenosine ChEBI CHEBI:57856 Reactome Database ID Release 81 71285 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=71285 Reactome R-ALL-71285 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-71285.5 COMPOUND C00021 3H,4MBNZ 3-hydroxy 4-methoxybenzoate 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate Reactome DB_ID: 175978 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate [ChEBI:63797] 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoate isovanillate ChEBI CHEBI:63797 Reactome Database ID Release 81 175978 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=175978 Reactome R-ALL-175978 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-175978.3 ACTIVATION COMT Q8NKC1 Reactome DB_ID: 10827606 UniProt:Q8NKC1 UniProt Q8NKC1 1 EQUAL 271 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827606 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827606 Reactome R-SPO-175974 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-175974.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0016206 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827607 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827607 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827609 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827609 Reactome R-SPO-175983 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-175983.1 Dihydroxybenzoate is a typical substrate for Catechol O-methyltransferase 8968737 Pubmed 1996 Human methionine synthase: cDNA cloning and identification of mutations in patients of the cblG complementation group of folate/cobalamin disorders Leclerc, D Campeau, E Goyette, P Adjalla, CE Christensen, B Ross, M Eydoux, P Rosenblatt, DS Rozen, R Gravel, RA Hum Mol Genet 5:1867-74 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 3.3.1.1 S-adenoylhomocysteine is hydrolyzed AHCY:NAD+ tetramer hydrolyses AdoHcy This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Ade-Rib ADENOCARD (TN) adenosine Reactome DB_ID: 83909 adenosine [ChEBI:16335] adenosine ChEBI CHEBI:16335 Reactome Database ID Release 81 83909 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=83909 Reactome R-ALL-83909 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-83909.3 COMPOUND C00212 HCYS homocysteine homocysteine zwitterion Reactome DB_ID: 174369 homocysteine zwitterion [ChEBI:58065] homocysteine zwitterion 2-azaniumyl-4-sulfanylbutanoate 2-ammonio-4-sulfanylbutanoate ChEBI CHEBI:58065 Reactome Database ID Release 81 174369 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=174369 Reactome R-ALL-174369 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-174369.4 ACTIVATION AHCY:NAD+ tetramer Reactome DB_ID: 10827580 AHCY:NAD+ Reactome DB_ID: 10827578 NAD NAD+ NAD(+) Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide DPN Diphosphopyridine nucleotide Reactome DB_ID: 29360 NAD(1-) [ChEBI:57540] NAD(1-) adenosine 5'-{3-[1-(3-carbamoylpyridinio)-1,4-anhydro-D-ribitol-5-yl] diphosphate} NAD(+) NAD anion ChEBI CHEBI:57540 Reactome Database ID Release 81 29360 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29360 Reactome R-ALL-29360 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29360.5 COMPOUND C00003 1 AHCY O13639 Reactome DB_ID: 10827576 UniProt:O13639 UniProt O13639 2 EQUAL 432 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827576 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827576 Reactome R-SPO-174373 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174373.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827578 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827578 Reactome R-SPO-174357 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174357.1 4 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827580 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827580 Reactome R-SPO-174358 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174358.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004013 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827581 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827581 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10827583 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10827583 Reactome R-SPO-174401 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-174401.1 Adenosylhomocysteinase (AHCY) is a tetrameric, NAD+-bound, cytosolic protein that regulates all adenosylmethionine-(AdoMet) dependent transmethylations by hydrolysing the feedback inhibitor adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) to homocysteine (HCYS) and adenosine (Ade-Rib) (Turner et al. 1998, Yang et al. 2003). 12590576 Pubmed 2003 Catalytic strategy of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase: transition-state stabilization and the avoidance of abortive reactions Yang, Xiaoda Hu, Yongbo Yin, Daniel H Turner, MA Wang, Mengmeng Borchardt, Ronald T Howell, PL Kuczera, Krzysztof Schowen, Richard L Biochemistry 42:1900-9 9586999 Pubmed 1998 Structure determination of selenomethionyl S-adenosylhomocysteine hydrolase using data at a single wavelength Turner, M A Yuan, C S Borchardt, R T Hershfield, M S Smith, G D Howell, P L Nat. Struct. Biol. 5:369-76 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.1.1 N6AMT1:TRMT112 transfers CH3 group from AdoMet to MMAIII This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> MMAIII monomethylarsonous acid methylarsonous acid Reactome DB_ID: 6806829 methylarsonous acid [ChEBI:17826] methylarsonous acid ChEBI CHEBI:17826 Reactome Database ID Release 81 6806829 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=6806829 Reactome R-ALL-6806829 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-6806829.3 DMAA dimethylarsonic acid dimethylarsinic acid Reactome DB_ID: 6800127 dimethylarsinic acid [ChEBI:48765] dimethylarsinic acid Dimethylarsinate [As(CH3)2O(OH)] Me2As(=O)OH CACODYLIC ACID Kakodylsaeure ChEBI CHEBI:48765 Reactome Database ID Release 81 6800127 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=6800127 Reactome R-ALL-6800127 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-6800127.3 ACTIVATION N6AMT1:TRMT112 Reactome DB_ID: 10841166 mtq2 N6AMT1 Q9UT94 Reactome DB_ID: 10841159 UniProt:Q9UT94 mtq2 UniProt Q9UT94 1 EQUAL 214 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10841159 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10841159 Reactome R-SPO-1183204 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-1183204.1 1 trm112 TRMT112 Q09723 Reactome DB_ID: 10841164 UniProt:Q09723 trm112 UniProt Q09723 1 EQUAL 125 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 10841164 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10841164 Reactome R-SPO-6786545 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-6786545.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10841166 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10841166 Reactome R-SPO-6800133 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-6800133.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0008168 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10841170 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10841170 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10841172 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10841172 Reactome R-SPO-6800149 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-6800149.1 Inorganic arsenic (iAs) compounds are human carcinogens. The most toxic arsenic metabolite is monomethylarsonous acid (MMAIII). Arsenic (3+) methyltransferase (AS3MT) is the primary enzyme responsible for methylating MMAIII to the less toxic dimethylarsonic acid (DMAA). A human ortholog of yeast MTQ2, HemK methyltransferase family member 2 (aka N(6)-adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1, N6AMT1), is also able to methylate MMAIII using S-adenosyl L-methionine as methyl donor (Ren et al. 2011). N6AMT1 forms a heterodimer with multifunctional methyltransferase subunit TRM112-like protein (TRMT112) (Figaro et al. 2008). 21193388 Pubmed 2011 Involvement of N-6 adenine-specific DNA methyltransferase 1 (N6AMT1) in arsenic biomethylation and its role in arsenic-induced toxicity Ren, Xuefeng Aleshin, Maria Jo, William J Dills, Russel Kalman, David A Vulpe, Christopher D Smith, Martyn T Zhang, Luoping Environ. Health Perspect. 119:771-7 18539146 Pubmed 2008 HemK2 protein, encoded on human chromosome 21, methylates translation termination factor eRF1 Figaro, Sabine Scrima, Nathalie Buckingham, Richard H Heurgué-Hamard, Valérie FEBS Lett. 582:2352-6 Reactome Database ID Release 81 10846896 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=10846896 Reactome R-SPO-156581 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-SPO-156581.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0032259 gene ontology term for cellular process MI MI:0359 Methylation is a common but minor pathway of Phase II conjugation compared to glucuronidation or sulfonation. The cofactor used in methylation conjugation is S-adenosylmethionine (SAM). SAM is the second most widely used enzyme substrate after ATP and is involved in a wide range of important biological processes. SAM is sythesized from methionine's reaction with ATP, catalyzed by methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT). There are two genes, MAT1A and MAT2A, which encode for two homologous MAT catalytic subunits, 1 and 2.<br>During conjugation with nucleophilic substrates, the methyl group attached to the sulfonium ion of SAM is transferred to the substrate forming the conjugate. SAM, having lost the methyl moiety, is converted to S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH). SAH can be hydrolyzed to form adenosine and homocysteine. Homocysteine can either be converted to glutathione or methylated to form methionine, thus forming the starting point for SAM synthesis and completing the cycle.<br>Fuctional groups attacked are phenols, catechols, aliphatic and aromatic amines and sulfhydryl-containing groups. The enzymes that catalyze the transfer of the methyl group to these functional groups are the methyltransferases (MT). MTs are small, cytosolic, monomeric enzymes that utilize SAM as a methyl donor. There are many MTs but the best studied ones are named on the basis of their prototypical substrates: <i><b>COMT</b> (catechol O-methyltransferase)</i>, <i><b>TPMT</b> (thiopurine methyltransferase)</i>, <i><b>TMT</b> (thiol methyltransferase)</i>, <i><b>HNMT</b> (histamine N-methyltransferase)</i> and <i><b>NNMT</b> (nicotinamide N-methyltransferase)</i>. An example of each enzyme mentioned is given. In each case, a typical substrate for the enzyme is shown. 10331075 Pubmed 1999 Methylation pharmacogenetics: catechol O-methyltransferase, thiopurine methyltransferase, and histamine N-methyltransferase Weinshilboum, RM Otterness, DM Szumlanski, CL Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 39:19-52 9780071470513 ISBN 1995 Casarett and Doull's Toxicology 5th Edn Parkinson, A Casarett and Doull's Toxicology 5th Edn (Book): 113-186 10898761 Pubmed 2000 Changes in methionine adenosyltransferase and S-adenosylmethionine homeostasis in alcoholic rat liver Lu, SC Huang, ZZ Yang, H Mato, JM Avila, MA Tsukamoto, H Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 279:G178-85 15130560 Pubmed 2004 S-adenosylmethionine: nothing goes to waste Fontecave, M Atta, M Mulliez, E Trends Biochem Sci 29:243-9