BioPAX pathway converted from "NOTCH1 associates with negative regulators NUMB and ITCH" in the Reactome database. LEFT-TO-RIGHT NOTCH1 associates with negative regulators NUMB and ITCH Genetic studies in Drosophila have identified Numb as an inhibitor of Notch signaling during development of the peripheral and central nervous systems as well as muscle cell differentiation. Both Drosophila and mammalian Numb are asymmetrically localized in dividing precursor cells, ensuring that cells adopt distinct cell fates through suppression of Notch signaling in one daughter cell (Rhyu et al. 1994). NUMB recruits E3 ubiquitin ligase ITCH (AIP4) to NOTCH1 and promotes sorting of NOTCH1 through late endosomes for degradation (McGill et al. 2009). Authored: Egan, SE, Orlic-Milacic, M, 2011-11-14 Reviewed: Haw, R, 2012-02-06 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, M, 2012-02-10 Edited: D'Eustachio, P, 2012-02-06 NOTCH1 NTM-NEC 1 heterodimer Reactome DB_ID: 157027 plasma membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005886 NOTCH1 Extracellular fragment (NECD1) 19xFucT-16xGlcS-2xFucS-NOTCH1(19-1664) Reactome DB_ID: 1983670 extracellular region GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005576 UniProt:P46531 NOTCH1 NOTCH1 TAN1 FUNCTION Functions as a receptor for membrane-bound ligands Jagged-1 (JAG1), Jagged-2 (JAG2) and Delta-1 (DLL1) to regulate cell-fate determination. Upon ligand activation through the released notch intracellular domain (NICD) it forms a transcriptional activator complex with RBPJ/RBPSUH and activates genes of the enhancer of split locus. Affects the implementation of differentiation, proliferation and apoptotic programs. Involved in angiogenesis; negatively regulates endothelial cell proliferation and migration and angiogenic sprouting. Involved in the maturation of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in the thymus. Important for follicular differentiation and possibly cell fate selection within the follicle. During cerebellar development, functions as a receptor for neuronal DNER and is involved in the differentiation of Bergmann glia. Represses neuronal and myogenic differentiation. May play an essential role in postimplantation development, probably in some aspect of cell specification and/or differentiation. May be involved in mesoderm development, somite formation and neurogenesis. May enhance HIF1A function by sequestering HIF1AN away from HIF1A. Required for the THBS4 function in regulating protective astrogenesis from the subventricular zone (SVZ) niche after injury. Involved in determination of left/right symmetry by modulating the balance between motile and immotile (sensory) cilia at the left-right organiser (LRO).SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a C-terminal fragment N(TM) and an N-terminal fragment N(EC) which are probably linked by disulfide bonds. Interacts with DNER, DTX1, DTX2 and RBPJ/RBPSUH. Also interacts with MAML1, MAML2 and MAML3 which act as transcriptional coactivators for NOTCH1 (PubMed:11101851, PubMed:12370315). The NOTCH1 intracellular domain interacts with SNW1; the interaction involves multimerized NOTCH1 NICD and is implicated in a formation of an intermediate preactivation complex which associates with DNA-bound CBF-1/RBPJ (PubMed:10713164). The activated membrane-bound form interacts with AAK1 which promotes NOTCH1 stabilization. Forms a trimeric complex with FBXW7 and SGK1. Interacts with HIF1AN. HIF1AN negatively regulates the function of notch intracellular domain (NICD), accelerating myogenic differentiation (PubMed:17573339). Interacts (via NICD) with SNAI1 (via zinc fingers); the interaction induces SNAI1 degradation via MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and inhibits SNAI1-induced cell invasion. Interacts (via NICD) with MDM2A. Interacts (via NICD) with BCL6; the interaction decreases MAML1 recruitment by NOTCH1 NICD on target genes DNA and inhibits NOTCH1 transcractivation activity. Interacts with THBS4 (By similarity). Interacts (via the EGF-like repeat region) with CCN3 (via CTCK domain) (PubMed:12050162). Interacts (via EGF-like domains) with DLL4 (via N-terminal DSL and MNNL domains) (By similarity). Interacts with ZMIZ1. Interacts (via NICD domain) with MEGF10 (via the cytoplasmic domain). Interacts with DLL1 and JAG1 (By similarity). Interacts (via NICD domain) with PRAG1 (By similarity). Forms a complex with PRAG1, N1ICD and MAML1, in a MAML1-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts (via transmembrane region) with PSEN1; the interaction is direct (PubMed:30598546). Interacts with ZFP64 (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY In fetal tissues most abundant in spleen, brain stem and lung. Also present in most adult tissues where it is found mainly in lymphoid tissues.DOMAIN Interaction with PSEN1 causes partial unwinding of the transmembrane helix, facilitating access to the scissile peptide bond.PTM Synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum as an inactive form which is proteolytically cleaved by a furin-like convertase in the trans-Golgi network before it reaches the plasma membrane to yield an active, ligand-accessible form (By similarity). Cleavage results in a C-terminal fragment N(TM) and a N-terminal fragment N(EC). Following ligand binding, it is cleaved by ADAM17 to yield a membrane-associated intermediate fragment called notch extracellular truncation (NEXT) (PubMed:24226769). Following endocytosis, this fragment is then cleaved by one of the catalytic subunits of gamma-secretase (PSEN1 or PSEN2), to release a Notch-derived peptide containing the intracellular domain (NICD) from the membrane (PubMed:30598546).PTM Phosphorylated.PTM O-glycosylated on the EGF-like domains (PubMed:24226769). O-glucosylated at Ser-435 by KDELC1 and KDELC2 (PubMed:30127001). Contains both O-linked fucose and O-linked glucose in the EGF-like domains 11, 12 and 13, which are interacting with the residues on DLL4 (By similarity). O-linked glycosylation by GALNT11 is involved in determination of left/right symmetry: glycosylation promotes activation of NOTCH1, possibly by promoting cleavage by ADAM17, modulating the balance between motile and immotile (sensory) cilia at the left-right organiser (LRO) (PubMed:24226769). MFNG-, RFNG- and LFNG-mediated modification of O-fucose residues at specific EGF-like domains results in inhibition of its activation by JAG1 and enhancement of its activation by DLL1 via an increased binding to DLL1 (By similarity).PTM Ubiquitinated. Undergoes 'Lys-29'-linked polyubiquitination by ITCH; promotes the lysosomal degradation of non-activated internalized NOTCH1 (PubMed:18628966, PubMed:23886940). Monoubiquitination at Lys-1759 is required for activation by gamma-secretase cleavage, it promotes interaction with AAK1, which stabilizes it. Deubiquitination by EIF3F is necessary for nuclear import of activated Notch (PubMed:24226769).PTM Hydroxylated at Asn-1955 by HIF1AN. Hydroxylated at Asn-2022 by HIF1AN (By similarity). Hydroxylation reduces affinity for HI1AN and may thus indirectly modulate negative regulation of NICD (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the NOTCH family. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt P46531 73 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-threonine MOD MOD:00813 116 EQUAL 194 EQUAL 232 EQUAL 311 EQUAL 349 EQUAL 466 EQUAL 617 EQUAL 692 EQUAL 767 EQUAL 805 EQUAL 883 EQUAL O-fucosyl-L-serine MOD MOD:00812 921 EQUAL 997 EQUAL 1035 EQUAL 1159 EQUAL 1197 EQUAL 1243 EQUAL 1321 EQUAL 1362 EQUAL 1402 EQUAL 65 EQUAL O-glucosyl-L-serine MOD MOD:00804 146 EQUAL 378 EQUAL 458 EQUAL 496 EQUAL 534 EQUAL 609 EQUAL 647 EQUAL 722 EQUAL 759 EQUAL 797 EQUAL 951 EQUAL 1027 EQUAL 1065 EQUAL 1189 EQUAL 1273 EQUAL 19 EQUAL 1664 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 1983670 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1983670 Reactome R-HSA-1983670 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1983670.1 Reactome http://www.reactome.org 1 NOTCH1(1665-2555) NOTCH1 Transmembrane fragment (NTMIC1) Reactome DB_ID: 157239 1665 EQUAL 2555 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 157239 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=157239 Reactome R-HSA-157239 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-157239.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 157027 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=157027 Reactome R-HSA-157027 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-157027.1 ITCH E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Itchy homolog ITCH_HUMAN AIP4 Reactome DB_ID: 975995 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 UniProt:Q96J02 ITCH ITCH FUNCTION Acts as an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase which accepts ubiquitin from an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme in the form of a thioester and then directly transfers the ubiquitin to targeted substrates (PubMed:14602072, PubMed:17028573, PubMed:16387660, PubMed:18718448, PubMed:18718449, PubMed:11046148, PubMed:19592251, PubMed:19116316, PubMed:19881509, PubMed:20491914, PubMed:20392206, PubMed:20068034, PubMed:23146885, PubMed:24790097, PubMed:25631046, PubMed:15051726). Catalyzes 'Lys-29'-, 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitin conjugation (PubMed:17028573, PubMed:18718448, PubMed:19131965, PubMed:19881509). Involved in the control of inflammatory signaling pathways (PubMed:19131965). Essential component of a ubiquitin-editing protein complex, comprising also TNFAIP3, TAX1BP1 and RNF11, that ensures the transient nature of inflammatory signaling pathways (PubMed:19131965). Promotes the association of the complex after TNF stimulation (PubMed:19131965). Once the complex is formed, TNFAIP3 deubiquitinates 'Lys-63' polyubiquitin chains on RIPK1 and catalyzes the formation of 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitin chains (PubMed:19131965). This leads to RIPK1 proteasomal degradation and consequently termination of the TNF- or LPS-mediated activation of NFKB1 (PubMed:19131965). Ubiquitinates RIPK2 by 'Lys-63'-linked conjugation and influences NOD2-dependent signal transduction pathways (PubMed:19592251). Regulates the transcriptional activity of several transcription factors, and probably plays an important role in the regulation of immune response (PubMed:18718448, PubMed:20491914). Ubiquitinates NFE2 by 'Lys-63' linkages and is implicated in the control of the development of hematopoietic lineages (PubMed:18718448). Mediates JUN ubiquitination and degradation (By similarity). Mediates JUNB ubiquitination and degradation (PubMed:16387660). Critical regulator of type 2 helper T (Th2) cell cytokine production by inducing JUNB ubiquitination and degradation (By similarity). Involved in the negative regulation of MAVS-dependent cellular antiviral responses (PubMed:19881509). Ubiquitinates MAVS through 'Lys-48'-linked conjugation resulting in MAVS proteasomal degradation (PubMed:19881509). Following ligand stimulation, regulates sorting of Wnt receptor FZD4 to the degradative endocytic pathway probably by modulating PI42KA activity (PubMed:23146885). Ubiquitinates PI4K2A and negatively regulates its catalytic activity (PubMed:23146885). Ubiquitinates chemokine receptor CXCR4 and regulates sorting of CXCR4 to the degradative endocytic pathway following ligand stimulation by ubiquitinating endosomal sorting complex required for transport ESCRT-0 components HGS and STAM (PubMed:14602072, PubMed:23146885, PubMed:34927784). Targets DTX1 for lysosomal degradation and controls NOTCH1 degradation, in the absence of ligand, through 'Lys-29'-linked polyubiquitination (PubMed:17028573, PubMed:18628966, PubMed:23886940). Ubiquitinates SNX9 (PubMed:20491914). Ubiquitinates MAP3K7 through 'Lys-48'-linked conjugation (By similarity). Involved in the regulation of apoptosis and reactive oxygen species levels through the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TXNIP (PubMed:20068034). Mediates the antiapoptotic activity of epidermal growth factor through the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of p15 BID (PubMed:20392206). Ubiquitinates BRAT1 and this ubiquitination is enhanced in the presence of NDFIP1 (PubMed:25631046). Inhibits the replication of influenza A virus (IAV) via ubiquitination of IAV matrix protein 1 (M1) through 'Lys-48'-linked conjugation resulting in M1 proteasomal degradation (PubMed:30328013). Ubiquitinates NEDD9/HEF1, resulting in proteosomal degradation of NEDD9/HEF1 (PubMed:15051726).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by NDFIP1- and NDFIP2-binding (PubMed:25631046). Activated by PI4K2A-binding (PubMed:23146885). Inhibited by DTX3L-binding (PubMed:24790097). Inhibited by N4BP1 binding (By similarity).PATHWAY Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.SUBUNIT Monomer. Part of a ternary complex composed of SMAD3, ITCH/AIP4 and NEDD9/HEF1; within the complex NEDD9/HEF1 interacts (via N-terminus) with ITCH/AIP4 (via WW domains); the complex mediates ubiquitination and proteosomal degradation of NEDD9/HEF1 (PubMed:15051726). Interacts (via WW domains) with OCNL (By similarity). Interacts (via WW domains) with NOTCH1 (By similarity). Interacts (via WW domains) with JUN (By similarity). Interacts with JUNB; the interaction promotes ITCH-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of JUNB (PubMed:16387660). Interacts with FYN; the interaction phosphorylates ITCH on Tyr-420 decreasing binding of JUNB (PubMed:16387660). Interacts (via WW domain 2) with N4BP1; the interaction inhibits the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity (By similarity). Interacts with NDFIP1 and NDFIP2; this interaction activates the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase and may induce its recruitment to exosomes (By similarity). Interacts with ARHGEF7 (PubMed:17652093). Interacts with RNF11 (PubMed:14559117, PubMed:19131965). Interacts (via the WW 1 domain) with NFE2 (via the PXY motif 1); the interaction promotes 'Lys-63'-linked ubiquitination of NFE2, retains it in the cytoplasm and prevents its transactivation activity (PubMed:11318614, PubMed:18718448). Interacts (via WW domains) with CXCR4 (via C-terminus); the interaction depends on CXCR4 phosphorylation (PubMed:19116316). Found in a complex with E3 ligase DTX3L and ESCRT-0 components HGS and STAM (PubMed:24790097). Interacts with DTX3L (via C-terminus); the interaction is increased upon CXCL12 stimulation and inhibits ITCH catalytic activity (the interaction is direct) (PubMed:24790097). Interacts with HGS (PubMed:14602072). Interacts (via WW domains) with PCBP2 within a complex containing ITCH, MAVS and PCBP2 (PubMed:19881509). Interacts (via WW domains) with TXNIP (via C-terminus) (PubMed:20068034). Interacts with p15 BID (PubMed:20392206). Interacts with ERBB4 (PubMed:20858735). Interacts with DTX1 (PubMed:17028573). Interacts with SPART (PubMed:19580544). Interacts with SNX9 and SNX18 (PubMed:20491914). Interacts (via its WW domains) with ATN1 (PubMed:9647693). Interacts (via WW domains) with SGK3 (PubMed:16888620). Interacts with CBLC (PubMed:12226085). Interacts with OTUD7B (PubMed:22179831). Interacts (via WW domain 1,2 and 3) with PI4K2A; the interaction inhibits PI4K2A catalytic activity and promotes ITCH catalytic activity (PubMed:23146885). Interacts with ARRDC4 (PubMed:23236378). Part of a complex containing ITCH, NDFIP1 and MAP3K7 (By similarity). Interacts with UBE2L3; the interaction is mediated by NDFIP1 (PubMed:25632008). Interacts with MAPK8/JNK1 (By similarity). Interacts (via WW domains) with ARRDC1 (via PPxY motifs); the interaction is direct and participates in the recruitment of the ubiquitin-protein ligase ITCH to the NOTCH1 receptor (PubMed:21191027, PubMed:23886940). Interacts (via WW domains) with ARRDC2 (PubMed:21191027). Interacts (via WW domains) with ARRDC3 (PubMed:21191027, PubMed:23886940). Interacts directly with LDLRAD3; this interaction promotes ITCH auto-ubiquitination leading to its degradation (PubMed:26854353). Interacts with ENTREP1; enhances the ubiquitination of CXCR4 by ITCH and its subsequent endocytosis (PubMed:34927784).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Epstein-Barr virus LMP2A.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) protein UL42; this interaction induces ubiquitination and degradation of ITCH.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) UL56 protein; this interaction induces ubiquitination and probably degradation of ITCH.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpesvirus 2 (HHV-2) UL56 protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) Orf0 protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpesvirus 6A (HHV-6A) U24 protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with ebola virus protein VP40; this interaction is required for efficient viral egress from the infected cell.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with influenza A virus matrix protein 1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed.DOMAIN The WW domains mediate interaction with PPxY motif-containing proteins.DOMAIN The WW domain 4 mediates interaction with ENTREP1.PTM On T-cell activation, phosphorylation by the JNK cascade on serine and threonine residues surrounding the PRR domain accelerates the ubiquitination and degradation of JUN and JUNB. The increased ITCH catalytic activity due to phosphorylation by JNK1 may occur due to a conformational change disrupting the interaction between the PRR/WW motifs domain and the HECT domain and, thus exposing the HECT domain (By similarity). Phosphorylation by FYN reduces interaction with JUNB and negatively controls JUN ubiquitination and degradation.PTM Monoubiquitinated (PubMed:19116316). Autopolyubiquitinated with 'Lys-63' linkages which does not lead to protein degradation (PubMed:18718449, PubMed:23146885, PubMed:24790097). UniProt Q96J02 1 EQUAL 903 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 975995 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975995 Reactome R-HSA-975995 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-975995.2 NUMB Protein numb homolog NUMB_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 443595 UniProt:P49757 NUMB NUMB C14orf41 FUNCTION Regulates clathrin-mediated receptor endocytosis (PubMed:18657069). Plays a role in the process of neurogenesis (By similarity). Required throughout embryonic neurogenesis to maintain neural progenitor cells, also called radial glial cells (RGCs), by allowing their daughter cells to choose progenitor over neuronal cell fate (By similarity). Not required for the proliferation of neural progenitor cells before the onset of neurogenesis. Also involved postnatally in the subventricular zone (SVZ) neurogenesis by regulating SVZ neuroblasts survival and ependymal wall integrity (By similarity). May also mediate local repair of brain ventricular wall damage (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with SIAH1 (PubMed:11752454). Interacts with LNX (By similarity). Interacts with CDH1 (By similarity). Interacts with TFAP2A and TFAP2B (By similarity). Interacts with RALBP1 in a complex also containing EPN1 and TFAP2A during interphase and mitosis (PubMed:12775724). Interacts with AAK1 (PubMed:18657069). May interact with DUOXA1 (PubMed:14670962).PTM Phosphorylated on Ser-276 and Ser-295 by CaMK1.PTM Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are ubiquitinated by LNX leading to their subsequent proteasomal degradation (By similarity). Ubiquitinated; mediated by SIAH1 and leading to its subsequent proteasomal degradation. UniProt P49757 1 EQUAL 651 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 443595 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=443595 Reactome R-HSA-443595 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-443595.1 NOTCH1:NUMB:ITCH Reactome DB_ID: 1604458 1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 1604458 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1604458 Reactome R-HSA-1604458 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1604458.1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 1980128 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1980128 Reactome R-HSA-1980128 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1980128.1 19567869 Pubmed 2009 Numb regulates post-endocytic trafficking and degradation of Notch1 McGill, MA Dho, SE Weinmaster, G McGlade, CJ J Biol Chem 284:26427-38 8313469 Pubmed 1994 Asymmetric distribution of numb protein during division of the sensory organ precursor cell confers distinct fates to daughter cells Rhyu, MS Jan, LY Jan, YN Cell 76:477-91