BioPAX pathway converted from "AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol" in the Reactome database. AKT phosphorylates targets in the cytosol Following activation, AKT can phosphorylate an array of target proteins in the cytoplasm, many of which are involved in cell survival control. Phosphorylation of TSC2 feeds positively to the TOR kinase, which, in turn, contributes to AKT activation (positive feedback loop). Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 Edited: Jassal, B, 2011-05-11 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates BAD Activated AKT phosphorylates the BCL-2 family member BAD at serine 99 (corresponds to serine residue S136 of mouse Bad), blocking the BAD-induced cell death (Datta et al. 1997, del Peso et al. 1997, Khor et al. 2004). Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 113592 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) ATP atp Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:30616 Reactome Database ID Release 82 113592 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113592 Reactome R-ALL-113592 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113592.5 Reactome http://www.reactome.org COMPOUND C00002 additional information MI MI:0361 BAD BAD protein Bcl2-antagonist of cell death Bcl-2 binding component 6 Bcl- XL/Bcl-2 associated death promoter Bcl-2-like 8 protein Reactome DB_ID: 50662 UniProt:Q92934 BAD BAD BBC6 BCL2L8 FUNCTION Promotes cell death. Successfully competes for the binding to Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W, thereby affecting the level of heterodimerization of these proteins with BAX. Can reverse the death repressor activity of Bcl-X(L), but not that of Bcl-2 (By similarity). Appears to act as a link between growth factor receptor signaling and the apoptotic pathways.SUBUNIT Forms heterodimers with the anti-apoptotic proteins, Bcl-X(L), Bcl-2 and Bcl-W. Also binds protein S100A10 (By similarity). The Ser-75/Ser-99 phosphorylated form binds 14-3-3 proteins (By similarity). Interacts with AKT1 and PIM3. Interacts (via BH3 domain) with NOL3 (via CARD domain); preventing the association of BAD with BCL2 (By similarity). Interacts with HIF3A (via C-terminus domain); the interaction reduces the binding between BAD and BAX (By similarity). Interacts with GIMAP3/IAN4 and GIMAP5/IAN5 (PubMed:16509771).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in a wide variety of tissues.DOMAIN Intact BH3 motif is required by BIK, BID, BAK, BAD and BAX for their pro-apoptotic activity and for their interaction with anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family.PTM Phosphorylated on one or more of Ser-75, Ser-99, Ser-118 and Ser-134 in response to survival stimuli, which blocks its pro-apoptotic activity. Phosphorylation on Ser-99 or Ser-75 promotes heterodimerization with 14-3-3 proteins. This interaction then facilitates the phosphorylation at Ser-118, a site within the BH3 motif, leading to the release of Bcl-X(L) and the promotion of cell survival. Ser-99 is the major site of AKT/PKB phosphorylation, Ser-118 the major site of protein kinase A (CAPK) phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at Ser-99 by PKB/AKT1 is almost completely blocked by the apoptotic C-terminus cleavage product of PKN2 generated by caspases-3 activity during apoptosis.PTM Methylation at Arg-94 and Arg-96 by PRMT1 inhibits Akt-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-99.SIMILARITY Belongs to the Bcl-2 family.CAUTION The protein name 'Bcl2 antagonist of cell death' may be misleading. The protein antagonises Bcl2-mediated repression of cell death, hence it promotes apoptosis. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt Q92934 1 EQUAL 168 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 50662 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=50662 Reactome R-HSA-50662 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-50662.1 ADP Adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 29370 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP trianion ChEBI CHEBI:456216 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29370 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29370 Reactome R-ALL-29370 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29370.5 COMPOUND C00008 p-S99-BAD Phospho-BAD protein (at S99) Reactome DB_ID: 198335 99 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine MOD MOD:00046 1 EQUAL 168 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198335 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198335 Reactome R-HSA-198335 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198335.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Active AKT p-T,p-S-AKT Reactome DB_ID: 202074 PKB p-T308,S473-AKT1 p-S473,T308-AKT1 p-T308, S473-AKT1 RAC-alpha serine/threonine kinase RAC-PK-alpha Protein kinase B C-AKT Reactome DB_ID: 198356 UniProt:P31749 AKT1 AKT1 PKB RAC FUNCTION AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface (By similarity). Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling (By similarity). Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (PubMed:11994271). AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity (By similarity). Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven (By similarity). AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase) (PubMed:11154276). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis (PubMed:11154276). AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating the TORC1 signaling pathway, and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1 (PubMed:12150915). Also regulates the TORC1 signaling pathway by catalyzing phosphorylation of CASTOR1 (PubMed:33594058). AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization (PubMed:10358075). In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319' (PubMed:10358075). FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites (PubMed:10358075). AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein) (PubMed:9829964). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1 (PubMed:9829964). AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis (By similarity). Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis (By similarity). Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity (By similarity). The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (PubMed:12176338, PubMed:12964941). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly (PubMed:19934221). May be involved in the regulation of the placental development (By similarity). Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3 (PubMed:17726016). Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation (PubMed:20086174, PubMed:20231902). Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation (PubMed:19592491). Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity (PubMed:10576742). Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity (PubMed:10926925). Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53 (PubMed:23431171). Phosphorylates palladin (PALLD), modulating cytoskeletal organization and cell motility (PubMed:20471940). Phosphorylates prohibitin (PHB), playing an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation (PubMed:18507042). Phosphorylates CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization (PubMed:16982699). These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more specific role in cell motility and proliferation (PubMed:16139227). Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to ionizing radiation (PubMed:20682768). Phosphorylates PCK1 at 'Ser-90', reducing the binding affinity of PCK1 to oxaloacetate and changing PCK1 into an atypical protein kinase activity using GTP as donor (PubMed:32322062). Also acts as an activator of TMEM175 potassium channel activity in response to growth factors: forms the lysoK(GF) complex together with TMEM175 and acts by promoting TMEM175 channel activation, independently of its protein kinase activity (PubMed:32228865).ACTIVITY REGULATION Three specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-308) and the two other ones in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-473 and Tyr-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation (PubMed:20481595, PubMed:21392984, PubMed:9512493, PubMed:9736715). Inhibited by pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitors like aniline triazole and spiroindoline (PubMed:18456494, PubMed:20810279).SUBUNIT Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts (via the C-terminus) with CCDC88A (via its C-terminus). Interacts with GRB10; the interaction leads to GRB10 phosphorylation thus promoting YWHAE-binding (By similarity). Interacts with AGAP2 (isoform 2/PIKE-A); the interaction occurs in the presence of guanine nucleotides. Interacts with AKTIP. Interacts (via PH domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CDKN1B; the interaction phosphorylates CDKN1B promoting 14-3-3 binding and cell-cycle progression. Interacts with MAP3K5 and TRAF6. Interacts with BAD, PPP2R5B, STK3 and STK4. Interacts (via PH domain) with SIRT1. Interacts with SRPK2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Interacts with RAF1. Interacts with TRIM13; the interaction ubiquitinates AKT1 leading to its proteasomal degradation. Interacts with TNK2 and CLK2. Interacts (via the C-terminus) with THEM4 (via its C-terminus). Interacts with and phosphorylated by PDPK1. Interacts with PA2G4 (By similarity). Interacts with KIF14; the interaction is detected in the plasma membrane upon INS stimulation and promotes AKT1 phosphorylation (PubMed:24784001). Interacts with FAM83B; activates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade (PubMed:23676467). Interacts with WDFY2 (via WD repeats 1-3) (PubMed:16792529). Forms a complex with WDFY2 and FOXO1 (By similarity). Interacts with FAM168A (PubMed:23251525). Interacts with SYAP1 (via phosphorylated form and BSD domain); this interaction is enhanced in a mTORC2-mediated manner in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation and activates AKT1 (PubMed:23300339). Interacts with PKHM3 (By similarity). Interacts with FKBP5/FKBP51; promoting interaction between Akt/AKT1 and PHLPP1, thereby enhancing dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of Akt/AKT1 (PubMed:28147277). Interacts with TMEM175; leading to formation of the lysoK(GF) complex (PubMed:32228865). Acts as a negative regulator of the cGAS-STING pathway by mediating phosphorylation of CGAS during mitosis, leading to its inhibition (PubMed:26440888).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in prostate cancer and levels increase from the normal to the malignant state (at protein level). Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane. The PH domain mediates interaction with TNK2 and Tyr-176 is also essential for this interaction.DOMAIN The AGC-kinase C-terminal mediates interaction with THEM4.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-305 and Thr-312 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-308 via disrupting the interaction between AKT1 and PDPK1. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-473 also probably interferes with phosphorylation at this site.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity (PubMed:12149249, PubMed:14761976, PubMed:15047712, PubMed:16266983, PubMed:17013611, PubMed:20978158, PubMed:9736715, PubMed:23799035, PubMed:8978681, PubMed:28147277). Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA (PubMed:20333297). This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation (PubMed:9512493). Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1 (PubMed:21464307, PubMed:8978681). Phosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by IKBKE and TBK1 (PubMed:15718470, PubMed:18456494, PubMed:20481595, PubMed:8978681). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A) (PubMed:14761976). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells (PubMed:17013611). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by signaling through activated FLT3 (By similarity). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by PHLPP (PubMed:28147277). Dephosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). The phosphorylated form of PPP2R5B is required for bridging AKT1 with PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by CPPED1, leading to termination of signaling (PubMed:9512493).PTM Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation (PubMed:19713527). When ubiquitinated, it translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated (PubMed:20059950). When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:20059950). Also ubiquitinated by TRIM13 leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:21333377). Phosphorylated, undergoes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination preferentially at Lys-284 catalyzed by MUL1, leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:22410793). Ubiquitinated via 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by ZNRF1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity).PTM Acetylated on Lys-14 and Lys-20 by the histone acetyltransferases EP300 and KAT2B. Acetylation results in reduced phosphorylation and inhibition of activity. Deacetylated at Lys-14 and Lys-20 by SIRT1. SIRT1-mediated deacetylation relieves the inhibition.PTM Cleavage by caspase-3/CASP3 (By similarity). Cleaved at the caspase-3 consensus site Asp-462 during apoptosis, resulting in down-regulation of the AKT signaling pathway and decreased cell survival (PubMed:23152800).DISEASE Genetic variations in AKT1 may play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION PUBMED:19940129 has been retracted because the same data were used to represent different experimental conditions.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt P31749 308 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine MOD MOD:00047 473 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 480 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198356 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198356 Reactome R-HSA-198356 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198356.1 PKB beta p-T309,S474-AKT2 p-S474,T309-AKT2 p-T309, S474-AKT2 RAC-beta serine/threonine protein kinase RAC-PK-beta Protein kinase Akt-2 Protein kinase B, beta Reactome DB_ID: 202062 UniProt:P31751 AKT2 AKT2 FUNCTION AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development.FUNCTION One of the few specific substrates of AKT2 identified recently is PITX2. Phosphorylation of PITX2 impairs its association with the CCND1 mRNA-stabilizing complex thus shortening the half-life of CCND1. AKT2 seems also to be the principal isoform responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake. Phosphorylates C2CD5 on 'Ser-197' during insulin-stimulated adipocytes. AKT2 is also specifically involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, one of its substrates in this process being ANKRD2. Down-regulation by RNA interference reduces the expression of the phosphorylated form of BAD, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Phosphorylates CLK2 on 'Thr-343'.ACTIVITY REGULATION Two specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-309) and the other in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation (PubMed:18800763, PubMed:19179070). Aminofurazans, such as 4-[2-(4-amino-2,5-dihydro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-6-{[(1S)-3-amino-1-phenylpropyl]oxy}-1-ethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-yl]-2-methylbut-3-yn-2-ol (compound 32), are potent AKT2 inhibitors (PubMed:19179070).SUBUNIT Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts (via PH domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CLK2, PBH2 and TRAF6. Interacts (when phosphorylated) with CLIP3, the interaction promotes cell membrane localization (PubMed:19139280). Interacts with WDFY2 (via WD repeats 1-3) (PubMed:16792529).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in all cell types so far analyzed.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-309 and Ser-474 is required for full activity.PTM Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT2 ubiquitination. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-306 and Thr-313 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-309 via disrupting the interaction between AKT and PDK1.DISEASE Defects in AKT2 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC). AKT2 promotes metastasis of tumor cells without affecting the latency of tumor development. With AKT3, also plays a pivotal role in the biology of glioblastoma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt P31751 309 EQUAL 474 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 481 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 202062 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=202062 Reactome R-HSA-202062 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-202062.1 AKT3 p-T305,S472-AKT3 RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase ecNumber2.7.11.1/ecNumber AKT3_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 3009367 UniProt:Q9Y243 AKT3 AKT3 PKBG FUNCTION AKT3 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT3 is the least studied AKT isoform. It plays an important role in brain development and is crucial for the viability of malignant glioma cells. AKT3 isoform may also be the key molecule in up-regulation and down-regulation of MMP13 via IL13. Required for the coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis with growth factor-induced increases in cellular energy demands. Down-regulation by RNA interference reduces the expression of the phosphorylated form of BAD, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis.ACTIVITY REGULATION Two specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-305) and the other in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-472), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation (By similarity). IGF-1 leads to the activation of AKT3, which may play a role in regulating cell survival.SUBUNIT Interacts (via PH domain) with TCL1A; this enhances AKT3 phosphorylation and activation. Interacts with TRAF6. Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY In adult tissues, it is highly expressed in brain, lung and kidney, but weakly in heart, testis and liver. In fetal tissues, it is highly expressed in heart, liver and brain and not at all in kidney.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI(3)K) results in its targeting to the plasma membrane.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-305 and Ser-472 is required for full activity.PTM Ubiquitinated. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-302 and Thr-309 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-305 via disrupting the interaction between AKT and PDK1.DISEASE AKT3 is a key modulator of several tumors like melanoma, glioma and ovarian cancer. Active AKT3 increases progressively during melanoma tumor progression with highest levels present in advanced-stage metastatic melanomas. Promotes melanoma tumorigenesis by decreasing apoptosis. Plays a key role in the genesis of ovarian cancers through modulation of G2/M phase transition. With AKT2, plays a pivotal role in the biology of glioblastoma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt Q9Y243 305 EQUAL 472 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 479 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 3009367 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=3009367 Reactome R-HSA-3009367 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-3009367.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 202074 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=202074 Reactome R-HSA-202074 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-202074.2 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004674 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 82 198368 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198368 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198347 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198347 Reactome R-HSA-198347 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198347.4 9346240 Pubmed 1997 Akt phosphorylation of BAD couples survival signals to the cell-intrinsic death machinery Datta, S R Dudek, H Tao, X Masters, S Fu, H Gotoh, Y Greenberg, M E Cell 91:231-41 15183529 Pubmed 2004 Positive correlation between overexpression of phospho-BAD with phosphorylated Akt at serine 15183529 Khor, TO Gul, YA Ithnin, H Seow, HF Cancer Lett 210:139-50 9381178 Pubmed 1997 Interleukin-3-induced phosphorylation of BAD through the protein kinase Akt del Peso, L Gonzalez-Garcia, M Page, Clive P Herrera, R Nunez, G Science 278:687-9 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0043491 gene ontology term for cellular process MI MI:0359 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates GSK3 GSK3 (glycogen synthase kinase-3) participates in the Wnt signaling pathway. It is implicated in the hormonal control of several regulatory proteins including glycogen synthase, and the transcription factors MYB and JUN. GSK3 phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA. GSK3 is inhibited when phosphorylated by AKT1. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome GSK3 Reactome DB_ID: 198358 GSK3A Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha KG3A_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 198326 UniProt:P49840 GSK3A GSK3A FUNCTION Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC and AXIN1 (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Regulates glycogen metabolism in liver, but not in muscle (By similarity). May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors (PubMed:10868943, PubMed:17478001). In Wnt signaling, regulates the level and transcriptional activity of nuclear CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:17229088). Facilitates amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the generation of APP-derived amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer disease (PubMed:12761548). May be involved in the regulation of replication in pancreatic beta-cells (By similarity). Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth (By similarity). Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of autophagy by mediating phosphorylation of KAT5/TIP60 under starvation conditions which activates KAT5/TIP60 acetyltransferase activity and promotes acetylation of key autophagy regulators, such as ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer (PubMed:30704899). Negatively regulates extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors. Promotes the formation of an anti-apoptotic complex, made of DDX3X, BRIC2 and GSK3B, at death receptors, including TNFRSF10B. The anti-apoptotic function is most effective with weak apoptotic signals and can be overcome by stronger stimulation (By similarity). Phosphorylates mTORC2 complex component RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-279. In response to insulin, inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser-21 by PKB/AKT1; phosphorylation at this site causes a conformational change, preventing access of substrates to the active site. Inhibited by lithium.SUBUNIT Monomer. Interacts with ARRB2 (By similarity). Interacts with AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:17229088). Interacts with CTNND2 (PubMed:19706605). Interacts with LMBR1L (PubMed:31073040). Interacts with DDX3X (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with TNFRSF10B (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with RICTOR; the interaction results in phosphorylation of RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' by GSK3A which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with M.tuberculosis PtpA.PTM Phosphorylated by AKT1 at Ser-21: upon insulin-mediated signaling, the activated PKB/AKT1 protein kinase phosphorylates and deactivates GSK3A, resulting in the dephosphorylation and activation of GYS1. Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-279.PTM (Microbial infection) Dephosphorylated at Tyr-279 by M.tuberculosis PtpA, which leads to prevention of apoptosis during early stages of microbial infection.MISCELLANEOUS Higher expression and activity of GSK3A are found in the skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) of patients with type 2 diabetes (PubMed:10868943). Several potent GSK3 (GSK3A and GSK3B) inhibitors have been identified and characterized in preclinical models for treatments of type 2 diabetes (PubMed:19366350).SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GSK-3 subfamily. UniProt P49840 2 EQUAL 483 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198326 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198326 Reactome R-HSA-198326 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198326.1 GSK3B Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta GSK3B_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 2997551 UniProt:P49841 GSK3B GSK3B FUNCTION Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), EIF2B, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC, AXIN1, DPYSL2/CRMP2, JUN, NFATC1/NFATC, MAPT/TAU and MACF1 (PubMed:1846781, PubMed:9072970, PubMed:14690523, PubMed:20937854, PubMed:12554650, PubMed:11430833, PubMed:16484495). Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates (PubMed:11430833, PubMed:16484495). In skeletal muscle, contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis (PubMed:8397507). May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors (PubMed:8397507). Regulates protein synthesis by controlling the activity of initiation factor 2B (EIF2BE/EIF2B5) in the same manner as glycogen synthase (PubMed:8397507). In Wnt signaling, GSK3B forms a multimeric complex with APC, AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin and phosphorylates the N-terminus of CTNNB1 leading to its degradation mediated by ubiquitin/proteasomes (PubMed:12554650). Phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA (PubMed:1846781). Phosphorylates NFATC1/NFATC on conserved serine residues promoting NFATC1/NFATC nuclear export, shutting off NFATC1/NFATC gene regulation, and thereby opposing the action of calcineurin (PubMed:9072970). Phosphorylates MAPT/TAU on 'Thr-548', decreasing significantly MAPT/TAU ability to bind and stabilize microtubules (PubMed:14690523). MAPT/TAU is the principal component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (PubMed:14690523). Plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex (PubMed:20937854). Phosphorylates MACF1, inhibiting its binding to microtubules which is critical for its role in bulge stem cell migration and skin wound repair (By similarity). Probably regulates NF-kappa-B (NFKB1) at the transcriptional level and is required for the NF-kappa-B-mediated anti-apoptotic response to TNF-alpha (TNF/TNFA) (By similarity). Negatively regulates replication in pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in apoptosis, loss of beta-cells and diabetes (By similarity). Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation (By similarity). Phosphorylates MUC1 in breast cancer cells, decreasing the interaction of MUC1 with CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:9819408). Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth (PubMed:20067585). Phosphorylates MARK2, leading to inhibition of its activity (By similarity). Phosphorylates SIK1 at 'Thr-182', leading to sustainment of its activity (PubMed:18348280). Phosphorylates ZC3HAV1 which enhances its antiviral activity (PubMed:22514281). Phosphorylates SNAI1, leading to its BTRC-triggered ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (PubMed:15448698, PubMed:15647282). Phosphorylates SFPQ at 'Thr-687' upon T-cell activation (PubMed:20932480). Phosphorylates NR1D1 st 'Ser-55' and 'Ser-59' and stabilizes it by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. Regulates the circadian clock via phosphorylation of the major clock components including ARNTL/BMAL1, CLOCK and PER2 (PubMed:19946213, PubMed:28903391). Phosphorylates CLOCK AT 'Ser-427' and targets it for proteasomal degradation (PubMed:19946213). Phosphorylates ARNTL/BMAL1 at 'Ser-17' and 'Ser-21' and primes it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (PubMed:28903391). Phosphorylates OGT at 'Ser-3' or 'Ser-4' which positively regulates its activity. Phosphorylates MYCN in neuroblastoma cells which may promote its degradation (PubMed:24391509). Regulates the circadian rhythmicity of hippocampal long-term potentiation and ARNTL/BMLA1 and PER2 expression (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of autophagy by mediating phosphorylation of KAT5/TIP60 under starvation conditions, activating KAT5/TIP60 acetyltransferase activity and promoting acetylation of key autophagy regulators, such as ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer (PubMed:30704899). Negatively regulates extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors. Promotes the formation of an anti-apoptotic complex, made of DDX3X, BRIC2 and GSK3B, at death receptors, including TNFRSF10B. The anti-apoptotic function is most effective with weak apoptotic signals and can be overcome by stronger stimulation (PubMed:18846110). Phosphorylates E2F1, promoting the interaction between E2F1 and USP11, stabilizing E2F1 and promoting its activity (PubMed:17050006, PubMed:28992046). Phosphorylates mTORC2 complex component RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-216. In response to insulin, inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser-9 by PKB/AKT1 and RPS6KA3; phosphorylation at this site causes a conformational change, preventing access of substrates to the active site. Inhibited by lithium.SUBUNIT Monomer. Interacts with ARRB2, DISC1 and ZBED3 (By similarity). Interacts with CABYR, MMP2, MUC1, NIN and PRUNE1. Interacts with AXIN1; the interaction mediates hyperphosphorylation of CTNNB1 leading to its ubiquitination and destruction. Interacts with and phosphorylates SNAI1. Interacts with DNM1L (via a C-terminal domain). Found in a complex composed of MACF1, APC, AXIN1, CTNNB1 and GSK3B (By similarity). Interacts with SGK3. Interacts with DAB2IP (via C2 domain); the interaction stimulates GSK3B kinase activation. Interacts (via C2 domain) with PPP2CA. Interacts with the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer (PubMed:19946213). Interacts with the ARNTL/BMAL1 (PubMed:28903391). Interacts with CTNND2 (PubMed:19706605). Interacts with NCYM (PubMed:24391509). The complex composed, at least, of APC, CTNNB1 and GSK3B interacts with JPT1; the interaction requires the inactive form of GSK3B (phosphorylated at 'Ser-9') (PubMed:25169422). Forms a complex composed of PRKAR2A or PRKAR2B, GSK3B and GSKIP through GSKIP interaction; facilitates PKA-induced phosphorylation and regulates GSK3B activity (PubMed:27484798, PubMed:20007971, PubMed:25920809). Interacts with GSKIP (PubMed:16981698). Interacts with GID8 (PubMed:28829046). Interacts with PIWIL2 (By similarity). Interacts with LMBR1L (PubMed:31073040). Interacts with DDX3X (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with BIRC2 (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with TNFRSF10B; TNFRSF10B stimulation inhibits GSK3B kinase activity (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with RICTOR; the interaction results in phosphorylation of RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' by GSK3B which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in testis, thymus, prostate and ovary and weakly expressed in lung, brain and kidney. Colocalizes with EIF2AK2/PKR and TAU in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain.PTM Phosphorylated by AKT1 and ILK1. Upon insulin-mediated signaling, the activated PKB/AKT1 protein kinase phosphorylates and deactivates GSK3B, resulting in the dephosphorylation and activation of GYS1. Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-216 (PubMed:25169422). Inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-9 (Probable). Phosphorylated in a circadian manner in the hippocampus (By similarity).PTM Mono-ADP-ribosylation by PARP10 negatively regulates kinase activity.MISCELLANEOUS Higher expression and activity of GSK3B are found in the skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) of patients with type 2 diabetes (PubMed:10868943). Several potent GSK3 (GSK3A and GSK3B) inhibitors have been identified and characterized in preclinical models for treatments of type 2 diabetes (PubMed:19366350).SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GSK-3 subfamily. UniProt P49841 1 EQUAL 420 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2997551 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2997551 Reactome R-HSA-2997551 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2997551.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198358 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198358 Reactome R-HSA-198358 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198358.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p-S9/21-GSK3 Phospho-GSK3 Reactome DB_ID: 198373 GSK3A p-S21-GSK3A Phospho-GSK3A KG3A_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 198352 21 EQUAL 2 EQUAL 483 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198352 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198352 Reactome R-HSA-198352 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198352.1 GSK3B p-S9-GSK3B pS9-GSK3B Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta GSK3B_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 3149577 9 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 420 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 3149577 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=3149577 Reactome R-HSA-3149577 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-3149577.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198373 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198373 Reactome R-HSA-198373 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198373.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198371 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198371 Reactome R-HSA-198371 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198371.3 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates caspase-9 AKT can phosphorylate the apoptotic protease caspase-9, inhibiting it. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 CASP-9 CASP9(1-416) Caspase-9 precursor ICE-like apoptotic protease 6 ICE-LAP6 Apoptotic protease Mch-6 Apoptotic protease activating factor 3 APAF-3 Reactome DB_ID: 57033 UniProt:P55211 CASP9 CASP9 MCH6 FUNCTION Involved in the activation cascade of caspases responsible for apoptosis execution. Binding of caspase-9 to Apaf-1 leads to activation of the protease which then cleaves and activates caspase-3. Promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis in a ABL1/c-Abl-dependent manner. Proteolytically cleaves poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP).FUNCTION Isoform 2 lacks activity is an dominant-negative inhibitor of caspase-9.ACTIVITY REGULATION Inhibited by the effector protein NleF that is produced by pathogenic E.coli; this inhibits apoptosis.SUBUNIT Heterotetramer that consists of two anti-parallel arranged heterodimers, each one formed by a 35 kDa (p35) and a 10 kDa (p10) subunit. Caspase-9 and APAF1 bind to each other via their respective NH2-terminal CED-3 homologous domains in the presence of cytochrome C and ATP. Interacts (inactive form) with EFHD2. Interacts with HAX1. Interacts with BIRC2/c-IAP1, XIAP/BIRC4, BIRC5/survivin, BIRC6/bruce and BIRC7/livin. Interacts with ABL1 (via SH3 domain); the interaction is direct and increases in the response of cells to genotoxic stress and ABL1/c-Abl activation. Interacts with BCL2L10 (PubMed:19255499). Interacts with NleF from pathogenic E.coli.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitous, with highest expression in the heart, moderate expression in liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. Low levels in all other tissues. Within the heart, specifically expressed in myocytes.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Expressed at low levels in fetal heart, at moderate levels in neonate heart, and at high levels in adult heart.PTM Cleavages at Asp-315 by granzyme B and at Asp-330 by caspase-3 generate the two active subunits. Caspase-8 and -10 can also be involved in these processing events.PTM Phosphorylated at Thr-125 by MAPK1/ERK2. Phosphorylation at Thr-125 is sufficient to block caspase-9 processing and subsequent caspase-3 activation. Phosphorylation on Tyr-153 by ABL1/c-Abl; occurs in the response of cells to DNA damage.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase C14A family. UniProt P55211 1 EQUAL 416 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 57033 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=57033 Reactome R-HSA-57033 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-57033.1 p-S196-CASP9 p-S196-CASP9(1-416) Phospho-Caspase-9 Reactome DB_ID: 198636 196 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 416 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198636 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198636 Reactome R-HSA-198636 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198636.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198621 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198621 Reactome R-HSA-198621 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198621.5 9812896 Pubmed 1998 Regulation of cell death protease caspase-9 by phosphorylation Cardone, MH Roy, N Stennicke, HR Salvesen, Guy S. Franke, TF Stanbridge, E Frisch, S Reed, JC Science 282:1318-21 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates MDM2 AKT phosphorylates MDM2 on two serine residues, at positions 166 and 188 (Mayo and Donner 2001, Feng et al. 2004, Milne et al. 2004). AKT-mediated phosphorylation of the E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MDM2 promotes nuclear localization and interferes with the interaction between MDM2 and p14-ARF, thereby decreasing p53 stability. This leads to a decreased expression of p53 target genes, such as BAX, that promote apoptosis (Zhou et al. 2001, Mayo and Donner 2001). Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 Reviewed: Zaccara, Sara, 2016-02-04 Reviewed: Inga, Alberto, 2016-02-04 2 MDM2 Ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 Mdm2 (EC 6.3.2.-) (p53-binding protein Mdm2) (Oncoprotein Mdm2) (Double minute 2 protein) (Hdm2) Ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 Mdm2 p53-binding protein Mdm2 Oncoprotein Mdm2 Double minute 2 protein Hdm2 Reactome DB_ID: 198644 UniProt:Q00987 MDM2 MDM2 FUNCTION E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that mediates ubiquitination of p53/TP53, leading to its degradation by the proteasome. Inhibits p53/TP53- and p73/TP73-mediated cell cycle arrest and apoptosis by binding its transcriptional activation domain. Also acts as a ubiquitin ligase E3 toward itself and ARRB1. Permits the nuclear export of p53/TP53. Promotes proteasome-dependent ubiquitin-independent degradation of retinoblastoma RB1 protein. Inhibits DAXX-mediated apoptosis by inducing its ubiquitination and degradation. Component of the TRIM28/KAP1-MDM2-p53/TP53 complex involved in stabilizing p53/TP53. Also a component of the TRIM28/KAP1-ERBB4-MDM2 complex which links growth factor and DNA damage response pathways. Mediates ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome degradation of DYRK2 in nucleus. Ubiquitinates IGF1R and SNAI1 and promotes them to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:12821780, PubMed:15053880, PubMed:15195100, PubMed:15632057, PubMed:16337594, PubMed:17290220, PubMed:19098711, PubMed:19219073, PubMed:19837670, PubMed:19965871, PubMed:20173098, PubMed:20385133, PubMed:20858735, PubMed:22128911). Ubiquitinates DCX, leading to DCX degradation and reduction of the dendritic spine density of olfactory bulb granule cells (By similarity). Ubiquitinates DLG4, leading to proteasomal degradation of DLG4 which is required for AMPA receptor endocytosis (By similarity). Negatively regulates NDUFS1, leading to decreased mitochondrial respiration, marked oxidative stress, and commitment to the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis (PubMed:30879903). Binds NDUFS1 leading to its cytosolic retention rather than mitochondrial localization resulting in decreased supercomplex assembly (interactions between complex I and complex III), decreased complex I activity, ROS production, and apoptosis (PubMed:30879903).SUBUNIT Interacts with p53/TP53, TP73/p73, RBL5 and RP11. Binds specifically to RNA. Can interact with RB1, E1A-associated protein EP300 and the E2F1 transcription factor. Forms a ternary complex with p53/TP53 and WWOX. Interacts with CDKN2AIP, RFWD3, USP7, PYHIN1, and RBBP6. Interacts with ARRB1 and ARRB2. Interacts with PSMA3. Found in a trimeric complex with MDM2, MDM4 and USP2. Interacts with USP2 (via N-terminus and C-terminus). Interacts with MDM4. Part of a complex with MDM2, DAXX, RASSF1 and USP7. Part of a complex with DAXX, MDM2 and USP7. Interacts directly with DAXX and USP7. Interacts (via C-terminus) with RASSF1 isoform A (via N-terminus); the interaction is independent of TP53. Interacts with APEX1; leading to its ubiquitination and degradation. Interacts with RYBP; this inhibits ubiquitination of TP53. Identified in a complex with RYBP and p53/TP53. Also a component of the TRIM28/KAP1-MDM2-p53/TP53 complex involved in regulating p53/TP53 stabilization and activity. Binds directly both p53/TP53 and TRIM28. Component of the TRIM28/KAP1-ERBB4-MDM2 complex involved in connecting growth factor responses with DNA damage. Interacts directly with both TRIM28 and ERBB4 in the complex. Interacts with DYRK2. Interacts with IGF1R. Interacts with TRIM13; the interaction ubiquitinates MDM2 leading to its proteasomal degradation. Interacts with SNAI1; this interaction promotes SNAI1 ubiquitination. Interacts with NOTCH1 (via intracellular domain). Interacts with FHIT. Interacts with RFFL and RNF34; the interaction stabilizes MDM2. Interacts with CDK5RAP3 and CDKN2A/ARF; form a ternary complex involved in regulation of p53/TP53 (PubMed:16173922). Interacts with MTA1. Interacts with AARB2. Interacts with MTBP. Interacts with PML. Interacts with TBRG1. Interacts with the 5S RNP which is composed of the 5S RNA, RPL5 and RPL11; the interaction is direct, occurs in the nucleoplasm and negatively regulates MDM2-mediated TP53 ubiquitination and degradation (PubMed:15195100, PubMed:24120868). Interacts with ADGRB1; the interaction results in inhibition of MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and degradation of DLG4/PSD95, promoting DLG4 stability and regulating synaptic plasticity (By similarity). Interacts with RPL23A; this interaction may promote p53/TP53 polyubiquitination (PubMed:26203195). Interacts with NDUFS1 (PubMed:30879903).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes virus 8 protein v-IRF4.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with and ubiquitinates HIV-1 Tat.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitous. Isoform Mdm2-A, isoform Mdm2-B, isoform Mdm2-C, isoform Mdm2-D, isoform Mdm2-E, isoform Mdm2-F and isoform Mdm2-G are observed in a range of cancers but absent in normal tissues.INDUCTION By DNA damage.DOMAIN Region I is sufficient for binding p53 and inhibiting its G1 arrest and apoptosis functions. It also binds p73 and E2F1. Region II contains most of a central acidic region required for interaction with ribosomal protein L5 and a putative C4-type zinc finger. The RING finger domain which coordinates two molecules of zinc interacts specifically with RNA whether or not zinc is present and mediates the heterooligomerization with MDM4. It is also essential for its ubiquitin ligase E3 activity toward p53 and itself.PTM Phosphorylation on Ser-166 by SGK1 activates ubiquitination of p53/TP53. Phosphorylated at multiple sites near the RING domain by ATM upon DNA damage; this prevents oligomerization and E3 ligase processivity and impedes constitutive p53/TP53 degradation.PTM Autoubiquitination leads to proteasomal degradation; resulting in p53/TP53 activation it may be regulated by SFN. Also ubiquitinated by TRIM13. Deubiquitinated by USP2 leads to its accumulation and increases deubiquitination and degradation of p53/TP53. Deubiquitinated by USP7 leading to its stabilization.POLYMORPHISM A polymorphism in the MDM2 promoter is associated with susceptibility to accelerated tumor formation in both hereditary and sporadic cancers [MIM:614401]. It also contributes to susceptibility to Li-Fraumeni syndrome, in patients carrying a TP53 germline mutation.DISEASE Seems to be amplified in certain tumors (including soft tissue sarcomas, osteosarcomas and gliomas). A higher frequency of splice variants lacking p53 binding domain sequences was found in late-stage and high-grade ovarian and bladder carcinomas. Four of the splice variants show loss of p53 binding.MISCELLANEOUS MDM2 RING finger mutations that failed to ubiquitinate p53 in vitro did not target p53 for degradation when expressed in cells.SIMILARITY Belongs to the MDM2/MDM4 family.CAUTION Was reported to interact with UBXN6 but the corresponding article has been retracted (PubMed:18768758).CAUTION A report observed N-glycosylation at Asn-349 (PubMed:19139490). However, as the protein is not extracellular, additional evidence is required to confirm this result. UniProt Q00987 1 EQUAL 491 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198644 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198644 Reactome R-HSA-198644 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198644.1 2 p-MDM2 p-S166,S188-MDM2 p-S166,188-MDM2 Phospho-MDM2 Reactome DB_ID: 198638 166 EQUAL 188 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 491 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198638 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198638 Reactome R-HSA-198638 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198638.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198599 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198599 Reactome R-HSA-198599 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198599.5 15527798 Pubmed 2004 A novel site of AKT-mediated phosphorylation in the human MDM2 onco-protein Milne, Diane Kampanis, Petros Nicol, Samantha Dias, Sylvia Campbell, David G Fuller-Pace, Frances Meek, David FEBS Lett. 577:270-6 11715018 Pubmed 2001 HER-2/neu induces p53 ubiquitination via Akt-mediated MDM2 phosphorylation Zhou, BP Liao, Y Xia, W Zou, Y Spohn, B Hung, MC Nat Cell Biol 3:973-82 11504915 Pubmed 2001 A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway promotes translocation of Mdm2 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus Mayo, L D Donner, D B Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 98:11598-603 15169778 Pubmed 2004 Stabilization of Mdm2 via decreased ubiquitination is mediated by protein kinase B/Akt-dependent phosphorylation Feng, Jianhua Tamaskovic, Rastislav Yang, Zhongzhou Brazil, Derek P Merlo, Adrian Hess, Daniel Hemmings, BA J. Biol. Chem. 279:35510-7 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates IKKalpha AKT mediates IKKalpha (Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase subunit alpha) phosphorylation at threonine 23, which is required for NF-kB activation. NF-kB promoted gene transcription enhances neuronal survival. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 CHUK IKKA IKK1 Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase alpha subunit Reactome DB_ID: 168104 UniProt:O15111 CHUK CHUK IKKA TCF16 FUNCTION Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on serine residues (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). These modifications allow polyubiquitination of the inhibitors and subsequent degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). In turn, free NF-kappa-B is translocated into the nucleus and activates the transcription of hundreds of genes involved in immune response, growth control, or protection against apoptosis (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). Negatively regulates the pathway by phosphorylating the scaffold protein TAXBP1 and thus promoting the assembly of the A20/TNFAIP3 ubiquitin-editing complex (composed of A20/TNFAIP3, TAX1BP1, and the E3 ligases ITCH and RNF11) (PubMed:21765415). Therefore, CHUK plays a key role in the negative feedback of NF-kappa-B canonical signaling to limit inflammatory gene activation. As part of the non-canonical pathway of NF-kappa-B activation, the MAP3K14-activated CHUK/IKKA homodimer phosphorylates NFKB2/p100 associated with RelB, inducing its proteolytic processing to NFKB2/p52 and the formation of NF-kappa-B RelB-p52 complexes (PubMed:20501937). In turn, these complexes regulate genes encoding molecules involved in B-cell survival and lymphoid organogenesis. Participates also in the negative feedback of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B signaling pathway by phosphorylating and destabilizing MAP3K14/NIK. Within the nucleus, phosphorylates CREBBP and consequently increases both its transcriptional and histone acetyltransferase activities (PubMed:17434128). Modulates chromatin accessibility at NF-kappa-B-responsive promoters by phosphorylating histones H3 at 'Ser-10' that are subsequently acetylated at 'Lys-14' by CREBBP (PubMed:12789342). Additionally, phosphorylates the CREBBP-interacting protein NCOA3. Also phosphorylates FOXO3 and may regulate this pro-apoptotic transcription factor (PubMed:15084260). Phosphorylates RIPK1 at 'Ser-25' which represses its kinase activity and consequently prevents TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent cell death (By similarity). Phosphorylates AMBRA1 following mitophagy induction, promoting AMBRA1 interaction with ATG8 family proteins and its mitophagic activity (PubMed:30217973).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated when phosphorylated and inactivated when dephosphorylated.SUBUNIT Component of the I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) core complex consisting of CHUK, IKBKB and IKBKG; probably four alpha/CHUK-beta/IKBKB dimers are associated with four gamma/IKBKG subunits (PubMed:32935379). The IKK core complex seems to associate with regulatory or adapter proteins to form a IKK-signalosome holo-complex (PubMed:10195894, PubMed:12612076). The IKK complex associates with TERF2IP/RAP1, leading to promote IKK-mediated phosphorylation of RELA/p65 (By similarity). Part of a complex composed of NCOA2, NCOA3, CHUK/IKKA, IKBKB, IKBKG and CREBBP (PubMed:11971985). Part of a 70-90 kDa complex at least consisting of CHUK/IKKA, IKBKB, NFKBIA, RELA, ELP1 and MAP3K14 (PubMed:9751059). Directly interacts with TRPC4AP (By similarity). May interact with TRAF2 (PubMed:19150425). Interacts with NALP2 (PubMed:15456791). May interact with MAVS/IPS1 (PubMed:16177806). Interacts with ARRB1 and ARRB2 (PubMed:15173580). Interacts with NLRC5; prevents CHUK phosphorylation and kinase activity (PubMed:20434986). Interacts with PIAS1; this interaction induces PIAS1 phosphorylation (PubMed:17540171). Interacts with ZNF268 isoform 2; the interaction is further increased in a TNF-alpha-dependent manner (PubMed:23091055). Interacts with FOXO3 (PubMed:15084260). Interacts with IFIT5; the interaction synergizes the recruitment of IKK to MAP3K7 and enhances IKK phosphorylation (PubMed:26334375). Interacts with LRRC14 (PubMed:27426725). Interacts with SASH1 (PubMed:23776175). Directly interacts with DDX3X after the physiological activation of the TLR7 and TLR8 pathways; this interaction enhances CHUK autophosphorylation (PubMed:30341167).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with InlC of Listeria monocytogenes.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed.DOMAIN The kinase domain is located in the N-terminal region. The leucine zipper is important to allow homo- and hetero-dimerization. At the C-terminal region is located the region responsible for the interaction with NEMO/IKBKG.PTM Phosphorylated by MAP3K14/NIK, AKT and to a lesser extent by MEKK1, and dephosphorylated by PP2A. Autophosphorylated.PTM (Microbial infection) Acetylation of Thr-179 by Yersinia YopJ prevents phosphorylation and activation, thus blocking the I-kappa-B signaling pathway.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. I-kappa-B kinase subfamily. UniProt O15111 1 EQUAL 745 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 168104 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=168104 Reactome R-HSA-168104 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-168104.2 p-T23-CHUK p-T23-IKKA p-T23-IKK1 Phospho-IKK1 (T23) Reactome DB_ID: 198615 23 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 745 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198615 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198615 Reactome R-HSA-198615 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198615.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198611 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198611 Reactome R-HSA-198611 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198611.4 10485710 Pubmed 1999 NF-kappaB activation by tumour necrosis factor requires the Akt serine-threonine kinase Ozes, ON Mayo, LD Gustin, JA Pfeffer, SR Pfeffer, LM Donner, DB Nature 401:82-5 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 Phosphorylation of p27Kip1 at T157 and of p21Cip1 at T145 by AKT leads to their retention in the cytoplasm, segregating these cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors from cyclin-CDK complexes. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p21,p27 CDKN1A,CDKN1B Reactome DB_ID: 182504 p21 CDKN1A CIP1 WAF1 Reactome DB_ID: 182512 UniProt:P38936 CDKN1A CDKN1A CAP20 CDKN1 CIP1 MDA6 PIC1 SDI1 WAF1 FUNCTION May be involved in p53/TP53 mediated inhibition of cellular proliferation in response to DNA damage. Binds to and inhibits cyclin-dependent kinase activity, preventing phosphorylation of critical cyclin-dependent kinase substrates and blocking cell cycle progression. Functions in the nuclear localization and assembly of cyclin D-CDK4 complex and promotes its kinase activity towards RB1. At higher stoichiometric ratios, inhibits the kinase activity of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex. Inhibits DNA synthesis by DNA polymerase delta by competing with POLD3 for PCNA binding (PubMed:11595739). Plays an important role in controlling cell cycle progression and DNA damage-induced G2 arrest (PubMed:9106657).SUBUNIT Interacts with HDAC1; the interaction is prevented by competitive binding of C10orf90/FATS to HDAC1 facilitating acetylation and protein stabilization of CDKN1A/p21 (By similarity). Interacts with MKRN1 (PubMed:19536131). Interacts with PSMA3 (PubMed:11350925). Interacts with PCNA (PubMed:11595739, PubMed:18794347, PubMed:18703516, PubMed:8861913). Component of the ternary complex, cyclin D-CDK4-CDKN1A. Interacts (via its N-terminal domain) with CDK4; the interaction promotes the assembly of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex, its nuclear translocation and promotes the cyclin D-dependent enzyme activity of CDK4 (PubMed:9106657). Binding to CDK2 leads to CDK2/cyclin E inactivation at the G1-S phase DNA damage checkpoint, thereby arresting cells at the G1-S transition during DNA repair (PubMed:19445729). Interacts with PIM1 (PubMed:12431783). Interacts with STK11 and NUAK1 (PubMed:25329316). Interacts wih DTL (PubMed:23213251). Interacts with isoform 1 and isoform 2 of TRIM39 (PubMed:23213251).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in all adult tissues, with 5-fold lower levels observed in the brain.INDUCTION Activated by p53/TP53, mezerein (antileukemic compound) and IFNB1. Repressed by HDAC1.DOMAIN The PIP-box K+4 motif mediates both the interaction with PCNA and the recruitment of the DCX(DTL) complex: while the PIP-box interacts with PCNA, the presence of the K+4 submotif, recruits the DCX(DTL) complex, leading to its ubiquitination.DOMAIN The C-terminal is required for nuclear localization of the cyclin D-CDK4 complex.PTM Phosphorylation of Thr-145 by Akt or of Ser-146 by PKC impairs binding to PCNA. Phosphorylation at Ser-114 by GSK3-beta enhances ubiquitination by the DCX(DTL) complex. Phosphorylation of Thr-145 by PIM2 enhances CDKN1A stability and inhibits cell proliferation. Phosphorylation of Thr-145 by PIM1 results in the relocation of CDKN1A to the cytoplasm and enhanced CDKN1A protein stability. UV radiation-induced phosphorylation at Thr-80 by LKB1 and at Ser-146 by NUAK1 leads to its degradation.PTM Ubiquitinated by MKRN1; leading to polyubiquitination and 26S proteasome-dependent degradation. Ubiquitinated by the DCX(DTL) complex, also named CRL4(CDT2) complex, leading to its degradation during S phase or following UV irradiation. Ubiquitination by the DCX(DTL) complex is essential to control replication licensing and is PCNA-dependent: interacts with PCNA via its PIP-box, while the presence of the containing the 'K+4' motif in the PIP box, recruit the DCX(DTL) complex, leading to its degradation. Ubiquitination at Ser-2 leads to degradation by the proteasome pathway. Ubiquitinated by RNF114; leading to proteasomal degradation.PTM Acetylation leads to protein stability. Acetylated in vitro on Lys-141, Lys-154, Lys-161 and Lys-163. Deacetylation by HDAC1 is prevented by competitive binding of C10orf90/FATS to HDAC1 (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the CDI family. UniProt P38936 2 EQUAL 164 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 182512 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=182512 Reactome R-HSA-182512 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-182512.2 glnA CDKN1B p27Kip1 GLNA_LACDE Reactome DB_ID: 198622 UniProt:P46527 CDKN1B CDKN1B KIP1 p27 FUNCTION Important regulator of cell cycle progression. Inhibits the kinase activity of CDK2 bound to cyclin A, but has little inhibitory activity on CDK2 bound to SPDYA (PubMed:28666995). Involved in G1 arrest. Potent inhibitor of cyclin E- and cyclin A-CDK2 complexes. Forms a complex with cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes and is involved in the assembly, stability, and modulation of CCND1-CDK4 complex activation. Acts either as an inhibitor or an activator of cyclin type D-CDK4 complexes depending on its phosphorylation state and/or stoichometry.SUBUNIT Forms a ternary complex composed of CCNE1, CDK2 and CDKN1B. Interacts directly with CCNE1; the interaction is inhibited by CDK2-dependent phosphorylation on Thr-187. Interacts with COPS5, subunit of the COP9 signalosome complex; the interaction leads to CDKN1B degradation. Interacts with NUP50; the interaction leads to nuclear import and degradation of phosphorylated CDKN1B. Interacts with CCND1 and SNX6 (By similarity). Interacts (Thr-198-phosphorylated form) with 14-3-3 proteins, binds strongly YWHAQ, weakly YWHAE and YWHAH, but not YWHAB nor YWHAZ; the interaction with YWHAQ results in translocation to the cytoplasm (PubMed:14504289). Interacts with AKT1 and LYN; the interactions lead to cytoplasmic mislocation, phosphorylation of CDKN1B and inhibition of cell cycle arrest (PubMed:12042314, PubMed:12244301, PubMed:17254966). Forms a ternary complex with CCNA2 and CDK2; CDKN1B inhibits the kinase activity of CDK2 through conformational rearrangements. Interacts (unphosphorylated form) with CDK2. Forms a complex with CDK2 and SPDYA, but does not directly interact with SPDYA (PubMed:12972555, PubMed:28666995). Forms a ternary complex composed of cyclin D, CDK4 and CDKN1B. Interacts (phosphorylated on Tyr-88 and Tyr-89) with CDK4; the interaction is required for cyclin D and CDK4 complex assembly, induces nuclear translocation and activates the CDK4 kinase activity. Interacts with GRB2 (PubMed:16195327). Interacts with PIM1 (PubMed:18593906). Identified in a complex with SKP1, SKP2 and CKS1B (PubMed:16209941). Interacts with UHMK1; the interaction leads to cytoplasmic mislocation, phosphorylation of CDKN1B and inhibition of cell cycle arrest (PubMed:12093740). Interacts also with CDK1 (PubMed:16007079). Dephosphorylated on Thr-187 by PPM1H, leading to CDKN1B stability (PubMed:22586611).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in kidney (at protein level) (PubMed:15509543). Expressed in all tissues tested (PubMed:8033212). Highest levels in skeletal muscle, lowest in liver and kidney (PubMed:8033212).INDUCTION Maximal levels in quiescence cells and early G(1). Levels decrease after mitogen stimulation as cells progress toward S-phase.DOMAIN A peptide sequence containing only AA 28-79 retains substantial Kip1 cyclin A/CDK2 inhibitory activity.PTM Phosphorylated; phosphorylation occurs on serine, threonine and tyrosine residues. Phosphorylation on Ser-10 is the major site of phosphorylation in resting cells, takes place at the G(0)-G(1) phase and leads to protein stability. Phosphorylation on other sites is greatly enhanced by mitogens, growth factors, cMYC and in certain cancer cell lines. The phosphorylated form found in the cytoplasm is inactivate. Phosphorylation on Thr-198 is required for interaction with 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation on Thr-187, by CDK1 and CDK2 leads to protein ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Tyrosine phosphorylation promotes this process. Phosphorylation by PKB/AKT1 can be suppressed by LY294002, an inhibitor of the catalytic subunit of PI3K. Phosphorylation on Tyr-88 and Tyr-89 has no effect on binding CDK2, but is required for binding CDK4. Dephosphorylated on tyrosine residues by G-CSF.PTM Ubiquitinated; in the cytoplasm by the KPC complex (composed of RNF123/KPC1 and UBAC1/KPC2) and, in the nucleus, by SCF(SKP2). The latter requires prior phosphorylation on Thr-187. Ubiquitinated; by a TRIM21-containing SCF(SKP2)-like complex; leads to its degradation.PTM Subject to degradation in the lysosome. Interaction with SNX6 promotes lysosomal degradation (By similarity).MISCELLANEOUS Decreased levels of p27Kip1, mainly due to proteasomal degradation, are found in various epithelial tumors originating from lung, breast, colon, ovary, esophagus, thyroid and prostate.SIMILARITY Belongs to the CDI family. UniProt P46527 1 EQUAL 198 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198622 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198622 Reactome R-HSA-198622 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198622.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 182504 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=182504 Reactome R-HSA-182504 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-182504.2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p-T-CDKN1A/B p-CDK inhibitor Phospho-CDK inhibitor p-T145-CDKN1A/p-T157-CDKN1B Reactome DB_ID: 198605 Mfl460 p-T145-CDKN1A Phospho-P21 Cip1 Q6F105_MESFL Reactome DB_ID: 198614 145 EQUAL 2 EQUAL 164 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198614 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198614 Reactome R-HSA-198614 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198614.1 glnA p-T157-CDKN1B Phospho-p27Kip1 GLNA_LACDE Reactome DB_ID: 198629 157 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 198 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198629 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198629 Reactome R-HSA-198629 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198629.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198605 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198605 Reactome R-HSA-198605 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198605.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198613 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198613 Reactome R-HSA-198613 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198613.5 12244303 Pubmed 2002 Cytoplasmic relocalization and inhibition of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(Kip1) by PKB/Akt-mediated phosphorylation in breast cancer Viglietto, G Motti, ML Bruni, P Melillo, RM D'Alessio, A Califano, D Vinci, F Chiappetta, G Tsichlis, P Bellacosa, A Fusco, A Santoro, M Nat Med 8:1136-44 11231573 Pubmed 2001 Cytoplasmic localization of p21Cip1/WAF1 by Akt-induced phosphorylation in HER-2/neu-overexpressing cells Zhou, B P Liao, Y Xia, W Spohn, B Lee, M H Hung, M C Nat. Cell Biol. 3:245-52 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates TSC2, inhibiting it AKT phosphorylates and inhibits TSC2 (tuberin), a suppressor of the TOR kinase pathway, which senses nutrient levels in the environment. TSC2 forms a protein complex with TSC1 and this complex acts as a GAP (GTPase activating protein) for the RHEB G-protein. RHEB, in turn, activates the TOR kinase. Thus, an active AKT1 activates the TOR kinase, both of which are positive signals for cell growth (an increase in cell mass) and division.<br>The TOR kinase regulates two major processes: translation of selected mRNAs in the cell and autophagy. In the presence of high nutrient levels TOR is active and phosphorylates the 4EBP protein releasing the eukaryotic initiation factor 4E (eIF4E), which is essential for cap-dependent initiation of translation and promoting growth of the cell (PMID: 15314020). TOR also phosphorylates the S6 kinase, which is implicated in ribosome biogenesis as well as in the modification of the S6 ribosomal protein. AKT can also activate mTOR by another mechanism, involving phosphorylation of PRAS40, an inhibitor of mTOR activity. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 Reviewed: Inga, Alberto, 2016-02-04 Reviewed: Zaccara, Sara, 2016-02-04 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2014-12-23 2 TSC2 Tuberin TSC2_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 2980548 UniProt:P49815 TSC2 TSC2 TSC4 FUNCTION In complex with TSC1, this tumor suppressor inhibits the nutrient-mediated or growth factor-stimulated phosphorylation of S6K1 and EIF4EBP1 by negatively regulating mTORC1 signaling (PubMed:12271141, PubMed:28215400). Acts as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) for the small GTPase RHEB, a direct activator of the protein kinase activity of mTORC1 (PubMed:15340059). May also play a role in microtubule-mediated protein transport (By similarity). Also stimulates the intrinsic GTPase activity of the Ras-related proteins RAP1A and RAB5 (By similarity).SUBUNIT Probably forms a complex composed of chaperones HSP90 and HSP70, co-chaperones STIP1/HOP, CDC37, PPP5C, PTGES3/p23, TSC1 and client protein TSC2 (PubMed:29127155). Probably forms a complex composed of chaperones HSP90 and HSP70, co-chaperones CDC37, PPP5C, TSC1 and client protein TSC2, CDK4, AKT, RAF1 and NR3C1; this complex does not contain co-chaperones STIP1/HOP and PTGES3/p23 (PubMed:29127155). Forms a complex containing HSP90AA1, TSC1 and TSC2; TSC1 is required to recruit TCS2 to the complex thereby stabilizing TSC2 (PubMed:29127155). Interacts with TSC1 and HERC1; the interaction with TSC1 stabilizes TSC2 and prevents the interaction with HERC1 (PubMed:9580671, PubMed:10585443, PubMed:15963462, PubMed:16464865). May also interact with the adapter molecule RABEP1 (PubMed:9045618). The final complex may contain TSC2 and RABEP1 linked to RAB5 (PubMed:9045618). Interacts with HSPA1 and HSPA8 (PubMed:15963462). Interacts with DAPK1 (PubMed:18974095). Interacts with FBXW5 (PubMed:18381890). Interacts with NAA10 (via C-terminal domain) (PubMed:20145209). Interacts with RRAGA (polyubiquitinated) (PubMed:25936802). Interacts with WDR45B (PubMed:28561066). Interacts with RPAP3 and URI1 (PubMed:28561026). Interacts with YWHAG (PubMed:33473107).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with human cytomegalovirus protein UL38; this interaction inhibits cellular stress response mediated by mTORC1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Liver, brain, heart, lymphocytes, fibroblasts, biliary epithelium, pancreas, skeletal muscle, kidney, lung and placenta.PTM Phosphorylation at Ser-1387, Ser-1418 or Ser-1420 does not affect interaction with TSC1. Phosphorylation at Ser-939 and Thr-1462 by PKB/AKT1 is induced by growth factor stimulation. Phosphorylation by AMPK activates it and leads to negative regulation of the mTORC1 complex. Phosphorylated at Ser-1798 by RPS6KA1; phosphorylation inhibits TSC2 ability to suppress mTORC1 signaling. Phosphorylated by DAPK1.PTM Ubiquitinated by the DCX(FBXW5) E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex, leading to its subsequent degradation. Ubiquitinated by MYCBP2 independently of its phosphorylation status leading to subsequent degradation; association with TSC1 protects from ubiquitination. UniProt P49815 1 EQUAL 1807 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2980548 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2980548 Reactome R-HSA-2980548 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2980548.1 2 Phospho-TSC2 p-S939,T1462-TSC2 Reactome DB_ID: 199484 939 EQUAL 1462 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1807 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199484 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199484 Reactome R-HSA-199484 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199484.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198609 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198609 Reactome R-HSA-198609 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198609.5 12150915 Pubmed 2002 Identification of the tuberous sclerosis complex-2 tumor suppressor gene product tuberin as a target of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/akt pathway Manning, BD Tee, AR Logsdon, MN Blenis, J Cantley, Lewis C Mol Cell 10:151-62 12172553 Pubmed 2002 TSC2 is phosphorylated and inhibited by Akt and suppresses mTOR signalling Inoki, K Li, Yun Zhu, T Wu, J Guan, KL Nat Cell Biol 4:648-57 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates AKT1S1 (PRAS40) PRAS40 (proline-rich Akt/PKB substrate 40 kDa) is a substrate of AKT, the phosphorylation of which leads to the binding of this protein to 14-3-3. PRAS40 binds to mTOR complexes, mediating AKT signals to mTOR. Interaction of PRAS40 with the mTOR kinase domain is induced under conditions that inhibit mTOR signalling, such as growth factor deprivation. Binding of PRAS40 inhibits mTOR. PRAS40 phosphorylation by AKT and association with the cytosolic anchor protein 14-3-3, lead to mTOR stimulation (Vander Haar E, et al, 2007). Although it was originally identified in the context of insulin signalling, it was later shown that PRAS40 may also play a role in nerve growth factor-mediated neuroprotection (Saito A, et al, 2004). Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 2 AKT1S1 PRAS40 Proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1 AKTS1_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 200155 UniProt:Q96B36 AKT1S1 AKT1S1 PRAS40 FUNCTION Subunit of mTORC1, which regulates cell growth and survival in response to nutrient and hormonal signals. mTORC1 is activated in response to growth factors or amino acids. Growth factor-stimulated mTORC1 activation involves a AKT1-mediated phosphorylation of TSC1-TSC2, which leads to the activation of the RHEB GTPase that potently activates the protein kinase activity of mTORC1. Amino acid-signaling to mTORC1 requires its relocalization to the lysosomes mediated by the Ragulator complex and the Rag GTPases. Activated mTORC1 up-regulates protein synthesis by phosphorylating key regulators of mRNA translation and ribosome synthesis. mTORC1 phosphorylates EIF4EBP1 and releases it from inhibiting the elongation initiation factor 4E (eiF4E). mTORC1 phosphorylates and activates S6K1 at 'Thr-389', which then promotes protein synthesis by phosphorylating PDCD4 and targeting it for degradation. Within mTORC1, AKT1S1 negatively regulates mTOR activity in a manner that is dependent on its phosphorylation state and binding to 14-3-3 proteins. Inhibits RHEB-GTP-dependent mTORC1 activation. Substrate for AKT1 phosphorylation, but can also be activated by AKT1-independent mechanisms. May also play a role in nerve growth factor-mediated neuroprotection.SUBUNIT Part of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) which contains MTOR, MLST8, RPTOR, AKT1S1/PRAS40 and DEPTOR. mTORC1 binds to and is inhibited by FKBP12-rapamycin. Interacts directly with RPTOR. The phosphorylated form interacts with 14-3-3 proteins.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed with highest levels of expression in liver and heart. Expressed at higher levels in cancer cell lines (e.g. A-549 and HeLa) than in normal cell lines (e.g. HEK293).PTM Phosphorylated by AKT1 (PubMed:12524439). Phosphorylation at Thr-246 by DYRK3 relieves inhibitory function on mTORC1 (PubMed:23415227). UniProt Q96B36 1 EQUAL 256 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 200155 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=200155 Reactome R-HSA-200155 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-200155.1 2 AKT1S1 p-S183,T246-AKT1S1 p-S183,T246-PRAS40 Phospho-Proline-rich AKT1 substrate 1 AKTS1_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 200163 183 EQUAL 246 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 256 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 200163 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=200163 Reactome R-HSA-200163 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-200163.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 200143 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=200143 Reactome R-HSA-200143 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-200143.4 12524439 Pubmed 2003 Identification of a proline-rich Akt substrate as a 14-3-3 binding partner Kovacina, KS Park, GY Bae, SS Guzzetta, AW Schaefer, E Birnbaum, MJ Roth, RA J Biol Chem 278:10189-94 17277771 Pubmed 2007 Insulin signalling to mTOR mediated by the Akt/PKB substrate PRAS40 Vander Haar, E Lee, SI Bandhakavi, S Griffin, TJ Kim, DH Nat Cell Biol 9:316-23 14973226 Pubmed 2004 Neuroprotective role of a proline-rich Akt substrate in apoptotic neuronal cell death after stroke: relationships with nerve growth factor Saito, A Narasimhan, P Hayashi, T Okuno, S Ferrand-Drake, M Chan, PH J Neurosci 24:1584-93 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates MKRN1 AKT1 (and possibly AKT2 and AKT3), activated in response to EGF treatment, phosphorylates MKRN1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, on serine residue S109. AKT-mediated phosphorylation results in stabilization of MKRN1, protecting it from ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation (Lee et al. 2015). Authored: Carracedo, Arkaitz, 2016-08-11 Authored: Salmena, Leonardo, 2016-08-11 Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2016-11-16 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2017-05-09 MKRN1 E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase makorin-1 MKRN1_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 976042 UniProt:Q9UHC7 MKRN1 MKRN1 RNF61 FUNCTION E3 ubiquitin ligase catalyzing the covalent attachment of ubiquitin moieties onto substrate proteins. These substrates include FILIP1, p53/TP53, CDKN1A and TERT. Keeps cells alive by suppressing p53/TP53 under normal conditions, but stimulates apoptosis by repressing CDKN1A under stress conditions. Acts as a negative regulator of telomerase. Has negative and positive effects on RNA polymerase II-dependent transcription.PATHWAY Protein modification; protein ubiquitination.SUBUNIT Interacts with p53/TP53 and CDKN1A. Interacts with TERT, modulating telomere length homeostasis.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitous.INDUCTION Frequently induced in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) tissues.PTM Auto-ubiquitinated; which leads to proteasomal degradation. UniProt Q9UHC7 1 EQUAL 482 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 976042 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=976042 Reactome R-HSA-976042 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-976042.1 p-S109-MKRN1 Reactome DB_ID: 8948758 109 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 482 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 8948758 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8948758 Reactome R-HSA-8948758 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8948758.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 8948757 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8948757 Reactome R-HSA-8948757 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8948757.2 26183061 Pubmed 2015 PI3K/AKT activation induces PTEN ubiquitination and destabilization accelerating tumourigenesis Lee, Min-Sik Jeong, Man-Hyung Lee, Hyun-Woo Han, Hyun-Ji Ko, Aram Hewitt, SM Kim, Jae-Hoon Chun, Kyung-Hee Chung, Joon-Yong Lee, Cheolju Cho, Hanbyoul Song, Jaewhan Nat Commun 6:7769 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198323 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198323 Reactome R-HSA-198323 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198323.4