BioPAX pathway converted from "AKT phosphorylates targets in the nucleus" in the Reactome database. AKT phosphorylates targets in the nucleus After translocation into the nucleus, AKT can phosphorylate a number of targets there such as CREB, forkhead transcription factors, SRK and NUR77. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates CREB1 AKT phosphorylates CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) at serine 133 and activates gene expression via a CREB-dependent mechanism, thus promoting cell survival. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 CREB CREB1 cAMP-response element binding protein cAMP response element binding protein Reactome DB_ID: 52777 nucleoplasm GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005654 UniProt:P16220 CREB1 CREB1 FUNCTION Phosphorylation-dependent transcription factor that stimulates transcription upon binding to the DNA cAMP response element (CRE), a sequence present in many viral and cellular promoters. Transcription activation is enhanced by the TORC coactivators which act independently of Ser-119 phosphorylation. Involved in different cellular processes including the synchronization of circadian rhythmicity and the differentiation of adipose cells.SUBUNIT Interacts with PPRC1. Binds DNA as a dimer. This dimer is stabilized by magnesium ions. Interacts, through the bZIP domain, with the coactivators TORC1/CRTC1, TORC2/CRTC2 and TORC3/CRTC3. When phosphorylated on Ser-119, binds CREBBP (By similarity). Interacts with CREBL2; regulates CREB1 phosphorylation, stability and transcriptional activity (By similarity). Interacts (phosphorylated form) with TOX3. Interacts with ARRB1. Binds to HIPK2. Interacts with SGK1. Interacts with TSSK4; this interaction facilitates phosphorylation on Ser-119 (PubMed:15964553). Forms a complex with KMT2A and CREBBP (PubMed:23651431, PubMed:14506290, PubMed:14536081, PubMed:15454081, PubMed:15733869, PubMed:15964553, PubMed:16325578, PubMed:16908542, PubMed:20573984, PubMed:21172805) (By similarity). Interacts with TOX4; CREB1 is required for full induction of TOX4-dependent activity and the interaction is increased by cAMP and inhibited by insulin (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis B virus/HBV protein X.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HTLV-1 protein Tax.PTM Stimulated by phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of both Ser-119 and Ser-128 in the SCN regulates the activity of CREB and participates in circadian rhythm generation. Phosphorylation of Ser-119 allows CREBBP binding. In liver, phosphorylation is induced by fasting or glucagon in a circadian fashion (By similarity). CREBL2 positively regulates phosphorylation at Ser-119 thereby stimulating CREB1 transcriptional activity (By similarity). Phosphorylated upon calcium influx by CaMK4 and CaMK2 on Ser-119. CaMK4 is much more potent than CaMK2 in activating CREB. Phosphorylated by CaMK2 on Ser-128. Phosphorylation of Ser-128 blocks CREB-mediated transcription even when Ser-119 is phosphorylated. Phosphorylated by CaMK1 (By similarity). Phosphorylation of Ser-257 by HIPK2 in response to genotoxic stress promotes CREB1 activity, facilitating the recruitment of the coactivator CBP. Phosphorylated at Ser-119 by RPS6KA3, RPS6KA4 and RPS6KA5 in response to mitogenic or stress stimuli. Phosphorylated by TSSK4 on Ser-119 (PubMed:15964553).PTM Sumoylated with SUMO1. Sumoylation on Lys-290, but not on Lys-271, is required for nuclear localization of this protein. Sumoylation is enhanced under hypoxia, promoting nuclear localization and stabilization.DISEASE A CREB1 mutation has been found in a patient with multiple congenital anomalies consisting of agenesis of the corpus callosum, cerebellar hypoplasia, severe neonatal respiratory distress refractory to surfactant, thymus hypoplasia, and thyroid follicular hypoplasia.SIMILARITY Belongs to the bZIP family. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt P16220 1 EQUAL 341 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 52777 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=52777 Reactome R-HSA-52777 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-52777.1 Reactome http://www.reactome.org ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 29358 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) ATP atp Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:30616 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29358 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29358 Reactome R-ALL-29358 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29358.3 COMPOUND C00002 additional information MI MI:0361 CREB p-S133-CREB1 phospho-CREB cAMP response element binding protein Reactome DB_ID: 111910 133 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine MOD MOD:00046 1 EQUAL 341 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 111910 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=111910 Reactome R-HSA-111910 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-111910.1 ADP Adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 113582 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP trianion ChEBI CHEBI:456216 Reactome Database ID Release 82 113582 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113582 Reactome R-ALL-113582 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113582.3 COMPOUND C00008 ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Active AKT p-T,p-S-AKT p-T308,S473-AKT1,(p-T309,S474-AKT2,p-T305,S472-AKT3) Reactome DB_ID: 202072 PKB p-T308,S473-AKT1 p-S473,T308-AKT1 Phospho-AKT1 (T308, S473) RAC-alpha serine/threonine kinase RAC-PK-alpha Protein kinase B C-AKT Reactome DB_ID: 198357 UniProt:P31749 AKT1 AKT1 PKB RAC FUNCTION AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface (By similarity). Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling (By similarity). Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (PubMed:11994271). AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity (By similarity). Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven (By similarity). AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase) (PubMed:11154276). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis (PubMed:11154276). AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating the TORC1 signaling pathway, and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1 (PubMed:12150915). Also regulates the TORC1 signaling pathway by catalyzing phosphorylation of CASTOR1 (PubMed:33594058). AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization (PubMed:10358075). In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319' (PubMed:10358075). FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites (PubMed:10358075). AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein) (PubMed:9829964). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1 (PubMed:9829964). AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis (By similarity). Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis (By similarity). Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity (By similarity). The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (PubMed:12176338, PubMed:12964941). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly (PubMed:19934221). May be involved in the regulation of the placental development (By similarity). Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3 (PubMed:17726016). Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation (PubMed:20086174, PubMed:20231902). Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation (PubMed:19592491). Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity (PubMed:10576742). Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity (PubMed:10926925). Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53 (PubMed:23431171). Phosphorylates palladin (PALLD), modulating cytoskeletal organization and cell motility (PubMed:20471940). Phosphorylates prohibitin (PHB), playing an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation (PubMed:18507042). Phosphorylates CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization (PubMed:16982699). These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more specific role in cell motility and proliferation (PubMed:16139227). Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to ionizing radiation (PubMed:20682768). Phosphorylates PCK1 at 'Ser-90', reducing the binding affinity of PCK1 to oxaloacetate and changing PCK1 into an atypical protein kinase activity using GTP as donor (PubMed:32322062). Also acts as an activator of TMEM175 potassium channel activity in response to growth factors: forms the lysoK(GF) complex together with TMEM175 and acts by promoting TMEM175 channel activation, independently of its protein kinase activity (PubMed:32228865).ACTIVITY REGULATION Three specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-308) and the two other ones in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-473 and Tyr-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation (PubMed:20481595, PubMed:21392984, PubMed:9512493, PubMed:9736715). Inhibited by pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitors like aniline triazole and spiroindoline (PubMed:18456494, PubMed:20810279).SUBUNIT Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts (via the C-terminus) with CCDC88A (via its C-terminus). Interacts with GRB10; the interaction leads to GRB10 phosphorylation thus promoting YWHAE-binding (By similarity). Interacts with AGAP2 (isoform 2/PIKE-A); the interaction occurs in the presence of guanine nucleotides. Interacts with AKTIP. Interacts (via PH domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CDKN1B; the interaction phosphorylates CDKN1B promoting 14-3-3 binding and cell-cycle progression. Interacts with MAP3K5 and TRAF6. Interacts with BAD, PPP2R5B, STK3 and STK4. Interacts (via PH domain) with SIRT1. Interacts with SRPK2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Interacts with RAF1. Interacts with TRIM13; the interaction ubiquitinates AKT1 leading to its proteasomal degradation. Interacts with TNK2 and CLK2. Interacts (via the C-terminus) with THEM4 (via its C-terminus). Interacts with and phosphorylated by PDPK1. Interacts with PA2G4 (By similarity). Interacts with KIF14; the interaction is detected in the plasma membrane upon INS stimulation and promotes AKT1 phosphorylation (PubMed:24784001). Interacts with FAM83B; activates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade (PubMed:23676467). Interacts with WDFY2 (via WD repeats 1-3) (PubMed:16792529). Forms a complex with WDFY2 and FOXO1 (By similarity). Interacts with FAM168A (PubMed:23251525). Interacts with SYAP1 (via phosphorylated form and BSD domain); this interaction is enhanced in a mTORC2-mediated manner in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation and activates AKT1 (PubMed:23300339). Interacts with PKHM3 (By similarity). Interacts with FKBP5/FKBP51; promoting interaction between Akt/AKT1 and PHLPP1, thereby enhancing dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of Akt/AKT1 (PubMed:28147277). Interacts with TMEM175; leading to formation of the lysoK(GF) complex (PubMed:32228865). Acts as a negative regulator of the cGAS-STING pathway by mediating phosphorylation of CGAS during mitosis, leading to its inhibition (PubMed:26440888).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in prostate cancer and levels increase from the normal to the malignant state (at protein level). Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane. The PH domain mediates interaction with TNK2 and Tyr-176 is also essential for this interaction.DOMAIN The AGC-kinase C-terminal mediates interaction with THEM4.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-305 and Thr-312 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-308 via disrupting the interaction between AKT1 and PDPK1. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-473 also probably interferes with phosphorylation at this site.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity (PubMed:12149249, PubMed:14761976, PubMed:15047712, PubMed:16266983, PubMed:17013611, PubMed:20978158, PubMed:9736715, PubMed:23799035, PubMed:8978681, PubMed:28147277). Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA (PubMed:20333297). This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation (PubMed:9512493). Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1 (PubMed:21464307, PubMed:8978681). Phosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by IKBKE and TBK1 (PubMed:15718470, PubMed:18456494, PubMed:20481595, PubMed:8978681). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A) (PubMed:14761976). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells (PubMed:17013611). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by signaling through activated FLT3 (By similarity). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by PHLPP (PubMed:28147277). Dephosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). The phosphorylated form of PPP2R5B is required for bridging AKT1 with PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by CPPED1, leading to termination of signaling (PubMed:9512493).PTM Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation (PubMed:19713527). When ubiquitinated, it translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated (PubMed:20059950). When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:20059950). Also ubiquitinated by TRIM13 leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:21333377). Phosphorylated, undergoes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination preferentially at Lys-284 catalyzed by MUL1, leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:22410793). Ubiquitinated via 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by ZNRF1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity).PTM Acetylated on Lys-14 and Lys-20 by the histone acetyltransferases EP300 and KAT2B. Acetylation results in reduced phosphorylation and inhibition of activity. Deacetylated at Lys-14 and Lys-20 by SIRT1. SIRT1-mediated deacetylation relieves the inhibition.PTM Cleavage by caspase-3/CASP3 (By similarity). Cleaved at the caspase-3 consensus site Asp-462 during apoptosis, resulting in down-regulation of the AKT signaling pathway and decreased cell survival (PubMed:23152800).DISEASE Genetic variations in AKT1 may play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION PUBMED:19940129 has been retracted because the same data were used to represent different experimental conditions.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt P31749 308 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine MOD MOD:00047 473 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 480 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198357 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198357 Reactome R-HSA-198357 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198357.1 PKB beta p-T309,S474-AKT2 Phospho-AKT2 (T309, S474) RAC-beta serine/threonine protein kinase RAC-PK-beta Protein kinase Akt-2 Protein kinase B, beta Reactome DB_ID: 202087 UniProt:P31751 AKT2 AKT2 FUNCTION AKT2 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface. Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling. Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity. Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven. AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis. AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating mTORC1 signaling and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1. AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization. In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319'. FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites. AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1. AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis. Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis. Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity. The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation. Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I. Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly. May be involved in the regulation of the placental development.FUNCTION One of the few specific substrates of AKT2 identified recently is PITX2. Phosphorylation of PITX2 impairs its association with the CCND1 mRNA-stabilizing complex thus shortening the half-life of CCND1. AKT2 seems also to be the principal isoform responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake. Phosphorylates C2CD5 on 'Ser-197' during insulin-stimulated adipocytes. AKT2 is also specifically involved in skeletal muscle differentiation, one of its substrates in this process being ANKRD2. Down-regulation by RNA interference reduces the expression of the phosphorylated form of BAD, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Phosphorylates CLK2 on 'Thr-343'.ACTIVITY REGULATION Two specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-309) and the other in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation (PubMed:18800763, PubMed:19179070). Aminofurazans, such as 4-[2-(4-amino-2,5-dihydro-1,2,5-oxadiazol-3-yl)-6-{[(1S)-3-amino-1-phenylpropyl]oxy}-1-ethyl-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]pyridin-4-yl]-2-methylbut-3-yn-2-ol (compound 32), are potent AKT2 inhibitors (PubMed:19179070).SUBUNIT Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts (via PH domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CLK2, PBH2 and TRAF6. Interacts (when phosphorylated) with CLIP3, the interaction promotes cell membrane localization (PubMed:19139280). Interacts with WDFY2 (via WD repeats 1-3) (PubMed:16792529).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in all cell types so far analyzed.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-309 and Ser-474 is required for full activity.PTM Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT2 ubiquitination. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-306 and Thr-313 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-309 via disrupting the interaction between AKT and PDK1.DISEASE Defects in AKT2 are a cause of susceptibility to breast cancer (BC). AKT2 promotes metastasis of tumor cells without affecting the latency of tumor development. With AKT3, also plays a pivotal role in the biology of glioblastoma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt P31751 309 EQUAL 474 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 481 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 202087 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=202087 Reactome R-HSA-202087 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-202087.1 AKT3 p-T305,S472-AKT3 RAC-gamma serine/threonine-protein kinase ecNumber2.7.11.1/ecNumber AKT3_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 3009365 UniProt:Q9Y243 AKT3 AKT3 PKBG FUNCTION AKT3 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis. This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates. Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported. AKT3 is the least studied AKT isoform. It plays an important role in brain development and is crucial for the viability of malignant glioma cells. AKT3 isoform may also be the key molecule in up-regulation and down-regulation of MMP13 via IL13. Required for the coordination of mitochondrial biogenesis with growth factor-induced increases in cellular energy demands. Down-regulation by RNA interference reduces the expression of the phosphorylated form of BAD, resulting in the induction of caspase-dependent apoptosis.ACTIVITY REGULATION Two specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-305) and the other in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-472), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation (By similarity). IGF-1 leads to the activation of AKT3, which may play a role in regulating cell survival.SUBUNIT Interacts (via PH domain) with TCL1A; this enhances AKT3 phosphorylation and activation. Interacts with TRAF6. Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY In adult tissues, it is highly expressed in brain, lung and kidney, but weakly in heart, testis and liver. In fetal tissues, it is highly expressed in heart, liver and brain and not at all in kidney.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PI(3)K) results in its targeting to the plasma membrane.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-305 and Ser-472 is required for full activity.PTM Ubiquitinated. When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-302 and Thr-309 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-305 via disrupting the interaction between AKT and PDK1.DISEASE AKT3 is a key modulator of several tumors like melanoma, glioma and ovarian cancer. Active AKT3 increases progressively during melanoma tumor progression with highest levels present in advanced-stage metastatic melanomas. Promotes melanoma tumorigenesis by decreasing apoptosis. Plays a key role in the genesis of ovarian cancers through modulation of G2/M phase transition. With AKT2, plays a pivotal role in the biology of glioblastoma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt Q9Y243 305 EQUAL 472 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 479 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 3009365 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=3009365 Reactome R-HSA-3009365 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-3009365.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 202072 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=202072 Reactome R-HSA-202072 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-202072.4 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004674 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 82 199274 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199274 Reactome Database ID Release 82 199298 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199298 Reactome R-HSA-199298 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199298.2 9829964 Pubmed 1998 CREB is a regulatory target for the protein kinase Akt/PKB Du, K Montminy, M J Biol Chem 273:32377-9 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0043491 gene ontology term for cellular process MI MI:0359 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT phosphorylates FOXO transcription factors AKT-mediated phosphorylation of Forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors of the FOXO family, FOXO1 (FKHR), FOXO3 (FoxO3a, also known as FKHRL1) and FOXO4 (AFX) contributes to PI3K/AKT signaling-stimulated cell survival and growth. Activated AKT1 phosphorylates FOXO1 on threonine residue T24 and serine residues S256 and S319 (Rena et al. 1999), FOXO3 on threonine residue T32 and serine residues S253 and S315 (Brunet et al. 1999), and FOXO4 on threonine residue T32 and serine residues S197 and S262 (Kops et al. 1999).<br>Based on studies with recombinant mouse Foxo6 expressed in the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293, FOXO6 has two conserved AKT phosphorylation sites: T26 and S184. Mouse Foxo6 has a third predicted Akt phosphorylation site at the C-terminus, T338, which is not present in other Foxo family members and is not conserved in human FOXO6. T26 and S184 are phosphorylated in response to growth factors known to activate PI3K/AKT signaling, but AKT has not been explicitly identified as the responsible kinase. In contrast to other FOXO family members, FOXO6 remains predominantly nuclear irrespective of growth factor-induced signaling, and only a small portion of phosphorylated FOXO6 may shuttle to the cytosol. Phosphorylation of FOXO6 on putative AKT sites, however, may inhibit binding of FOXO6 to target DNA sites (Jacobs et al. 2003, van der Heide et al. 2005).<br>Protein phosphatase DUSP6 (MKP3) may act to dephosphorylate FOXO1 after AKT-mediated phosphorylation (Rodrigues et al. 2017). Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Donlon, Timothy, 2018-10-17 Reviewed: Bertaggia, Enrico, 2018-10-26 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2018-10-31 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FOXO1,FOXO3,FOXO4,(FOXO6) Forkhead box transcription factor Reactome DB_ID: 199272 FOXO1 Forkhead box protein O1A FOXO1_HUMAN FOXO1A Reactome DB_ID: 199300 UniProt:Q12778 FOXO1 FOXO1 FKHR FOXO1A FUNCTION Transcription factor that is the main target of insulin signaling and regulates metabolic homeostasis in response to oxidative stress (PubMed:10358076, PubMed:12228231, PubMed:15220471, PubMed:15890677, PubMed:18356527, PubMed:19221179, PubMed:20543840, PubMed:21245099). Binds to the insulin response element (IRE) with consensus sequence 5'-TT[G/A]TTTTG-3' and the related Daf-16 family binding element (DBE) with consensus sequence 5'-TT[G/A]TTTAC-3' (PubMed:10358076). Activity suppressed by insulin (PubMed:10358076). Main regulator of redox balance and osteoblast numbers and controls bone mass (By similarity). Orchestrates the endocrine function of the skeleton in regulating glucose metabolism (By similarity). Also acts as a key regulator of chondrogenic commitment of skeletal progenitor cells in response to lipid availability: when lipids levels are low, translocates to the nucleus and promotes expression of SOX9, which induces chondrogenic commitment and suppresses fatty acid oxidation (By similarity). Acts synergistically with ATF4 to suppress osteocalcin/BGLAP activity, increasing glucose levels and triggering glucose intolerance and insulin insensitivity (By similarity). Also suppresses the transcriptional activity of RUNX2, an upstream activator of osteocalcin/BGLAP (By similarity). Acts as an inhibitor of glucose sensing in pancreatic beta cells by acting as a transcription repressor and suppressing expression of PDX1 (By similarity). In hepatocytes, promotes gluconeogenesis by acting together with PPARGC1A and CEBPA to activate the expression of genes such as IGFBP1, G6PC1 and PCK1 (By similarity). Also promotes gluconeogenesis by directly promoting expression of PPARGC1A and G6PC1 (PubMed:17024043). Important regulator of cell death acting downstream of CDK1, PKB/AKT1 and STK4/MST1 (PubMed:18356527, PubMed:19221179). Promotes neural cell death (PubMed:18356527). Mediates insulin action on adipose tissue (By similarity). Regulates the expression of adipogenic genes such as PPARG during preadipocyte differentiation and, adipocyte size and adipose tissue-specific gene expression in response to excessive calorie intake (By similarity). Regulates the transcriptional activity of GADD45A and repair of nitric oxide-damaged DNA in beta-cells (By similarity). Required for the autophagic cell death induction in response to starvation or oxidative stress in a transcription-independent manner (PubMed:20543840). Mediates the function of MLIP in cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and cardiac remodeling (By similarity). Regulates endothelial cell (EC) viability and apoptosis in a PPIA/CYPA-dependent manner via transcription of CCL2 and BCL2L11 which are involved in EC chemotaxis and apoptosis (PubMed:31063815).SUBUNIT Interacts with LRPPRC. Interacts with RUNX2; the interaction inhibits RUNX2 transcriptional activity and mediates the IGF1/insulin-dependent BGLAP expression in osteoblasts Interacts with PPP2R1A; the interaction regulates the dephosphorylation of FOXO1 at Thr-24 and Ser-256 leading to its nuclear import. Interacts (acetylated form) with PPARG. Interacts with XBP1 isoform 2; this interaction is direct and leads to FOXO1 ubiquitination and degradation via the proteasome pathway (By similarity). Interacts with NLK. Interacts with SIRT1; the interaction results in the deacetylation of FOXO1 leading to activation of FOXO1-mediated transcription of genes involved in DNA repair and stress resistance. Binds to CDK1. Interacts with the 14-3-3 proteins, YWHAG and YWHAZ; the interactions require insulin-stimulated phosphorylation on Thr-24, promote nuclear exit and loss of transcriptional activity. Interacts with SKP2; the interaction ubiquitinates FOXO1 leading to its proteosomal degradation. The interaction requires the presence of KRIT1. Interacts (via the C-terminal half) with ATF4 (via its DNA-binding domain); the interaction occurs in osteoblasts, regulates glucose homeostasis via suppression of beta-cell proliferation and subsequent decrease in insulin production. Interacts with PRMT1; the interaction methylates FOXO1, prevents PKB/AKT1 phosphorylation and retains FOXO1 in the nucleus. Interacts with EP300 and CREBBP; the interactions acetylate FOXO1. Interacts with SIRT2; the interaction is disrupted in response to oxidative stress or serum deprivation, leading to increased level of acetylated FOXO1, which promotes stress-induced autophagy by stimulating E1-like activating enzyme ATG7. Interacts (acetylated form) with ATG7; the interaction is increased in response to oxidative stress or serum deprivation and promotes the autophagic process leading to cell death. Interacts (via the Fork-head domain) with CEBPA; the interaction increases when FOXO1 is deacetylated. Interacts with WDFY2. Forms a complex with WDFY2 and AKT1 (By similarity). Interacts with CRY1 (By similarity). Interacts with PPIA/CYPA; the interaction promotes FOXO1 dephosphorylation, nuclear accumulation and transcriptional activity (PubMed:31063815). Interacts with TOX4; FOXO1 is required for full induction of TOX4-dependent activity and the interaction is inhibited by insulin (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitous.INDUCTION Expression is regulated by KRIT1. Levels of expression also regulated by FOXC1 which binds to a conserved element in the FOXO1 promoter.PTM Phosphorylation by NLK promotes nuclear export and inhibits the transcriptional activity. In response to growth factors, phosphorylation on Thr-24, Ser-256 and Ser-322 by PKB/AKT1 promotes nuclear export and inactivation of transactivational activity. Phosphorylation on Thr-24 is required for binding 14-3-3 proteins. Phosphorylation of Ser-256 decreases DNA-binding activity and promotes the phosphorylation of Thr-24 and Ser-319, permitting phosphorylation of Ser-322 and Ser-325, probably by CDK1, leading to nuclear exclusion and loss of function. Stress signals, such as response to oxygen or nitric oxide, attenuate the PKB/AKT1-mediated phosphorylation leading to nuclear retention. Phosphorylation of Ser-329 is independent of IGF1 and leads to reduced function. Dephosphorylated on Thr-24 and Ser-256 by PP2A in beta-cells under oxidative stress leading to nuclear retention (By similarity). Phosphorylation of Ser-249 by CDK1 disrupts binding of 14-3-3 proteins leading to nuclear accumulation and has no effect on DNA-binding nor transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation by STK4/MST1 on Ser-212, upon oxidative stress, inhibits binding to 14-3-3 proteins and nuclear export. PPIA/CYPA promotes its dephosphorylation on Ser-256 (PubMed:31063815).PTM Ubiquitinated by SKP2. Ubiquitination leads to proteasomal degradation.PTM Methylation inhibits AKT1-mediated phosphorylation at Ser-256 and is increased by oxidative stress.PTM Acetylated (PubMed:20543840, PubMed:15220471, PubMed:15890677, PubMed:18786403). Acetylation at Lys-262, Lys-265 and Lys-274 are necessary for autophagic cell death induction (PubMed:20543840). Deacetylated by SIRT2 in response to oxidative stress or serum deprivation, thereby negatively regulating FOXO1-mediated autophagic cell death (PubMed:20543840). Once in the nucleus, acetylated by CREBBP/EP300 (PubMed:15220471, PubMed:15890677, PubMed:18786403). Acetylation diminishes the interaction with target DNA and attenuates the transcriptional activity. It increases the phosphorylation at Ser-256 (PubMed:15220471, PubMed:15890677, PubMed:18786403). Deacetylation by SIRT1 results in reactivation of the transcriptional activity (PubMed:15220471, PubMed:15890677, PubMed:18786403). Oxidative stress by hydrogen peroxide treatment appears to promote deacetylation and uncoupling of insulin-induced phosphorylation (PubMed:15220471, PubMed:15890677, PubMed:18786403). By contrast, resveratrol acts independently of acetylation (PubMed:15220471, PubMed:15890677, PubMed:18786403). Acetylated at Lys-423, promoting its localization to the nucleus and transcription factor activity (PubMed:25009184). Deacetylation at Lys-423 by SIRT6, promotes its translocation into the cytoplasm, preventing its transcription factor activity (PubMed:25009184). Deacetylation and subsequent inhibition by SIRT6 has different effects depending on cell types: it inhibits gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes, promotes glucose sensing in pancreatic beta-cells and regulates lipid catabolism in brown adipocytes (By similarity). UniProt Q12778 1 EQUAL 655 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199300 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199300 Reactome R-HSA-199300 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199300.1 FOXO3 Forkhead box protein O3A FOXO3_HUMAN FOXO3A Reactome DB_ID: 199305 UniProt:O43524 FOXO3 FOXO3 FKHRL1 FOXO3A FUNCTION Transcriptional activator that recognizes and binds to the DNA sequence 5'-[AG]TAAA[TC]A-3' and regulates different processes, such as apoptosis and autophagy (PubMed:10102273, PubMed:16751106, PubMed:21329882, PubMed:30513302). Acts as a positive regulator of autophagy in skeletal muscle: in starved cells, enters the nucleus following dephosphorylation and binds the promoters of autophagy genes, such as GABARAP1L, MAP1LC3B and ATG12, thereby activating their expression, resulting in proteolysis of skeletal muscle proteins (By similarity). Triggers apoptosis in the absence of survival factors, including neuronal cell death upon oxidative stress (PubMed:10102273, PubMed:16751106). Participates in post-transcriptional regulation of MYC: following phosphorylation by MAPKAPK5, promotes induction of miR-34b and miR-34c expression, 2 post-transcriptional regulators of MYC that bind to the 3'UTR of MYC transcript and prevent its translation (PubMed:21329882). In response to metabolic stress, translocates into the mitochondria where it promotes mtDNA transcription (PubMed:23283301). In response to metabolic stress, translocates into the mitochondria where it promotes mtDNA transcription. Also acts as a key regulator of chondrogenic commitment of skeletal progenitor cells in response to lipid availability: when lipids levels are low, translocates to the nucleus and promotes expression of SOX9, which induces chondrogenic commitment and suppresses fatty acid oxidation (By similarity). Also acts as a key regulator of regulatory T-cells (Treg) differentiation by activating expression of FOXP3 (PubMed:30513302).SUBUNIT Upon metabolic stress, forms a complex composed of FOXO3, SIRT3 and mitochondrial RNA polymerase POLRMT; the complex is recruited to mtDNA in a SIRT3-dependent manner (PubMed:23283301). Also forms a complex composed of FOXO3, SIRT3, TFAM and POLRMT (PubMed:29445193). Interacts with SIRT2; the interaction occurs independently of SIRT2 deacetylase activity (By similarity). Interacts with YWHAB/14-3-3-beta and YWHAZ/14-3-3-zeta, which are required for cytosolic sequestration (PubMed:16751106). Upon oxidative stress, interacts with STK4/MST1, which disrupts interaction with YWHAB/14-3-3-beta and leads to nuclear translocation (PubMed:16751106). Interacts with PIM1 (PubMed:18593906). Interacts with DDIT3/CHOP (PubMed:22761832). Interacts (deacetylated form) with SKP2 (PubMed:21841822). Interacts with CHUK and IKBKB (PubMed:15084260, PubMed:22313691). Interacts with CAMK2A, CAMK2B and calcineurin A (By similarity). Interacts with NUPR1; this interaction represses FOXO3 transactivation (PubMed:20181828).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitous.PTM In the presence of survival factors such as IGF-1, phosphorylated on Thr-32 and Ser-253 by AKT1/PKB (PubMed:10102273). This phosphorylated form then interacts with 14-3-3 proteins and is retained in the cytoplasm (PubMed:10102273). Survival factor withdrawal induces dephosphorylation and promotes translocation to the nucleus where the dephosphorylated protein induces transcription of target genes and triggers apoptosis (PubMed:10102273). Although AKT1/PKB doesn't appear to phosphorylate Ser-315 directly, it may activate other kinases that trigger phosphorylation at this residue (PubMed:10102273, PubMed:11154281). Phosphorylated by STK4/MST1 on Ser-209 upon oxidative stress, which leads to dissociation from YWHAB/14-3-3-beta and nuclear translocation (PubMed:16751106). Phosphorylated by PIM1 (PubMed:18593906). Phosphorylation by AMPK leads to the activation of transcriptional activity without affecting subcellular localization (PubMed:17711846). In response to metabolic stress, phosphorylated by AMPK on Ser-30 which mediates FOXO3 mitochondrial translocation (PubMed:29445193). Phosphorylation by MAPKAPK5 promotes nuclear localization and DNA-binding, leading to induction of miR-34b and miR-34c expression, 2 post-transcriptional regulators of MYC that bind to the 3'UTR of MYC transcript and prevent its translation (PubMed:21329882). Phosphorylated by CHUK/IKKA and IKBKB/IKKB (PubMed:15084260). TNF-induced inactivation of FOXO3 requires its phosphorylation at Ser-644 by IKBKB/IKKB which promotes FOXO3 retention in the cytoplasm, polyubiquitination and ubiquitin-mediated proteasomal degradation (PubMed:15084260). May be dephosphorylated by calcineurin A on Ser-299 which abolishes FOXO3 transcriptional activity (By similarity). In cancer cells, ERK mediated-phosphorylation of Ser-12 is required for mitochondrial translocation of FOXO3 in response to metabolic stress or chemotherapeutic agents (PubMed:29445193). Phosphorylation at Ser-253 promotes its degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:30513302). Dephosphorylation at Ser-253 by protein phosphatase 2A (PPP2CA) promotes its stabilization; interaction with PPP2CA is enhanced by AMBRA1 (PubMed:30513302).PTM Deacetylation by SIRT1 or SIRT2 stimulates interaction of FOXO3 with SKP2 and facilitates SCF(SKP2)-mediated FOXO3 ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (PubMed:21841822). Deacetylation by SIRT2 stimulates FOXO3-mediated transcriptional activity in response to oxidative stress (By similarity). Deacetylated by SIRT3 (PubMed:23283301). Deacetylation by SIRT3 stimulates FOXO3-mediated mtDNA transcriptional activity in response to metabolic stress (PubMed:23283301).PTM Heavily methylated by SET9 which decreases stability, while moderately increasing transcriptional activity. The main methylation site is Lys-271. Methylation doesn't affect subcellular location.PTM Polyubiquitinated. Ubiquitinated by a SCF complex containing SKP2, leading to proteasomal degradation.PTM The N-terminus is cleaved following import into the mitochondrion.DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving FOXO3 is found in secondary acute leukemias. Translocation t(6;11)(q21;q23) with KMT2A/MLL1. UniProt O43524 2 EQUAL 673 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199305 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199305 Reactome R-HSA-199305 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199305.1 FOXO4 Forkhead box protein O4 FOXO4_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 5690183 UniProt:P98177 FOXO4 FOXO4 AFX AFX1 MLLT7 FUNCTION Transcription factor involved in the regulation of the insulin signaling pathway. Binds to insulin-response elements (IREs) and can activate transcription of IGFBP1. Down-regulates expression of HIF1A and suppresses hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation of HIF1A-modulated genes. Also involved in negative regulation of the cell cycle. Involved in increased proteasome activity in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) by activating expression of PSMD11 in ESCs, leading to enhanced assembly of the 26S proteasome, followed by higher proteasome activity.SUBUNIT Interacts with CREBBP/CBP, CTNNB1, MYOCD, SIRT1, SRF and YWHAZ. Acetylated by CREBBP/CBP and deacetylated by SIRT1. Binding of YWHAZ inhibits DNA-binding. Interacts with USP7; the interaction is enhanced in presence of hydrogen peroxide and occurs independently of TP53. Interacts with NLK, and this inhibits monoubiquitination and transcriptional activity. Interacts with FOXK1; the interaction inhibits MEF2C transactivation activity (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas. Isoform zeta is most abundant in the liver, kidney, and pancreas.PTM Acetylation by CREBBP/CBP, which is induced by peroxidase stress, inhibits transcriptional activity. Deacetylation by SIRT1 is NAD-dependent and stimulates transcriptional activity.PTM Phosphorylation by PKB/AKT1 inhibits transcriptional activity and is responsible for cytoplasmic localization. May be phosphorylated at multiple sites by NLK.PTM Monoubiquitinated; monoubiquitination is induced by oxidative stress and reduced by deacetylase inhibitors; results in its relocalization to the nucleus and its increased transcriptional activity. Deubiquitinated by USP7; deubiquitination is induced by oxidative stress; enhances its interaction with USP7 and consequently, deubiquitination; increases its translocation to the cytoplasm and inhibits its transcriptional activity. Hydrogene-peroxide-induced ubiquitination and USP7-mediated deubiquitination have no major effect on its protein stability.DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving FOXO4 is found in acute leukemias. Translocation t(X;11)(q13;q23) with KMT2A/MLL1. The result is a rogue activator protein.PHARMACEUTICAL A constitutively active FOXO4 mutant where phosphorylation sites Thr-32, Ser-197 and Ser-262 have been mutated to alanine may have therapeutic potential in ERBB2/HER2-overexpressing cancers as it inhibits ERBB2-mediated cell survival, transformation and tumorigenicity. UniProt P98177 1 EQUAL 505 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 5690183 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5690183 Reactome R-HSA-5690183 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5690183.2 FOXO6 Forkhead box protein O6 FOXO6_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 9614396 UniProt:A8MYZ6 FOXO6 FOXO6 FUNCTION Transcriptional activator.PTM Phosphorylation of Ser-184 is be important in regulating the transacriptional activity. UniProt A8MYZ6 1 EQUAL 492 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 9614396 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9614396 Reactome R-HSA-9614396 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9614396.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 199272 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199272 Reactome R-HSA-199272 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199272.3 3 3 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p-FOXO1,p-FOXO3,p-FOXO4 p-T24,S256,S319-FOXO1,p-T32,S253,S315-FOXO3,p-T32,S197,S262-FOXO4,(p-T26,S184-FOXO6) Phospho-Forkhead box transcription factor Reactome DB_ID: 9614997 FOXO1A p-T24,S256,S319-FOXO1 Phospho-Forkhead box protein O1A (T24, S256, S319) FOXO1_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 199306 24 EQUAL 256 EQUAL 319 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 655 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199306 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199306 Reactome R-HSA-199306 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199306.1 FOXO3A p-T32,S253,S315-FOXO3 Phospho-Forkhead box protein O3A (T32, S253, S315) FOXO3_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 199289 253 EQUAL 315 EQUAL 32 EQUAL 2 EQUAL 673 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199289 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199289 Reactome R-HSA-199289 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199289.1 FOXO4 p-T32,S197,S262-FOXO4 FOXO4_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 199314 197 EQUAL 262 EQUAL 32 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 505 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199314 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199314 Reactome R-HSA-199314 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199314.2 p-T26,S184-FOXO6 Reactome DB_ID: 9614995 26 EQUAL 184 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 492 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 9614995 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9614995 Reactome R-HSA-9614995 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9614995.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 9614997 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9614997 Reactome R-HSA-9614997 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9614997.1 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 82 199299 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199299 Reactome R-HSA-199299 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199299.4 10358075 Pubmed 1999 Phosphorylation of the transcription factor forkhead family member FKHR by protein kinase B Rena, G Guo, S Cichy, SC Unterman, TG Cohen, P J Biol Chem 274:17179-83 12857750 Pubmed 2003 FoxO6, a novel member of the FoxO class of transcription factors with distinct shuttling dynamics Jacobs, Frank M J van der Heide, Lars P Wijchers, Patrick J E C Burbach, J Peter H Hoekman, Marco F M Smidt, Marten P J. Biol. Chem. 278:35959-67 10102273 Pubmed 1999 Akt promotes cell survival by phosphorylating and inhibiting a Forkhead transcription factor Brunet, A Bonni, A Zigmond, MJ Lin, MZ Juo, P Hu, LS Anderson, MJ Arden, KC Blenis, J Greenberg, ME Cell 96:857-68 15987244 Pubmed 2005 FoxO6 transcriptional activity is regulated by Thr26 and Ser184, independent of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling van der Heide, Lars P Jacobs, Frank M J Burbach, J Peter H Hoekman, Marco F M Smidt, Marten P Biochem. J. 391:623-9 28866049 Pubmed 2017 Overexpression of Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) reduces FoxO1 phosphorylation in mice hypothalamus Rodrigues, Bárbara de Almeida Kuga, Gabriel Keine Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto Gaspar, Rafael Calais Tavares, Mariana Rosolen Botezelli, José Diego da Silva, Adelino Sanchez Ramos Cintra, Dennys Esper de Moura, Leandro Pereira Simabuco, Fernando Moreira Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete Pauli, José Rodrigo Neurosci. Lett. 659:14-17 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT can phosphorylate RSK Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-2 (RSK) activation is a highly conserved mitogenic response, and the activities of RSK are stimulated by multiple serine/threonine phosphorylations by different upstream kinases, one of which is AKT. Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 RPS6KB2 Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 K6B2_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 199877 UniProt:Q9UBS0 RPS6KB2 RPS6KB2 STK14B FUNCTION Phosphorylates specifically ribosomal protein S6 (PubMed:29750193). Seems to act downstream of mTOR signaling in response to growth factors and nutrients to promote cell proliferation, cell growth and cell cycle progression in an alternative pathway regulated by MEAK7 (PubMed:29750193).PTM Phosphorylated and activated by MTOR. Phosphorylation by PKC within the NLS in response to mitogenic stimuli causes cytoplasmic retention.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. S6 kinase subfamily. UniProt Q9UBS0 1 EQUAL 482 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199877 Reactome R-HSA-199877 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199877.1 2 2 RPS6KB2 p-S15,S356-RPS6KB2 p-S15,356-RPS6KB2 Phospho-Ribosomal protein S6 kinase 2 K6B2_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 199844 15 EQUAL 356 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 482 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199844 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199844 Reactome R-HSA-199844 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199844.1 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 82 199839 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199839 Reactome R-HSA-199839 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199839.2 10490848 Pubmed 1999 Cloning and characterization of a nuclear S6 kinase, S6 kinase-related kinase (SRK); a novel nuclear target of Akt Koh, H Jee, K Lee, B Kim, J Kim, D Yun, YH Kim, JW Choi, HS Chung, J Oncogene 18:5115-9 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT can phosphorylate NR4A1 (NUR77) AKT inhibits DNA binding of NUR77 and inhibits its pro-apoptotic function (PMID 11438550). However, the relevance of AKT for NUR77 phosphorylation has recently been questioned: according to recent work, NUR77 is phosphorylated by RSK (and MSK) rather than by AKT (PMID 16223362). Authored: Nasi, Sergio, Annibali, D, 2006-10-10 Reviewed: Greene, LA, 2007-11-08 15:39:37 NR4A1 NR4A1_Human Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 NR41_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 199831 UniProt:P22736 NR4A1 NR4A1 GFRP1 HMR NAK1 FUNCTION Orphan nuclear receptor. May act concomitantly with NURR1 in regulating the expression of delayed-early genes during liver regeneration. Binds the NGFI-B response element (NBRE) 5'-AAAAGGTCA-3' (By similarity). May inhibit NF-kappa-B transactivation of IL2. Participates in energy homeostasis by sequestrating the kinase STK11 in the nucleus, thereby attenuating cytoplasmic AMPK activation. Plays a role in the vascular response to injury (By similarity).SUBUNIT Binds DNA as a monomer (By similarity). Interacts with GADD45GIP1 (PubMed:15459248). Interacts with STK11 (PubMed:22983157). Interacts with IFI27 (PubMed:22427340). Heterodimer (via DNA-binding domain) with RXRA (via C-terminus); DNA-binding of the heterodimer is enhanced by 9-cis retinoic acid (PubMed:17761950, PubMed:15509776). Competes for the RXRA interaction with EP300 and thereby attenuates EP300 mediated acetylation of RXRA (PubMed:17761950).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Fetal muscle and adult liver, brain and thyroid.INDUCTION By growth-stimulating agents.PTM Phosphorylated at Ser-351 by RPS6KA1 and RPS6KA3 in response to mitogenic or stress stimuli.PTM Acetylated by p300/CBP, acetylation increases stability. Deacetylated by HDAC1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the nuclear hormone receptor family. NR4 subfamily. UniProt P22736 1 EQUAL 598 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199831 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199831 Reactome R-HSA-199831 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199831.1 NR4A1 p-S351-NR4A1 Phospho-Orphan nuclear receptor NR4A1 NR41_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 199846 351 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 598 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 199846 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199846 Reactome R-HSA-199846 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199846.1 ACTIVATION Reactome Database ID Release 82 199863 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=199863 Reactome R-HSA-199863 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-199863.2 11274386 Pubmed 2001 Akt phosphorylates and regulates the orphan nuclear receptor Nur77 Pekarsky, Y Hallas, C Palamarchuk, A Koval, A Bullrich, F Hirata, Y Bichi, R Letofsky, J Croce, CM Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:3690-4 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198693 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198693 Reactome R-HSA-198693 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198693.2