BioPAX pathway converted from "PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer" in the Reactome database. PI3K/AKT Signaling in Cancer Class IA PI3K is a heterodimer of a p85 regulatory subunit (encoded by PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) and a p110 catalytic subunit (encoded by PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). In the absence of activating signals, the regulatory subunit stabilizes the catalytic subunit while inhibiting its activity. The complex becomes activated when extracellular signals stimulate the phosphorylation of the cytoplasmic domains of transmembrane receptors or receptor-associated proteins. The p85 regulatory subunit binds phosphorylated motifs of activator proteins, which induces a conformational change that relieves p85-mediated inhibition of the p110 catalytic subunit and enables PI3K to phosphorylate PIP2 to form PIP3. The phosphoinositide kinase activity of PI3K is opposed by the phosphoinositide phosphatase activity of PTEN. <br><br>PIP3 acts as a messenger that recruits PDPK1 (PDK1) and AKT (AKT1, AKT2 or AKT3) to the plasma membrane. PDPK1 also possesses a low affinity for PIP2, so small amounts of PDPK1 are always present at the membrane. Binding of AKT to PIP3 induces a conformational change that enables TORC2 complex to phosphorylate AKT at a conserved serine residue (S473 in AKT1). Phosphorylation at the serine residue enables AKT to bind to PDPK1 and exposes a conserved threonine residue (T308) that is phosphorylated by PDPK1. AKT phosphorylated at both serine and threonine residues dissociates from the plasma membrane and acts as a serine/threonine kinase that phosphorylates a number of cytosolic and nuclear targets involved in regulation of cell metabolism, survival and gene expression. For a recent review, please refer to Manning and Cantley, 2007. <br> Signaling by PI3K/AKT is frequently constitutively activated in cancer. This activation can be via gain-of-function mutations in PI3KCA (encoding catalytic subunit p110alpha), PIK3R1 (encoding regulatory subunit p85alpha) and AKT1. The PI3K/AKT pathway can also be constitutively activated by loss-of-function mutations in tumor suppressor genes such as PTEN. <br> Gain-of-function mutations activate PI3K signaling by diverse mechanisms. Mutations affecting the helical domain of PIK3CA and mutations affecting nSH2 and iSH2 domains of PIK3R1 impair inhibitory interactions between these two subunits while preserving their association. Mutations in the catalytic domain of PIK3CA enable the kinase to achieve an active conformation. PI3K complexes with gain-of-function mutations therefore produce PIP3 and activate downstream AKT in the absence of growth factors (Huang et al. 2007, Zhao et al. 2005, Miled et al. 2007, Horn et al. 2008, Sun et al. 2010, Jaiswal et al. 2009, Zhao and Vogt 2010, Urick et al. 2011). While AKT1 gene copy number, expression level and phosphorylation are often increased in cancer, only one low frequency point mutation has been repeatedly reported in cancer and functionally studied. This mutation represents a substitution of a glutamic acid residue with lysine at position 17 of AKT1, and acts by enabling AKT1 to bind PIP2. PIP2-bound AKT1 is phosphorylated by TORC2 complex and by PDPK1 that is always present at the plasma membrane, due to low affinity for PIP2. Therefore, E17K substitution abrogates the need for PI3K in AKT1 activation (Carpten et al. 2007, Landgraf et al. 2008). <br> Loss-of-function mutations affecting the phosphatase domain of PTEN are frequently found in sporadic cancers (Kong et al. 1997, Lee et al. 1999, Han et al. 2000), as well as in PTEN hamartoma tumor syndromes (PHTS) (Marsh et al. 1998). PTEN can also be inactivated by gene deletion or epigenetic silencing, or indirectly by overexpression of microRNAs that target PTEN mRNA (Huse et al. 2009). Cells with deficient PTEN function have increased levels of PIP3, and therefore increased AKT activity. For a recent review, please refer to Hollander et al. 2011.<br> Because of their clear involvement in human cancers, PI3K and AKT are targets of considerable interest in the development of small molecule inhibitors. Although none of the currently available inhibitors display preference for mutant variants of PIK3CA or AKT, several inhibitors targeting the wild-type kinases are undergoing clinical trials. These include dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitors, class I PI3K inhibitors, pan-PI3K inhibitors, and pan-AKT inhibitors. While none have yet been approved for clinical use, these agents show promise for future therapeutics. In addition, isoform-specific PI3K and AKT inhibitors are currently being developed, and may provide more specific treatments along with reduced side-effects. For a recent review, please refer to Liu et al. 2009. Authored: Orlic-Milacic, M, 2012-07-18 Reviewed: Thorpe, Lauren, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Yuzugullu, Haluk, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Zhao, Jean J, 2012-08-13 Edited: Matthews, L, 2012-08-03 Constitutive Signaling by Aberrant PI3K in Cancer Signaling by PI3K/AKT is frequently constitutively activated in cancer via gain-of-function mutations in one of the two PI3K subunits - PI3KCA (encoding the catalytic subunit p110alpha) or PIK3R1 (encoding the regulatory subunit p85alpha). Gain-of-function mutations activate PI3K signaling by diverse mechanisms. Mutations affecting the helical domain of PIK3CA and mutations affecting nSH2 and iSH2 domains of PIK3R1 impair inhibitory interactions between these two subunits while preserving their association. Mutations in the catalytic domain of PIK3CA enable the kinase to achieve an active conformation. PI3K complexes with gain-of-function mutations therefore produce PIP3 and activate downstream AKT in the absence of growth factors (Huang et al. 2007, Zhao et al. 2005, Miled et al. 2007, Horn et al. 2008, Sun et al. 2010, Jaiswal et al. 2009, Zhao and Vogt 2010, Urick et al. 2011). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, M, 2012-07-18 Reviewed: Thorpe, Lauren, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Yuzugullu, Haluk, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Zhao, Jean J, 2012-08-13 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.1.153 PI3K gain of function mutants phosphorylate PIP2 to PIP3 Constitutively active PI3K complex produces PIP3 in the absence of growth stimuli, resulting in aberrant activation of downstream AKT signaling that positively regulates cell growth and survival. The PIK3CA gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of PI3K (p110alpha), is one of the most frequently mutated oncogenes in cancer. Hotspot mutations are found in the helical domain and kinase domain of PIK3CA, with the most frequent mutations being E545K substitution in the helical domain and H1047R substitution in the kinase domain.<br> The oncogenic PIK3CA mutants annotated here preserve their ability to bind PIK3R1 (p85alpha) regulatory subunit, but are constitutively active either because the inhibitory interactions with PIK3R1 are relieved, or because the conformation of the catalytic domain is changed. Missense mutations that result in substitution of amino acids at positions 542, 545 or 546 of PI3K disrupt an inhibitory interaction between the helical domain of PIK3CA and the nSH2 domain of PIK3R1. The effect of substitution of glutamic acid residue at position 545 has been studied in detail in PIK3CA E545K mutant, where glutamic acid is replaced with lysine (Miled et al. 2007, Huang et al. 2007, Zhao et al. 2005). The gain-of-function has been experimentally confirmed for PIK3CA E545A mutant (Horn et al. 2008), while PIK3CA E545G, PIK3CA E545Q and PIK3CA E545V mutants are assumed to behave similarly. The structural and functional consequences of glutamic acid to lysine substitution at position 542, in PIK3CA E542K mutant, have been established (Miled et al. 2007, Horn et al. 2008) and are extrapolated to PIK3CA E542Q and PIK3CA E542V mutants. A less frequent substitution of glutamine residue at position 546 follows the same mechanism, as shown for PIK3CA Q546K mutant (Miled et al. 2007) and extrapolated to PIK3CA Q546E, PIK3CA Q546H, PIK3CA Q546L, PIK3CA Q546P and PIK3CA Q546R mutants.<br> In the kinase domain of PIK3CA, substitution of histidine residue at position 1047 or methionine residue at position 1043, detected in PIK3CA H1047R, PIK3CA H1047L, PIK3CA H1047Y, PIK3CA M1043I, PIK3CA M1043T and PIK3CA M1043V mutants, is predicted to change the conformation of the activation loop (Huang et al. 2007) and was shown to confer constitutive activity, in the absence of growth factors, to PIK3CA H1047R, PIK3CA H1047L and PIK3CA M1043I mutants (Zhao et al. 2005, Horn et al. 2008). The catalytic activity of PIK3CA H1047R, PIK3CA H1047L and PIK3CA M1043I mutants may be further increased by binding of PIK3R1 regulatory subunit to phosphopeptides generated by activated receptor tyrosine kinases (Hon et al. 2011). PIK3CA H1047Y, PIK3CA M1043T and PIK3CA M1043V mutants are expected to behave similarly.<br> The arginine residue at position 38 of PIK3CA (R38) is located at a contact site between the ABD and kinase domains of PIK3CA. Substitution of this arginine residue with histidine in PIK3CA R38H mutant is likely to disrupt the interaction between the ABD domain and the kinase domain, causing a conformational change of the kinase domain that leads to increased enzymatic activity (Huang et al. 2007). PIK3CA R38H mutant shows reduced PIK3R1 binding and modestly increased catalytic activity (measured indirectly, via AKT1 phosphorylation) under serum starved conditions (Zhao et al. 2005). PIK3CA R38C, PIK3CA R38G and PIK3CA R38S mutants are expected to behave similarly.<br> Mutations in other conserved domains of PIK3CA, such as membrane-binding C2 domain (Mandelker et al. 2009), have not been annotated as their mechanism of action needs to be further elucidated.<br> Although less common than mutations in PIK3CA, mutations in PIK3R1, encoding the regulatory subunit of PI3K (p85alpha) have been recently described. Mutations mapping to iSH2 and nSH2 domains, the two domains of PIK3R1 involved in the inhibition of PIK3CA, which were shown to result in constitutive activity of PIK3R1 complex, are annotated here. An experimentally studied nSH2 domain mutant is PIK3R1 G376R (Sun et al. 2010). PIK3R1 iSH2 domain mutants, affected by amino acid substitutions and small inframe deletions, PIK3R1 D560Y (Jaiswal et al. 2009), PIK3R1 N564D (Jaiswal et al. 2009), PIK3R1 N564K (Sun et al. 2010), PIK3R1 H450_E451del (Urick et al. 2011), PIK3R1 K459del (Urick et al. 2011), PIK3R1 R574_T576del (Urick et al. 2011) and PIK3R1 Y463_L466del (Urick et al. 2011), were all shown to bind PIK3CA and confer constitutive activity to PI3K complex. PIK3R1 D560H, PIK3R1 R574I and PIK3R1 R574T mutants are expected to behave similarly to functionally characterized D560 and R574 substitution mutants.<br> Co-occurrence of PIK3CA and PIK3R1 mutations has been documented in some tumors, but since it is rare and the exact clinical combinations of PIK3CA and PIK3R1 mutants have not been studied, complexes of PIK3CA mutants with PIK3R1 mutants are not shown (Urick et al. 2011).<br> Although rare, perturbations in genes encoding other isoforms of PI3K subunits have also been reported in cancers. Mutations in PIK3R2, encoding PI3K regulatory subunit isoform p85beta, are found infrequently in endometrial cancers, but have not been functionally studied (Cheung et al. 2011). They are not shown in this context. PIK3CB, encoding PI3K catalytic subunit isoform p110beta, can be overexpressed in cancer, mainly due to genomic gain. Several studies have shown that PTEN deficient cancer cell lines depend on PIK3CB (p110beta) for AKT activation and sustained growth (Wee et al. 2008, Jiang et al. 2010, Chen et al. 2011). PIK3CB activation synergizes with PTEN loss in mouse prostate cancer model (Jia et al. 2008). Mutations in PIK3CB are very rare, have not been functionally studied, and are therefore not shown. Structural studies indicate that, in comparison with PIK3CA (p110alpha), PIK3CB (p110beta) and PIK3CD (p110delta) form additional inhibitory contacts with the regulatory subunit p85alpha, and are therefore probably less prone to mutational activation (Burke et al. 2011). <br> For more information, please refer to recent reviews by Liu et al. 2009 and Vogt et al. 2009. Authored: Orlic-Milacic, M, 2012-07-18 Reviewed: Thorpe, Lauren, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Yuzugullu, Haluk, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Zhao, Jean J, 2012-08-13 Edited: Matthews, L, 2012-08-03 PIP2 PI(4,5)P2 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5- bisphosphate Reactome DB_ID: 179856 plasma membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005886 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate(5-) [ChEBI:58456] 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 4,5-bisphosphate(5-) a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1D-myo-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate) 2,3-bis(alkanoyloxy)propyl (1R,2R,3S,4R,5R,6S)-2,3,6-trihydroxy-4,5-bis(phosphonatooxy)cyclohexyl phosphate ChEBI CHEBI:58456 Reactome Database ID Release 82 179856 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179856 Reactome R-ALL-179856 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-179856.4 Reactome http://www.reactome.org COMPOUND C04637 additional information MI MI:0361 ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 113592 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) ATP atp Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:30616 Reactome Database ID Release 82 113592 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113592 Reactome R-ALL-113592 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113592.5 COMPOUND C00002 PIP3 PI(3,4,5)P3 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate Reactome DB_ID: 179838 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate(7-) [ChEBI:57836] 1-phosphatidyl-1D-myo-inositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate(7-) 2,3-bis(alkanoyloxy)propyl (1S,2S,3R,4S,5S,6S)-2,6-dihydroxy-3,4,5-tris(phosphonatooxy)cyclohexyl phosphate a 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1D-myo-inositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate) ChEBI CHEBI:57836 Reactome Database ID Release 82 179838 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179838 Reactome R-ALL-179838 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-179838.4 COMPOUND C05981 ADP Adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 29370 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP trianion ChEBI CHEBI:456216 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29370 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29370 Reactome R-ALL-29370 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29370.5 COMPOUND C00008 ACTIVATION Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PI3K mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2394006 PIK3R1:PIK3CA mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2394005 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PIK3CA mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2394008 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PIK3CA helical domain mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2399587 PIK3CA E542K PIK3CA Glu542Lys Reactome DB_ID: 1500701 UniProt:P42336 PIK3CA PIK3CA FUNCTION Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its phosphorylated derivatives at position 3 of the inositol ring to produce 3-phosphoinositides (PubMed:15135396, PubMed:23936502, PubMed:28676499). Uses ATP and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) (PubMed:15135396, PubMed:28676499). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, motility and morphology. Participates in cellular signaling in response to various growth factors. Involved in the activation of AKT1 upon stimulation by receptor tyrosine kinases ligands such as EGF, insulin, IGF1, VEGFA and PDGF. Involved in signaling via insulin-receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. Essential in endothelial cell migration during vascular development through VEGFA signaling, possibly by regulating RhoA activity. Required for lymphatic vasculature development, possibly by binding to RAS and by activation by EGF and FGF2, but not by PDGF. Regulates invadopodia formation through the PDPK1-AKT1 pathway. Participates in cardiomyogenesis in embryonic stem cells through a AKT1 pathway. Participates in vasculogenesis in embryonic stem cells through PDK1 and protein kinase C pathway. In addition to its lipid kinase activity, it displays a serine-protein kinase activity that results in the autophosphorylation of the p85alpha regulatory subunit as well as phosphorylation of other proteins such as 4EBP1, H-Ras, the IL-3 beta c receptor and possibly others (PubMed:23936502, PubMed:28676499). Plays a role in the positive regulation of phagocytosis and pinocytosis (By similarity).PATHWAY Phospholipid metabolism; phosphatidylinositol phosphate biosynthesis.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a catalytic subunit PIK3CA and a p85 regulatory subunit (PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3) (PubMed:26593112). Interacts with IRS1 in nuclear extracts (By similarity). Interacts with RUFY3 (By similarity). Interacts with RASD2 (By similarity). Interacts with APPL1. Interacts with HRAS and KRAS (By similarity). Interaction with HRAS/KRAS is required for PI3K pathway signaling and cell proliferation stimulated by EGF and FGF2 (By similarity). Interacts with FAM83B; activates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade (PubMed:23676467).DOMAIN The PI3K-ABD domain and the PI3K-RBD domain interact with the PI3K/PI4K kinase domain. The C2 PI3K-type domain may facilitate the recruitment to the plasma membrane. The inhibitory interactions with PIK3R1 are mediated by the PI3K-ABD domain and the C2 PI3K-type domain with the iSH2 (inter-SH2) region of PIK3R1, and the C2 PI3K-type domain, the PI3K helical domain, and the PI3K/PI4K kinase domain with the nSH2 (N-terminal SH2) region of PIK3R1.DISEASE PIK3CA mutations are involved in various type of cancer. Most of the cancer-associated mutations are missense mutations and map to one of the three hotspots: Glu-542; Glu-545 and His-1047. Mutated isoforms participate in cellular transformation and tumorigenesis induced by oncogenic receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and HRAS/KRAS. Interaction with HRAS/KRAS is required for Ras-driven tumor formation. Mutations increasing the lipid kinase activity are required for oncogenic signaling. The protein kinase activity may not be required for tumorigenesis.MISCELLANEOUS The avian sarcoma virus 16 genome encodes an oncogene derived from PIK3CA.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt P42336 542 EQUAL L-glutamic acid removal MOD MOD:01636 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500701 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500701 Reactome R-HSA-1500701 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500701.2 COSMIC COSV55873227 COSMIC COSM29329 PIK3CA E545K PIK3CA Glu545Lys Reactome DB_ID: 1500706 545 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500706 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500706 Reactome R-HSA-1500706 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500706.1 COSMIC COSV55873239 COSMIC COSM29328 PIK3CA E545A PIK3CA Glu545Ala Reactome DB_ID: 2362355 545 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2362355 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2362355 Reactome R-HSA-2362355 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2362355.1 COSMIC COSV55873209 PIK3CA Q546K PIK3CA Gln546Lys Reactome DB_ID: 1500705 546 EQUAL L-glutamine removal MOD MOD:01637 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500705 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500705 Reactome R-HSA-1500705 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500705.1 COSMIC COSV55873527 COSMIC COSM30738 PIK3CA E542Q PIK3CA Glu542Gln Reactome DB_ID: 2328003 542 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2328003 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2328003 Reactome R-HSA-2328003 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2328003.1 COSMIC COSV55894248 PIK3CA E542V PIK3CA Glu542Val Reactome DB_ID: 2328074 542 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2328074 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2328074 Reactome R-HSA-2328074 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2328074.1 COSMIC COSV55881194 PIK3CA E545G PIK3CA Glu545Gly Reactome DB_ID: 1500709 545 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500709 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500709 Reactome R-HSA-1500709 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500709.1 COSMIC COSV55873220 PIK3CA E545Q PIK3CA Glu545Gln Reactome DB_ID: 2362362 545 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2362362 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2362362 Reactome R-HSA-2362362 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2362362.1 COSMIC COSV55878227 PIK3CA E545V PIK3CA Glu545Val Reactome DB_ID: 2362365 545 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2362365 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2362365 Reactome R-HSA-2362365 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2362365.1 COSMIC COSM144201 PIK3CA Q546E PIK3CA Gln546Glu Reactome DB_ID: 2362383 546 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2362383 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2362383 Reactome R-HSA-2362383 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2362383.1 COSMIC COSV55882350 PIK3CA Q546H PIK3CA Gln546His Reactome DB_ID: 2362374 546 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2362374 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2362374 Reactome R-HSA-2362374 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2362374.1 COSMIC COSV55883555 COSMIC COSM30740 PIK3CA Q546L PIK3CA Gln546Leu Reactome DB_ID: 2362375 546 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2362375 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2362375 Reactome R-HSA-2362375 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2362375.1 COSMIC COSV55877455 COSMIC COSM85754 PIK3CA Q546P PIK3CA Gln546Pro Reactome DB_ID: 1500695 546 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500695 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500695 Reactome R-HSA-1500695 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500695.1 COSMIC COSV55875400 PIK3CA Q546R PIK3CA Gln546Arg Reactome DB_ID: 2362373 546 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2362373 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2362373 Reactome R-HSA-2362373 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2362373.1 COSMIC COSV55876869 COSMIC COSM30739 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399587 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399587 Reactome R-HSA-2399587 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399587.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PIK3CA ABD domain mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2399588 PIK3CA R38H PIK3CA Arg38His Reactome DB_ID: 1500718 38 EQUAL L-arginine removal MOD MOD:01632 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500718 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500718 Reactome R-HSA-1500718 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500718.1 COSMIC COSV55879949 COSMIC COSM49022 PIK3CA R38C PIK3CA Arg38Cys Reactome DB_ID: 1500691 38 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500691 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500691 Reactome R-HSA-1500691 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500691.1 COSMIC COSV55874617 PIK3CA R38G PIK3CA Arg38Gly Reactome DB_ID: 2395950 38 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2395950 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2395950 Reactome R-HSA-2395950 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2395950.1 COSMIC COSV55892918 PIK3CA R38S PIK3CA Arg38Ser Reactome DB_ID: 2395947 38 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2395947 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2395947 Reactome R-HSA-2395947 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2395947.1 COSMIC COSV55900319 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399588 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399588 Reactome R-HSA-2399588 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399588.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PIK3CA kinase domain mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2399596 PIK3CA H1047L PIK3CA His1047Leu Reactome DB_ID: 1500714 1047 EQUAL L-histidine removal MOD MOD:01639 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500714 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500714 Reactome R-HSA-1500714 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500714.1 COSMIC COSM30744 COSMIC COSV55873401 PIK3CA H1047R PIK3CA His1047Arg Reactome DB_ID: 1500716 1047 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500716 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500716 Reactome R-HSA-1500716 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500716.1 COSMIC COSV55873195 COSMIC COSM29325 PIK3CA M1043I PIK3CA Met1043Ile Reactome DB_ID: 1500719 1043 EQUAL L-methionine removal MOD MOD:01643 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500719 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500719 Reactome R-HSA-1500719 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500719.1 COSMIC COSV55878974 COSMIC COSV55873376 COSMIC COSV55898229 PIK3CA H1047Y PIK3CA His1047Tyr Reactome DB_ID: 1500720 1047 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1500720 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1500720 Reactome R-HSA-1500720 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1500720.1 COSMIC COSV55876499 COSMIC COSM29326 PIK3CA M1043T PIK3CA Met1043Thr Reactome DB_ID: 2395934 1043 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2395934 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2395934 Reactome R-HSA-2395934 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2395934.1 COSMIC COSV55900332 PIK3CA M1043V PIK3CA Met1043Val Reactome DB_ID: 2395932 1043 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2395932 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2395932 Reactome R-HSA-2395932 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2395932.1 COSMIC COSM30743 COSMIC COSV55879858 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399596 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399596 Reactome R-HSA-2399596 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399596.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2394008 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2394008 Reactome R-HSA-2394008 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2394008.1 1 PIK3R1 PI3K-p85 Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory alpha subunit PI3-kinase p85-alpha subunit PtdIns-3-kinase p85-alpha Reactome DB_ID: 198365 UniProt:P27986 PIK3R1 PIK3R1 GRB1 FUNCTION Binds to activated (phosphorylated) protein-Tyr kinases, through its SH2 domain, and acts as an adapter, mediating the association of the p110 catalytic unit to the plasma membrane. Necessary for the insulin-stimulated increase in glucose uptake and glycogen synthesis in insulin-sensitive tissues. Plays an important role in signaling in response to FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, FGFR4, KITLG/SCF, KIT, PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Likewise, plays a role in ITGB2 signaling (PubMed:17626883, PubMed:19805105, PubMed:7518429). Modulates the cellular response to ER stress by promoting nuclear translocation of XBP1 isoform 2 in a ER stress- and/or insulin-dependent manner during metabolic overloading in the liver and hence plays a role in glucose tolerance improvement (PubMed:20348923).SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a regulatory subunit PIK3R1 and a p110 catalytic subunit (PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). Interacts (via SH2 domains) with CCDC88A/GIV (tyrosine-phosphorylated form); the interaction enables recruitment of PIK3R1 to the EGFR receptor, enhancing PI3K activity and cell migration (PubMed:21954290). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with CSF1R (tyrosine phosphorylated). Interacts with PIK3R2; the interaction is dissociated in an insulin-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts with XBP1 isoform 2; the interaction is direct and induces translocation of XBP1 isoform 2 into the nucleus in a ER stress- and/or insulin-dependent but PI3K-independent manner (PubMed:20348923). Interacts with FER. Interacts (via SH2 domain) with TEK/TIE2 (tyrosine phosphorylated). Interacts with PTK2/FAK1 (By similarity). Interacts with phosphorylated TOM1L1. Interacts with phosphorylated LIME1 upon TCR and/or BCR activation. Interacts with SOCS7. Interacts with RUFY3. Interacts (via SH2 domain) with CSF1R (tyrosine phosphorylated). Interacts with LYN (via SH3 domain); this enhances enzyme activity (By similarity). Interacts with phosphorylated LAT, LAX1 and TRAT1 upon TCR activation. Interacts with CBLB. The SH2 domains interact with the YTHM motif of phosphorylated INSR in vitro. Also interacts with tyrosine-phosphorylated IGF1R in vitro. Interacts with CD28 and CD3Z upon T-cell activation. Interacts with IRS1 and phosphorylated IRS4, as well as with NISCH and HCST. Interacts with FASLG, KIT and BCR. Interacts with AXL, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4 (phosphorylated). Interacts with FGR and HCK. Interacts with PDGFRA (tyrosine phosphorylated) and PDGFRB (tyrosine phosphorylated). Interacts with ERBB4 (phosphorylated). Interacts with NTRK1 (phosphorylated upon ligand-binding). Interacts with FAM83B; activates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade (PubMed:23676467). Interacts with APPL1 and APPL2 (By similarity). Interacts with SRC (PubMed:28903391). Interacts with ALOX5; this interaction bridges ALOX5 with CD40 after CD40 ligation in B cells and leads to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (PubMed:21200133). Interacts with TYK2 (PubMed:10995743).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Nef to activate the Nef associated p21-activated kinase (PAK). This interaction depends on the C-terminus of both proteins and leads to increased production of HIV.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HCV NS5A.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 UL46; this interaction activates the PI3K/AKT pathway.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 UL46 and varicella virus ORF12; this interaction activates the PI3K/AKT pathway.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Isoform 2 is expressed in skeletal muscle and brain, and at lower levels in kidney and cardiac muscle. Isoform 2 and isoform 4 are present in skeletal muscle (at protein level).DOMAIN The SH3 domain mediates the binding to CBLB, and to HIV-1 Nef.PTM Polyubiquitinated in T-cells by CBLB; which does not promote proteasomal degradation but impairs association with CD28 and CD3Z upon T-cell activation.PTM Phosphorylated. Tyrosine phosphorylated in response to signaling by FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Phosphorylated by CSF1R. Phosphorylated by ERBB4. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by TEK/TIE2. Dephosphorylated by PTPRJ. Phosphorylated by PIK3CA at Ser-608; phosphorylation is stimulated by insulin and PDGF. The relevance of phosphorylation by PIK3CA is however unclear (By similarity). Phosphorylated in response to KIT and KITLG/SCF. Phosphorylated by FGR.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PI3K p85 subunit family. UniProt P27986 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198365 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198365 Reactome R-HSA-198365 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198365.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2394005 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2394005 Reactome R-HSA-2394005 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2394005.1 PIK3R1 mutants:PIK3CA Reactome DB_ID: 2399558 PIK3CA PI3K-p110 PI3-kinase p110 subunit alpha Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit, alpha isoform (EC 2.7.1.137) (PI3-kinase p110 subunit alpha) (PtdIns-3-kinase p110) (PI3K) Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit, alpha isoform PtdIns- 3-kinase p110 Reactome DB_ID: 74787 1 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 74787 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74787 Reactome R-HSA-74787 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74787.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PIK3R1 mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2399557 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PIK3R1 iSH2 domain mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2399665 PIK3R1 D560Y PIK3R1 Asp560Tyr Reactome DB_ID: 2399421 560 EQUAL L-aspartic acid removal MOD MOD:01634 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399421 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399421 Reactome R-HSA-2399421 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399421.1 COSMIC COSV57123942 PIK3R1 H450_E451del PIK3R1 His450_Glu451del Reactome DB_ID: 2399545 Deletion of residues 450 to 451 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399545 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399545 Reactome R-HSA-2399545 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399545.1 COSMIC COSV57129192 PIK3R1 K459del PIK3R1 Lys459del Reactome DB_ID: 2399554 Deletion of residues 459 to 459 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399554 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399554 Reactome R-HSA-2399554 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399554.1 COSMIC COSV57126622 PIK3R1 N564D PIK3R1 Asn564Asp Reactome DB_ID: 2399427 564 EQUAL L-asparagine removal MOD MOD:01633 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399427 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399427 Reactome R-HSA-2399427 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399427.1 COSMIC COSV57124003 PIK3R1 N564K PIK3R1 Asn564Lys Reactome DB_ID: 2399431 564 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399431 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399431 Reactome R-HSA-2399431 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399431.1 COSMIC COSV57123079 PIK3R1 R574_T576del PIK3R1 Arg574_Thr576del Reactome DB_ID: 2399544 Deletion of residues 574 to 576 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399544 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399544 Reactome R-HSA-2399544 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399544.1 COSMIC COSV57125297 PIK3R1 Y463_L466del PIK3R1 Tyr463_Leu466del Reactome DB_ID: 2399546 Deletion of residues 463 to 466 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399546 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399546 Reactome R-HSA-2399546 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399546.1 COSMIC COSV57125838 PIK3R1 D560H PIK3R1 Asp560His Reactome DB_ID: 2399432 560 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399432 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399432 Reactome R-HSA-2399432 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399432.1 COSMIC COSV57127598 PIK3R1 R574I PIK3R1 Arg574Ile Reactome DB_ID: 2399536 574 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399536 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399536 Reactome R-HSA-2399536 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399536.1 COSMIC COSV57125227 PIK3R1 R574T PIK3R1 Arg574Thr Reactome DB_ID: 2399540 574 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399540 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399540 Reactome R-HSA-2399540 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399540.1 COSMIC COSV57128628 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399665 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399665 Reactome R-HSA-2399665 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399665.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PIK3R1 nSH2 domain mutants Reactome DB_ID: 2399722 PIK3R1 G376R PIK3R1 Gly376Arg Reactome DB_ID: 2399717 376 EQUAL glycine removal MOD MOD:01638 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399717 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399717 Reactome R-HSA-2399717 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399717.1 COSMIC COSV57123316 COSMIC COSM132923 PIK3R1 K379E PIK3R1 Lys379Glu Reactome DB_ID: 8944148 379 EQUAL L-lysine removal MOD MOD:01642 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 8944148 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8944148 Reactome R-HSA-8944148 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8944148.1 COSMIC COSV57124239 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399722 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399722 Reactome R-HSA-2399722 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399722.2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399557 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399557 Reactome R-HSA-2399557 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399557.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399558 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399558 Reactome R-HSA-2399558 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399558.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2394006 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2394006 Reactome R-HSA-2394006 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2394006.1 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0046934 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 82 2394010 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2394010 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2394007 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2394007 Reactome R-HSA-2394007 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2394007.1 19805105 Pubmed 2009 A frequent kinase domain mutation that changes the interaction between PI3Kalpha and the membrane Mandelker, Diana Gabelli, Sandra B Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg Zhu, Jiuxiang Cheong, Ian Huang, Chuan-Hsiang Kinzler, KW Vogelstein, B Amzel, L Mario Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106:16996-7001 19962665 Pubmed 2009 Somatic mutations in p85alpha promote tumorigenesis through class IA PI3K activation Jaiswal, Bijay S Janakiraman, Vasantharajan Kljavin, Noelyn M Chaudhuri, Subhra Stern, Howard M Wang, Weiru Kan, Zhengyan Dbouk, Hashem A Peters, Brock A Waring, Paul Dela Vega, Trisha Kenski, Denise M Bowman, Krista K Lorenzo, Maria Li, Hong Wu, Jiansheng Modrusan, Zora Stinson, Jeremy Eby, Michael Yue, Peng Kaminker, Josh S de Sauvage, Frederic J Backer, Jonathan M Seshagiri, Somasekar Cancer Cell 16:463-74 21188471 Pubmed 2011 PTEN restoration and PIK3CB knockdown synergistically suppress glioblastoma growth in vitro and in xenografts Chen, Hongbo Mei, Lin Zhou, Lanzhen Shen, Xiaomeng Guo, Caiping Zheng, Yi Zhu, Huijun Zhu, Yongqiang Huang, Laiqiang J. Neurooncol. 104:155-67 21478295 Pubmed 2011 PIK3R1 (p85?) is somatically mutated at high frequency in primary endometrial cancer Urick, Mary E Rudd, Meghan L Godwin, Andrew K Sgroi, Dennis Merino, Maria Bell, Daphne W Cancer Res. 71:4061-7 21984976 Pubmed 2011 High frequency of PIK3R1 and PIK3R2 mutations in endometrial cancer elucidates a novel mechanism for regulation of PTEN protein stability Cheung, Lydia W T Hennessy, Bryan T Li, Jie Yu, Shuangxing Myers, Andrea P Djordjevic, Bojana Lu, Yiling Stemke-Hale, Katherine Dyer, Mary D Zhang, Fan Ju, Zhenlin Cantley, Lewis C Scherer, Steven E Liang, Han Lu, Karen H Broaddus, Russell R Mills, Gordon B Cancer Discov 1:170-85 19644473 Pubmed 2009 Targeting the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway in cancer Liu, Pixu Cheng, Hailing Roberts, Thomas M Zhao, Jean J Nat Rev Drug Discov 8:627-44 22120714 Pubmed 2011 Regulation of lipid binding underlies the activation mechanism of class IA PI3-kinases Hon, W-C Berndt, A Williams, R L Oncogene 18594509 Pubmed 2008 Essential roles of PI(3)K-p110beta in cell growth, metabolism and tumorigenesis Jia, Shidong Liu, Zhenning Zhang, Sen Liu, Pixu Zhang, Lei Lee, Sang Hyun Zhang, Jing Signoretti, Sabina Loda, Massimo Roberts, Thomas M Zhao, Jean J Nature 454:776-9 16339315 Pubmed 2005 The oncogenic properties of mutant p110alpha and p110beta phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases in human mammary epithelial cells Zhao, Jean J Liu, Zhenning Wang, L Shin, Eyoung Loda, Massimo F Roberts, Thomas M Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:18443-8 18079394 Pubmed 2007 The structure of a human p110alpha/p85alpha complex elucidates the effects of oncogenic PI3Kalpha mutations Huang, Chuan-Hsiang Mandelker, Diana Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg Samuels, Y Velculescu, VE Kinzler, KW Vogelstein, B Gabelli, Sandra B Amzel, L Mario Science 318:1744-8 20713702 Pubmed 2010 Cancer-derived mutations in the regulatory subunit p85alpha of phosphoinositide 3-kinase function through the catalytic subunit p110alpha Sun, Minghao Hillmann, Petra Hofmann, Bianca T Hart, Jonathan R Vogt, Peter K Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107:15547-52 20231295 Pubmed 2010 Phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway activation in phosphate and tensin homolog (PTEN)-deficient prostate cancer cells is independent of receptor tyrosine kinases and mediated by the p110beta and p110delta catalytic subunits Jiang, Xinnong Chen, Sen Asara, John M Balk, Steven P J. Biol. Chem. 285:14980-9 17626883 Pubmed 2007 Mechanism of two classes of cancer mutations in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase catalytic subunit Miled, Nabil Yan, Ying Hon, Wai-Ching Perisic, O Zvelebil, Marketa Inbar, Yuval Schneidman-Duhovny, Dina Wolfson, Haim J Backer, Jonathan M Williams, RL Science 317:239-42 18317450 Pubmed 2008 Mutations in the catalytic subunit of class IA PI3K confer leukemogenic potential to hematopoietic cells Horn, S Bergholz, U Jücker, M McCubrey, J A Trümper, L Stocking, C Bäsecke, J Oncogene 27:4096-106 19185485 Pubmed 2009 PI 3-kinase and cancer: changing accents Vogt, Peter K Gymnopoulos, Marco Hart, Jonathan R Curr. Opin. Genet. Dev. 19:12-7 18755892 Pubmed 2008 PTEN-deficient cancers depend on PIK3CB Wee, Susan Wiederschain, Dmitri Maira, Sauveur-Michel Loo, Alice Miller, Christine deBeaumont, Rosalie Stegmeier, Frank Yao, Yung-Mae Lengauer, Christoph Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 105:13057-62 21827948 Pubmed 2011 Dynamics of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110? interaction with p85? and membranes reveals aspects of regulation distinct from p110? Burke, John E Vadas, Oscar Berndt, Alex Finegan, Tara Perisic, O Williams, RL Structure 19:1127-37 LEFT-TO-RIGHT PI3K inhibitors block PI3K catalytic activity A variety of inhibitors capable of blocking the phosphoinositide kinase activity of PI3K have been developed. These inhibitors display differential selectivity and inhibit kinase activity of their substrates by distinct mechanisms. For example, the first-generation PI3K inhibitor wortmannin (Wymann et al. 1996) covalently and irreversibly binds all classes of PI3K enzymes, as well as other kinases including mTOR, at a residue critical for catalytic activity. Although wortmannin is precluded from in vivo and clinical use due to its toxicity, it has proven to be a useful tool for in vitro laboratory studies. Newer inhibitors, such as BEZ235, are currently being investigated in Phase I clinical trials. BEZ235 is a dual pan-class I PI3K/mTOR inhibitor that blocks kinase activity by binding competitively to the ATP-binding pocket of these enzymes (Serra et al. 2008, Maira et al. 2008). BGT226 (Chang et al. 2011) and XL765 (Prasad et al. 2011) also inhibits both PI3K class I enzymes and mTOR. Other inhibitors in clinical trials, such as BKM120 (Maira et al. 2012), GDC0941 (Folkes et al. 2008, Junttila et al. 2009) and XL147 (Chakrabarty et al. 2012), are specific for class I PI3Ks and exhibit no activity against mTOR. Current research aims to identify isoform-specific PI3K inhibitors. Small molecule inhibitors that selectively inhibit PIK3CA (p110alpha), e.g. PIK-75 and A66, were used to study the role of p110alpha in signaling and growth of tumor cells (Knight et al. 2006, Sun et al. 2010, Jamieson et al. 2011, Utermark et al. 2012). The PIK3CB (p110beta) specific inhibitor TGX221 has been used in in vitro models of vascular injury (Jackson et al. 2005), and the TGX221 derivative KIN-193 has been shown to block AKT activity and tumor growth in mice with p110beta activation or PTEN loss (Ni et al. 2012). CAL-101 is a PIK3CD (p110delta) specific inhibitor that is being clinically investigated as a therapeutic for lymphoid malignancies (Herman et al. 2010). It is hoped that, in the future, more specific inhibitors, such as those targeting selective PI3K isoforms, will provide optimum treatment while minimizing unwanted side effects. For a recent review, please refer to Liu et al. 2009. Authored: Orlic-Milacic, M, 2012-07-18 Reviewed: Thorpe, Lauren, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Yuzugullu, Haluk, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Zhao, Jean J, 2012-08-13 Edited: Matthews, L, 2012-08-03 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PI3K/mutant PI3K inhibitors Reactome DB_ID: 2399811 BEZ235 NVP-BEZ235 dactolisib Reactome DB_ID: 2399744 dactolisib [Guide to Pharmacology:7950] dactolisib BEZ235 NVP-BEZ235 Guide to Pharmacology 7950 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399744 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399744 Reactome R-ALL-2399744 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399744.2 ChEBI 71952 BGT226 NVP-BGT226 Reactome DB_ID: 2399772 BGT-226 [Guide to Pharmacology:7951] BGT-226 BGT226 BGT 226 BGT-226 free base NPV-BGT226 Guide to Pharmacology 7951 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399772 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399772 Reactome R-ALL-2399772 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399772.2 ChEBI 71953 BKM120 NVP-BKM120 Reactome DB_ID: 2399771 buparlisib [Guide to Pharmacology:7878] buparlisib BKM120 BKM 120 BKM-120 NVP-BKM120 Guide to Pharmacology 7878 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399771 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399771 Reactome R-ALL-2399771 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399771.2 ChEBI 71954 XL765 Reactome DB_ID: 2399863 voxtalisib [Guide to Pharmacology:7964] voxtalisib SAR245409 SAR-245409 XL765 Guide to Pharmacology 7964 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399863 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399863 Reactome R-ALL-2399863 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399863.2 ChEBI 71958 XL147 Reactome DB_ID: 2399886 pilaralisib [Guide to Pharmacology:7963] pilaralisib SAR-245408 XL147 XL-147 Guide to Pharmacology 7963 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399886 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399886 Reactome R-ALL-2399886 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399886.2 ChEBI 71957 GDC0941 pictrelisib Reactome DB_ID: 2399804 pictilisib [Guide to Pharmacology:5682] pictilisib GDC0941 GDC-0941 GNE 0941 pictrelisib Guide to Pharmacology 5682 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399804 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399804 Reactome R-ALL-2399804 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399804.2 ChEBI 65326 PX-866 Reactome DB_ID: 2399860 sonolisib [Guide to Pharmacology:7941] sonolisib PX866 PX-866 Guide to Pharmacology 7941 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399860 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399860 Reactome R-ALL-2399860 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399860.2 ChEBI 65345 LY294002 Reactome DB_ID: 2399739 LY 294002 [Guide to Pharmacology:6004] LY 294002 LY294002 LY-294002 SF 1101 Guide to Pharmacology 6004 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399739 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399739 Reactome R-ALL-2399739 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399739.2 ChEBI 65329 wortmannin Reactome DB_ID: 2399848 wortmannin [Guide to Pharmacology:6060] wortmannin antibiotic SL-2052 KY 12420 Guide to Pharmacology 6060 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399848 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399848 Reactome R-ALL-2399848 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399848.2 ChEBI 52289 GSK1059615 Reactome DB_ID: 2399768 GSK1059615 [Guide to Pharmacology:9826] GSK1059615 Guide to Pharmacology 9826 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399768 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399768 Reactome R-ALL-2399768 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399768.3 ChEBI 71955 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399811 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399811 Reactome R-ALL-2399811 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-2399811.2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PI3K mutants,Activator:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 2400011 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activator:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 2316432 PI3K:p-KIT:sSCF dimer:p-KIT Reactome DB_ID: 205177 p-KIT complex p-7Y-KIT:sSCF dimer:p-7Y-KIT Reactome DB_ID: 205310 p-7Y-KIT autophosphorylated Kit Reactome DB_ID: 205207 UniProt:P10721 KIT KIT SCFR FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for the cytokine KITLG/SCF and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, mast cell development, migration and function, and in melanogenesis. In response to KITLG/SCF binding, KIT can activate several signaling pathways. Phosphorylates PIK3R1, PLCG1, SH2B2/APS and CBL. Activates the AKT1 signaling pathway by phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase. Activated KIT also transmits signals via GRB2 and activation of RAS, RAF1 and the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1. Promotes activation of STAT family members STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. KIT signaling is modulated by protein phosphatases, and by rapid internalization and degradation of the receptor. Activated KIT promotes phosphorylation of the protein phosphatases PTPN6/SHP-1 and PTPRU, and of the transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, STAT5A and STAT5B. Promotes phosphorylation of PIK3R1, CBL, CRK (isoform Crk-II), LYN, MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1, PLCG1, SRC and SHC1.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. KITLG/SCF binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Activity is down-regulated by PRKCA-mediated phosphorylation on serine residues. Inhibited by imatinib/STI-571 (Gleevec) and sunitinib; these compounds maintain the kinase in an inactive conformation.SUBUNIT Monomer in the absence of bound KITLG/SCF. Homodimer in the presence of bound KITLG/SCF, forming a heterotetramer with two KITLG/SCF molecules. Interacts (via phosphorylated tyrosine residues) with the adapter proteins GRB2 and GRB7 (via SH2 domain), and SH2B2/APS. Interacts (via C-terminus) with MPDZ (via the tenth PDZ domain). Interacts (via phosphorylated tyrosine residues) with PIK3R1 and PIK3 catalytic subunit. Interacts (via phosphorylated tyrosine) with CRK (isoform Crk-II), FYN, SHC1 and MATK/CHK (via SH2 domain). Interacts with LYN and FES/FPS. Interacts (via phosphorylated tyrosine residues) with the protein phosphatases PTPN6/SHP-1 (via SH2 domain), PTPN11/SHP-2 (via SH2 domain) and PTPRU. Interacts with PLCG1. Interacts with DOK1 and TEC. Interacts (KITLG/SCF-bound) with IL1RL1. Interacts with IL1RAP (independent of stimulation with KITLG/SCF). A mast cell-specific KITLG/SCF-induced interleukin-33 signaling complex contains IL1RL1, IL1RAP, KIT and MYD88.INDUCTION Up-regulated by cis-retinoic acid in neuroblastoma cell lines.PTM Ubiquitinated by SOCS6. KIT is rapidly ubiquitinated after autophosphorylation induced by KITLG/SCF binding, leading to internalization and degradation.PTM Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues. KITLG/SCF binding enhances autophosphorylation. Isoform 1 shows low levels of tyrosine phosphorylation in the absence of added KITLG/SCF (in vitro). Kinase activity is down-regulated by phosphorylation on serine residues by protein kinase C family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr-568 is required for interaction with PTPN11/SHP-2, CRK (isoform Crk-II) and members of the SRC tyrosine-protein kinase family. Phosphorylation at Tyr-570 is required for interaction with PTPN6/SHP-1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-703, Tyr-823 and Tyr-936 is important for interaction with GRB2. Phosphorylation at Tyr-721 is important for interaction with PIK3R1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-823 and Tyr-936 is important for interaction with GRB7.MISCELLANEOUS Numerous proteins are phosphorylated in response to KIT signaling, but it is not evident to determine which are directly phosphorylated by KIT under in vivo conditions.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily. UniProt P10721 568 EQUAL O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine MOD MOD:00048 570 EQUAL 703 EQUAL 721 EQUAL 730 EQUAL 823 EQUAL 936 EQUAL 26 EQUAL 976 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 205207 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=205207 Reactome R-HSA-205207 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-205207.1 2 sSCF dimer Reactome DB_ID: 1433307 extracellular region GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005576 sSCF KITLG-1(26-190) soluble SCF Reactome DB_ID: 708330 UniProt:P21583-1 KITLG KITLG MGF SCF FUNCTION Ligand for the receptor-type protein-tyrosine kinase KIT. Plays an essential role in the regulation of cell survival and proliferation, hematopoiesis, stem cell maintenance, gametogenesis, mast cell development, migration and function, and in melanogenesis. KITLG/SCF binding can activate several signaling pathways. Promotes phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and subsequent activation of the kinase AKT1. KITLG/SCF and KIT also transmit signals via GRB2 and activation of RAS, RAF1 and the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1. KITLG/SCF and KIT promote activation of STAT family members STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5. KITLG/SCF and KIT promote activation of PLCG1, leading to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. KITLG/SCF acts synergistically with other cytokines, probably interleukins.SUBUNIT Homodimer, non-covalently linked (Probable). Heterotetramer with KIT, binding two KIT molecules; thereby mediates KIT dimerization and subsequent activation by autophosphorylation.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Acts in the early stages of hematopoiesis.PTM A soluble form (sKITLG) is produced by proteolytic processing of isoform 1 in the extracellular domain.PTM Found in two differentially glycosylated forms, LMW-SCF and HMW-SCF. LMW-SCF is fully N-glycosylated at Asn-145, partially N-glycosylated at Asn-90, O-glycosylated at Ser-167, Thr-168 and Thr-180, and not glycosylated at Asn-97 or Asn-118. HMW-SCF is N-glycosylated at Asn-118, Asn-90 and Asn-145, O-glycosylated at Ser-167, Thr-168 and Thr-180, and not glycosylated at Asn-97.PTM A soluble form exists as a cleavage product of the extracellular domain.POLYMORPHISM Genetic variants in KITLG define the skin/hair/eye pigmentation variation locus 7 (SHEP7) [MIM:611664]. Hair, eye and skin pigmentation are among the most visible examples of human phenotypic variation, with a broad normal range that is subject to substantial geographic stratification. In the case of skin, individuals tend to have lighter pigmentation with increasing distance from the equator. By contrast, the majority of variation in human eye and hair color is found among individuals of European ancestry, with most other human populations fixed for brown eyes and black hair.POLYMORPHISM A non-coding SNP (dbSNP:rs12821256) has been shown to be associated with classic blond hair color in Europeans. This SNP is located 350 kb upstream from KITLG, in an enhancer specifically active in the hair follicle environment. It alters a LEF1 binding site, reducing LEF1 responsiveness in cultured keratinocytes. This SNP is not associated with eye pigmentation. It is most prevalent in Northern Europe (PubMed:24880339).SIMILARITY Belongs to the SCF family. UniProt Isoform P21583-1 26 EQUAL 190 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 708330 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=708330 Reactome R-HSA-708330 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-708330.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1433307 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1433307 Reactome R-HSA-1433307 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1433307.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 205310 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=205310 Reactome R-HSA-205310 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-205310.1 1 PI3K alpha Reactome DB_ID: 198379 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PI3K-regulatory subunits Reactome DB_ID: 391342 PIK3R1 PI3K p85 alpha Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory alpha subunit PI3-kinase p85-alpha subunit PtdIns-3-kinase p85-alpha Reactome DB_ID: 74789 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 74789 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74789 Reactome R-HSA-74789 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74789.1 PIK3R2 PI3K-p85 beta Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory beta subunit PI3-kinase p85-beta subunit PtdIns-3-kinase p85-beta Reactome DB_ID: 74791 UniProt:O00459 PIK3R2 PIK3R2 FUNCTION Regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), a kinase that phosphorylates PtdIns(4,5)P2 (Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, motility and morphology. Binds to activated (phosphorylated) protein-tyrosine kinases, through its SH2 domain, and acts as an adapter, mediating the association of the p110 catalytic unit to the plasma membrane. Indirectly regulates autophagy (PubMed:23604317). Promotes nuclear translocation of XBP1 isoform 2 in a ER stress- and/or insulin-dependent manner during metabolic overloading in the liver and hence plays a role in glucose tolerance improvement (By similarity).SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a regulatory subunit PIK3R2 and a p110 catalytic subunit (PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD) (PubMed:23604317). Interacts with AXL (PubMed:9178760). Interacts with FLT1 (tyrosine-phosphorylated) and FLT4 (tyrosine-phosphorylated) (PubMed:9600074, PubMed:15102829). Interacts with NYAP1, NYAP2 and MYO16 (By similarity). Interacts with FBXL2; PIK3R2 is a substrate of the SCF(FBXL2) complex (PubMed:23604317). Interacts with PTPN13; dephosphorylates PIK3R2 (PubMed:23604317). Interacts with XBP1 isoform 2; the interaction is direct and induces translocation of XBP1 isoform 2 into the nucleus in a ER stress- and/or insulin-dependent but PI3K-independent manner (By similarity). Interacts with PIK3R1; the interaction is dissociated in an insulin-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts with SRC (PubMed:28903391).DOMAIN The SH2 2 domain is required for interaction with FBXL2 and PTPN13.PTM Phosphorylated in response to signaling from activated receptor-type protein kinases (PubMed:19690332, PubMed:20068231). Dephosphorylated by PTPRJ (PubMed:18348712). Dephosphorylated at Tyr-655 by PTPN13. Phosphorylation of Tyr-655 impairs while its dephosphorylation promotes interaction with FBXL2 and SCF(FBXL2)-mediated polyubiquitination (PubMed:23604317).PTM Ubiquitinated. Polyubiquitination by the SCF(FBXL2) complex probably promotes proteasomal degradation of PIK3R2.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PI3K p85 subunit family. UniProt O00459 1 EQUAL 728 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 74791 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74791 Reactome R-HSA-74791 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74791.1 PIK3R3 PI3K-p55 gamma Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase regulatory subunit gamma p55PIK Reactome DB_ID: 205223 UniProt:Q92569 PIK3R3 PIK3R3 FUNCTION Binds to activated (phosphorylated) protein-tyrosine kinases through its SH2 domain and regulates their kinase activity. During insulin stimulation, it also binds to IRS-1.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a regulatory subunit PIK3R3 and a p110 catalytic subunit (PIK3CA, PIK3CB or PIK3CD). Interacts with AXL.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highest levels in brain and testis. Lower levels in adipose tissue, kidney, heart, lung and skeletal muscle.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PI3K p85 subunit family. UniProt Q92569 1 EQUAL 461 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 205223 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=205223 Reactome R-HSA-205223 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-205223.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 391342 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=391342 Reactome R-HSA-391342 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-391342.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198379 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198379 Reactome R-HSA-198379 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198379.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 205177 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=205177 Reactome R-HSA-205177 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-205177.1 CD28:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 388783 phospho CD28:B7-1/B7-2 Reactome DB_ID: 388777 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome B7-1 homodimer/ B7-2 Reactome DB_ID: 388762 CD80 dimer CD80 (B7-1) homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 179787 CD80 Reactome DB_ID: 179789 UniProt:P33681 CD80 CD80 CD28LG CD28LG1 LAB7 FUNCTION Involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-lymphocyte activation. T-cell proliferation and cytokine production is induced by the binding of CD28, binding to CTLA-4 has opposite effects and inhibits T-cell activation.FUNCTION (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for adenovirus subgroup B.SUBUNIT Homodimer; CD80 dimers on the antigen presenting cells (APCs) bridge CTLA4/CD152 dimers on T-cells in a periodic zipper-like arrangement.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with adenovirus subgroup B fiber proteins.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed on activated B-cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. UniProt P33681 35 EQUAL 288 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 179789 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179789 Reactome R-HSA-179789 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179789.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 179787 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179787 Reactome R-HSA-179787 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179787.2 CD86 CD86 monomer Reactome DB_ID: 179784 UniProt:P42081 CD86 CD86 CD28LG2 FUNCTION Receptor involved in the costimulatory signal essential for T-lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production, by binding CD28 or CTLA-4. May play a critical role in the early events of T-cell activation and costimulation of naive T-cells, such as deciding between immunity and anergy that is made by T-cells within 24 hours after activation (PubMed:7527824). Also involved in the regulation of B cells function, plays a role in regulating the level of IgG(1) produced. Upon CD40 engagement, activates NF-kappa-B signaling pathway via phospholipase C and protein kinase C activation (By similarity).FUNCTION (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for adenovirus subgroup B.SUBUNIT Homodimer. Interacts with MARCH8. Interacts (via cytoplasmic domain) with PHB1 and PHB2; the interactions increases after priming with CD40 (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with adenovirus subgroup b fiber protein.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed by activated B-lymphocytes and monocytes.PTM Polyubiquitinated; which is promoted by MARCH8 and results in endocytosis and lysosomal degradation. UniProt P42081 24 EQUAL 329 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 179784 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179784 Reactome R-HSA-179784 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179784.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 388762 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=388762 Reactome R-HSA-388762 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-388762.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FYN,LCK Reactome DB_ID: 2395419 FYN Fyn Reactome DB_ID: 200917 UniProt:P06241 FYN FYN FUNCTION Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays a role in many biological processes including regulation of cell growth and survival, cell adhesion, integrin-mediated signaling, cytoskeletal remodeling, cell motility, immune response and axon guidance. Inactive FYN is phosphorylated on its C-terminal tail within the catalytic domain. Following activation by PKA, the protein subsequently associates with PTK2/FAK1, allowing PTK2/FAK1 phosphorylation, activation and targeting to focal adhesions. Involved in the regulation of cell adhesion and motility through phosphorylation of CTNNB1 (beta-catenin) and CTNND1 (delta-catenin). Regulates cytoskeletal remodeling by phosphorylating several proteins including the actin regulator WAS and the microtubule-associated proteins MAP2 and MAPT. Promotes cell survival by phosphorylating AGAP2/PIKE-A and preventing its apoptotic cleavage. Participates in signal transduction pathways that regulate the integrity of the glomerular slit diaphragm (an essential part of the glomerular filter of the kidney) by phosphorylating several slit diaphragm components including NPHS1, KIRREL1 and TRPC6. Plays a role in neural processes by phosphorylating DPYSL2, a multifunctional adapter protein within the central nervous system, ARHGAP32, a regulator for Rho family GTPases implicated in various neural functions, and SNCA, a small pre-synaptic protein. Participates in the downstream signaling pathways that lead to T-cell differentiation and proliferation following T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation. Phosphorylates PTK2B/PYK2 in response to T-cell receptor activation. Also participates in negative feedback regulation of TCR signaling through phosphorylation of PAG1, thereby promoting interaction between PAG1 and CSK and recruitment of CSK to lipid rafts. CSK maintains LCK and FYN in an inactive form. Promotes CD28-induced phosphorylation of VAV1. In mast cells, phosphorylates CLNK after activation of immunoglobulin epsilon receptor signaling (By similarity).ACTIVITY REGULATION Inhibited by phosphorylation of Tyr-531 by leukocyte common antigen and activated by dephosphorylation of this site.SUBUNIT Interacts (via its SH3 domain) with PIK3R1 and PRMT8. Interacts with FYB1, PAG1, and SH2D1A. Interacts with CD79A (tyrosine-phosphorylated form); the interaction increases FYN activity. Interacts (via SH2 domain) with CSF1R (tyrosine phosphorylated) (By similarity). Interacts with TOM1L1 (phosphorylated form). Interacts with KDR (tyrosine phosphorylated). Interacts (via SH3 domain) with KLHL2 (via N-terminus) (By similarity). Interacts with SH2D1A and SLAMF1. Interacts with ITCH; the interaction phosphorylates ITCH and negatively regulates its activity. Interacts with FASLG. Interacts with RUNX3. Interacts with KIT. Interacts with EPHA8; possible downstream effector of EPHA8 in regulation of cell adhesion. Interacts with PTK2/FAK1; this interaction leads to PTK2/FAK1 phosphorylation and activation. Interacts with CAV1; this interaction couples integrins to the Ras-ERK pathway. Interacts with UNC119. Interacts (via SH2 domain) with PTPRH (phosphorylated form) (By similarity). Interacts with PTPRO (phosphorylated form) (By similarity). Interacts with PTPRB (phosphorylated form) (By similarity). Interacts with FYB2 (PubMed:27335501). Interacts with DSCAM (By similarity). Interacts with SKAP1 and FYB1; this interaction promotes the phosphorylation of CLNK (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via its SH3 domain) with hepatitis E virus/HEV protein ORF3.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Isoform 1 is highly expressed in the brain. Isoform 2 is expressed in cells of hemopoietic lineages, especially T-lymphocytes.PTM Autophosphorylated at Tyr-420 (By similarity). Phosphorylation on the C-terminal tail at Tyr-531 by CSK maintains the enzyme in an inactive state (PubMed:1699196). PTPRC/CD45 dephosphorylates Tyr-531 leading to activation (PubMed:1533589). Ultraviolet B (UVB) strongly increase phosphorylation at Thr-12 and kinase activity, and promotes translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus (PubMed:15537652). Dephosphorylation at Tyr-420 by PTPN2 negatively regulates T-cell receptor signaling (PubMed:22080863). Phosphorylated at tyrosine residues, which can be enhanced by NTN1 (By similarity).PTM Palmitoylated. Palmitoylation at Cys-3 and Cys-6, probably by ZDHHC21, regulates subcellular location.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. SRC subfamily. UniProt P06241 2 EQUAL 537 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 200917 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=200917 Reactome R-HSA-200917 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-200917.2 LCK Lymphocyte specific tyrosine kinase Reactome DB_ID: 167609 UniProt:P06239 LCK LCK FUNCTION Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role in the selection and maturation of developing T-cells in the thymus and in the function of mature T-cells. Plays a key role in T-cell antigen receptor (TCR)-linked signal transduction pathways. Constitutively associated with the cytoplasmic portions of the CD4 and CD8 surface receptors. Association of the TCR with a peptide antigen-bound MHC complex facilitates the interaction of CD4 and CD8 with MHC class II and class I molecules, respectively, thereby recruiting the associated LCK protein to the vicinity of the TCR/CD3 complex. LCK then phosphorylates tyrosine residues within the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAM) of the cytoplasmic tails of the TCR-gamma chains and CD3 subunits, initiating the TCR/CD3 signaling pathway. Once stimulated, the TCR recruits the tyrosine kinase ZAP70, that becomes phosphorylated and activated by LCK. Following this, a large number of signaling molecules are recruited, ultimately leading to lymphokine production. LCK also contributes to signaling by other receptor molecules. Associates directly with the cytoplasmic tail of CD2, which leads to hyperphosphorylation and activation of LCK. Also plays a role in the IL2 receptor-linked signaling pathway that controls the T-cell proliferative response. Binding of IL2 to its receptor results in increased activity of LCK. Is expressed at all stages of thymocyte development and is required for the regulation of maturation events that are governed by both pre-TCR and mature alpha beta TCR. Phosphorylates other substrates including RUNX3, PTK2B/PYK2, the microtubule-associated protein MAPT, RHOH or TYROBP. Interacts with FYB2 (PubMed:27335501).ACTIVITY REGULATION The relative activities of the inhibitory tyrosine-protein kinase CSK and the activating tyrosine-protein phosphatase PTPRC/CD45 determine the level of LCK activity. These interactions allow rapid and efficient activation of LCK in response to TCR stimulation.SUBUNIT Binds to the cytoplasmic domain of cell surface receptors, such as AXL, CD2, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD44, CD45 and CD122. Also binds to effector molecules, such as PI4K, VAV1, RASA1, FYB1 and to other protein kinases including CDK1, RAF1, ZAP70 and SYK. Binds to phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3K) from T-lymphocytes through its SH3 domain and to the tyrosine phosphorylated form of KHDRBS1/p70 through its SH2 domain. This interaction inhibits its tyrosine-kinase activity. Interacts with SQSTM1. Interacts with phosphorylated LIME1. Interacts with CBLB and PTPRH. Interacts with RUNX3. Forms a signaling complex with EPHA1, PTK2B AND PI3-KINASE; upon activation by EFNA1 which may regulate T-lymphocyte migration. Associates with ZAP70 and RHOH; these interactions allow LCK-mediated RHOH and CD3 subunit phosphorylation in the presence of functional ZAP70. Interacts with UNC119; this interaction plays a crucial role in activation of LCK. Interacts with CEACAM1 (via cytoplasmic domain); mediates CEACAM1 phosphorylation resulting in PTPN6 recruitment that dephosphorylates TCR stimulation-induced CD247 and ZAP70 (PubMed:18424730). Interacts with CD160. Interacts with CD48 (PubMed:12007789).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 UL46; this interaction activates LCK.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Nef through its SH3 domain.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed specifically in lymphoid cells.DOMAIN The SH2 domain mediates interaction with SQSTM1. Interaction is regulated by Ser-59 phosphorylation.PTM Autophosphorylated on Tyr-394, increasing enzymatic activity, this site is dephosphorylated by PTN22. Phosphorylated on Tyr-505 by CSK, decreasing activity. Dephosphorylated by PTPRC/CD45. Dephosphorylation at Tyr-394 by PTPN2 negatively regulates T-cell receptor signaling.PTM Myristoylation is required prior to palmitoylation.PTM Palmitoylation regulates association with the plasma membrane and could be mediated by ZDHHC2.DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving LCK is found in leukemias. Translocation t(1;7)(p34;q34) with TCRB.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. SRC subfamily. UniProt P06239 1 EQUAL 509 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 167609 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=167609 Reactome R-HSA-167609 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-167609.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2395419 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2395419 Reactome R-HSA-2395419 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2395419.1 2 Phospho CD28 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 388778 p-Y191-CD28 Phosphorylated CD28 Reactome DB_ID: 388756 UniProt:P10747 CD28 CD28 FUNCTION Involved in T-cell activation, the induction of cell proliferation and cytokine production and promotion of T-cell survival. Enhances the production of IL4 and IL10 in T-cells in conjunction with TCR/CD3 ligation and CD40L costimulation (PubMed:8617933). Isoform 3 enhances CD40L-mediated activation of NF-kappa-B and kinases MAPK8 and PAK2 in T-cells (PubMed:15067037).SUBUNIT Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with DUSP14. Binds to CD80/B7-1 and CD86/B7-2/B70. Interacts with GRB2. Isoform 3 interacts with CD40LG (PubMed:15067037).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in T-cells and plasma cells, but not in less mature B-cells.PTM CD40LG induces tyrosine phosphorylation of isoform 3. UniProt P10747 191 EQUAL 19 EQUAL 220 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 388756 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=388756 Reactome R-HSA-388756 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-388756.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 388778 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=388778 Reactome R-HSA-388778 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-388778.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 388777 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=388777 Reactome R-HSA-388777 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-388777.2 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 388783 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=388783 Reactome R-HSA-388783 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-388783.1 PDGF:Phospho-PDGF receptor dimer:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 186789 PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 74693 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PI3K-catalytic subunit Reactome DB_ID: 74689 PIK3CB PI3-kinase p110 catalytic subunit beta Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit, beta isoform (EC 2.7.1.137) (PI3-kinase p110 subunit beta) (PtdIns-3-kinase p110) (PI3K) (PI3Kbeta) Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit, beta isoform Reactome DB_ID: 74788 UniProt:P42338 PIK3CB PIK3CB PIK3C1 FUNCTION Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol derivatives at position 3 of the inositol ring to produce 3-phosphoinositides (PubMed:15135396). Uses ATP and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) (PubMed:15135396). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, motility and morphology. Involved in the activation of AKT1 upon stimulation by G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) ligands such as CXCL12, sphingosine 1-phosphate, and lysophosphatidic acid. May also act downstream receptor tyrosine kinases. Required in different signaling pathways for stable platelet adhesion and aggregation. Plays a role in platelet activation signaling triggered by GPCRs, alpha-IIb/beta-3 integrins (ITGA2B/ ITGB3) and ITAM (immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif)-bearing receptors such as GP6. Regulates the strength of adhesion of ITGA2B/ ITGB3 activated receptors necessary for the cellular transmission of contractile forces. Required for platelet aggregation induced by F2 (thrombin) and thromboxane A2 (TXA2). Has a role in cell survival. May have a role in cell migration. Involved in the early stage of autophagosome formation. Modulates the intracellular level of PtdIns3P (phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate) and activates PIK3C3 kinase activity. May act as a scaffold, independently of its lipid kinase activity to positively regulate autophagy. May have a role in insulin signaling as scaffolding protein in which the lipid kinase activity is not required. May have a kinase-independent function in regulating cell proliferation and in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Mediator of oncogenic signal in cell lines lacking PTEN. The lipid kinase activity is necessary for its role in oncogenic transformation. Required for the growth of ERBB2 and RAS driven tumors. Has also a protein kinase activity showing autophosphorylation (PubMed:12502714).PATHWAY Phospholipid metabolism; phosphatidylinositol phosphate biosynthesis.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a catalytic subunit PIK3CB and a p85 regulatory subunit (PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3). Interaction with PIK3R2 is required for nuclear localization and nuclear export. Part of a complex with PIK3R1 and PTEN. Binding to PTEN may antagonize the lipid kinase activity under normal growth conditions. Part of a complex involved in autophagosome formation composed of PIK3C3 and PIK3R4 (By similarity). Interacts with BECN1, ATG14 and RAB5A (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed ubiquitously.DOMAIN The inhibitory interactions with PIK3R1 are mediated by the PI3K-ABD domain and the C2 PI3K-type domain with the iSH2 (inter-SH2) region of PIK3R1; the C2 PI3K-type domain, the PI3K helical domain, and the PI3K/PI4K kinase domain with the nSH2 (N-terminal SH2) region of PIK3R1; and the PI3K/PI4K kinase domain with the cSH2 (C-terminal SH2) region of PIK3R1. The inhibitory interaction between the PI3K-ABD domain and the C2 PI3K-type domain with the iSH2 (inter-SH2) region of PIK3R1 is weak. The nuclear localization signal (NLS) is required for its function in cell survival.PTM Autophosphorylation at Ser-1070 negatively regulates the phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. UniProt P42338 1 EQUAL 1070 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 74788 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74788 Reactome R-HSA-74788 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74788.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 74689 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74689 Reactome R-HSA-74689 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74689.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome PI3K-regulatory subunit Reactome DB_ID: 74688 Reactome Database ID Release 82 74688 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74688 Reactome R-HSA-74688 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74688.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 74693 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74693 Reactome R-HSA-74693 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74693.1 ComplexPortal CPX-73 1 PDGF:Phospho-PDGF receptor dimer Reactome DB_ID: 186811 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Active PDGF dimers (AA, AB, BB) Reactome DB_ID: 380760 active PDGF-AA dimer Reactome DB_ID: 380761 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Active platelet-derived growth factor A chain isoforms Reactome DB_ID: 381940 PDGFA-1 PDGFA isoform 1 Platelet-derived growth factor, A chain isoform 1 PDGF A-chain Platelet-derived growth factor alpha polypeptide Reactome DB_ID: 184199 UniProt:P04085-1 PDGFA PDGFA PDGF1 FUNCTION Growth factor that plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell migration, survival and chemotaxis. Potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin. Required for normal lung alveolar septum formation during embryogenesis, normal development of the gastrointestinal tract, normal development of Leydig cells and spermatogenesis. Required for normal oligodendrocyte development and normal myelination in the spinal cord and cerebellum. Plays an important role in wound healing. Signaling is modulated by the formation of heterodimers with PDGFB (By similarity).SUBUNIT Homodimer; antiparallel disulfide-linked dimer. Heterodimer with PDGFB; antiparallel disulfide-linked dimer. The PDGFA homodimer interacts with PDGFRA homodimers, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFRA and PDGFRB. The heterodimer composed of PDGFA and PDGFB interacts with PDGFRA homodimers, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Interacts with CSPG4.DOMAIN The long form contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. UniProt Isoform P04085-1 87 EQUAL 211 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 184199 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=184199 Reactome R-HSA-184199 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-184199.1 PDGFA-2 PDGFA isoform 2 Platelet-derived growth factor A chain isoform 2 Active PDGF A-chain isoform 2 Reactome DB_ID: 380739 UniProt:P04085-2 PDGFA PDGFA PDGF1 FUNCTION Growth factor that plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell migration, survival and chemotaxis. Potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin. Required for normal lung alveolar septum formation during embryogenesis, normal development of the gastrointestinal tract, normal development of Leydig cells and spermatogenesis. Required for normal oligodendrocyte development and normal myelination in the spinal cord and cerebellum. Plays an important role in wound healing. Signaling is modulated by the formation of heterodimers with PDGFB (By similarity).SUBUNIT Homodimer; antiparallel disulfide-linked dimer. Heterodimer with PDGFB; antiparallel disulfide-linked dimer. The PDGFA homodimer interacts with PDGFRA homodimers, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFRA and PDGFRB. The heterodimer composed of PDGFA and PDGFB interacts with PDGFRA homodimers, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Interacts with CSPG4.DOMAIN The long form contains a basic insert which acts as a cell retention signal.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. UniProt Isoform P04085-2 87 EQUAL 196 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 380739 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=380739 Reactome R-HSA-380739 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-380739.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 381940 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=381940 Reactome R-HSA-381940 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-381940.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 380761 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=380761 Reactome R-HSA-380761 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-380761.2 ComplexPortal CPX-1874 active PDGF-BB dimer Reactome DB_ID: 184206 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Processed PDGF-B Reactome DB_ID: 381935 c-sis PDGFB (82-190) Platelet-derived growth factor, B chain PDGF B-chain Platelet-derived growth factor beta polypeptide PDGF-2 Becaplermin Reactome DB_ID: 184201 UniProt:P01127 PDGFB PDGFB PDGF2 SIS FUNCTION Growth factor that plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell migration, survival and chemotaxis. Potent mitogen for cells of mesenchymal origin (PubMed:26599395). Required for normal proliferation and recruitment of pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells in the central nervous system, skin, lung, heart and placenta. Required for normal blood vessel development, and for normal development of kidney glomeruli. Plays an important role in wound healing. Signaling is modulated by the formation of heterodimers with PDGFA (By similarity).SUBUNIT Antiparallel homodimer; disulfide-linked. Antiparallel heterodimer with PDGFA; disulfide-linked. The PDGFB homodimer interacts with PDGFRA and PDGFRB homodimers, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFRA and PDGFRB. The heterodimer composed of PDGFA and PDGFB interacts with PDGFRB homodimers, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Interacts with XLKD1 (By similarity). Interacts with LRP1 (PubMed:15053742). Interacts with SORL1 (via the N-terminal ectodomain) (PubMed:15053742, PubMed:16393139).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at high levels in the heart, brain (sustantia nigra), placenta and fetal kidney. Expressed at moderate levels in the brain (hippocampus), skeletal muscle, kidney and lung.DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving PDGFB is found in dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans. Translocation t(17;22)(q22;q13) with PDGFB.PHARMACEUTICAL Available under the name Regranex (Ortho-McNeil). Used to promote healing in diabetic neuropathic foot ulcers.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PDGF/VEGF growth factor family. UniProt P01127 82 EQUAL 190 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 184201 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=184201 Reactome R-HSA-184201 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-184201.2 PDGFB(82-241) Platelet-derived growth factor, B chain with retention motif Reactome DB_ID: 381904 82 EQUAL 241 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 381904 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=381904 Reactome R-HSA-381904 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-381904.2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 381935 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=381935 Reactome R-HSA-381935 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-381935.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 184206 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=184206 Reactome R-HSA-184206 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-184206.2 ComplexPortal CPX-1876 PDGF A/B heterodimer Reactome DB_ID: 380759 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 380759 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=380759 Reactome R-HSA-380759 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-380759.1 ComplexPortal CPX-1875 Reactome Database ID Release 82 380760 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=380760 Reactome R-HSA-380760 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-380760.2 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Phospho- PDGF receptor dimer Reactome DB_ID: 186821 Phospho-alpha receptor homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 186816 PDGFRA p-11Y-PDGFRA Phospho-alpha PDGF receptor PGDS_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 186806 UniProt:P16234 PDGFRA PDGFRA PDGFR2 RHEPDGFRA FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as a cell-surface receptor for PDGFA, PDGFB and PDGFC and plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, survival and chemotaxis. Depending on the context, promotes or inhibits cell proliferation and cell migration. Plays an important role in the differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Required for normal skeleton development and cephalic closure during embryonic development. Required for normal development of the mucosa lining the gastrointestinal tract, and for recruitment of mesenchymal cells and normal development of intestinal villi. Plays a role in cell migration and chemotaxis in wound healing. Plays a role in platelet activation, secretion of agonists from platelet granules, and in thrombin-induced platelet aggregation. Binding of its cognate ligands - homodimeric PDGFA, homodimeric PDGFB, heterodimers formed by PDGFA and PDGFB or homodimeric PDGFC -leads to the activation of several signaling cascades; the response depends on the nature of the bound ligand and is modulated by the formation of heterodimers between PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Phosphorylates PIK3R1, PLCG1, and PTPN11. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, mobilization of cytosolic Ca(2+) and the activation of protein kinase C. Phosphorylates PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and thereby mediates activation of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Mediates activation of HRAS and of the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1. Promotes activation of STAT family members STAT1, STAT3 and STAT5A and/or STAT5B. Receptor signaling is down-regulated by protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate the receptor and its down-stream effectors, and by rapid internalization of the activated receptor.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Binding of PDGFA and/or PDGFB leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by imatinib, nilotinib and sorafenib.SUBUNIT Interacts with homodimeric PDGFA, PDGFB and PDGFC, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFA and PDGFB. Monomer in the absence of bound ligand. Interaction with dimeric PDGFA, PDGFB and/or PDGFC leads to receptor dimerization, where both PDGFRA homodimers and heterodimers with PDGFRB are observed. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SHB (via SH2 domain) (By similarity). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SHF (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SRC (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PIK3R1. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PLCG1 (via SH2 domain). Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with CRK, GRB2 and GRB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with human cytomegalovirus/HHV-5 envelope glycoprotein B/gB. Interacts also with the trimeric complex gH-gL-gO.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Detected in platelets (at protein level). Widely expressed. Detected in brain, fibroblasts, smooth muscle, heart, and embryo. Expressed in primary and metastatic colon tumors and in normal colon tissue.PTM N-glycosylated.PTM Ubiquitinated, leading to its internalization and degradation.PTM Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon ligand binding. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans, i.e. one subunit of the dimeric receptor phosphorylates tyrosine residues on the other subunit. Phosphorylation at Tyr-731 and Tyr-742 is important for interaction with PIK3R1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-720 and Tyr-754 is important for interaction with PTPN11. Phosphorylation at Tyr-762 is important for interaction with CRK. Phosphorylation at Tyr-572 and Tyr-574 is important for interaction with SRC and SRC family members. Phosphorylation at Tyr-988 and Tyr-1018 is important for interaction with PLCG1.DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving PDGFRA is found in some cases of hypereosinophilic syndrome. Interstitial chromosomal deletion del(4)(q12q12) causes the fusion of FIP1L1 and PDGFRA (FIP1L1-PDGFRA). Mutations that cause overexpression and/or constitutive activation of PDGFRA may be a cause of hypereosinophilic syndrome.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily. UniProt P16234 1018 EQUAL 572 EQUAL 574 EQUAL 720 EQUAL 731 EQUAL 742 EQUAL 754 EQUAL 762 EQUAL 768 EQUAL 988 EQUAL 849 EQUAL 24 EQUAL 1089 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 186806 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186806 Reactome R-HSA-186806 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186806.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 186816 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186816 Reactome R-HSA-186816 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186816.1 Phospho-alpha-Phospho-beta receptor heterodimer Reactome DB_ID: 186769 1 PDGFRB p-12Y-PDGFRB Phospho-beta PDGF receptor PGDR_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 186803 UniProt:P09619 PDGFRB PDGFRB PDGFR PDGFR1 FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for homodimeric PDGFB and PDGFD and for heterodimers formed by PDGFA and PDGFB, and plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, chemotaxis and migration. Plays an essential role in blood vessel development by promoting proliferation, migration and recruitment of pericytes and smooth muscle cells to endothelial cells. Plays a role in the migration of vascular smooth muscle cells and the formation of neointima at vascular injury sites. Required for normal development of the cardiovascular system. Required for normal recruitment of pericytes (mesangial cells) in the kidney glomerulus, and for normal formation of a branched network of capillaries in kidney glomeruli. Promotes rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton and the formation of membrane ruffles. Binding of its cognate ligands - homodimeric PDGFB, heterodimers formed by PDGFA and PDGFB or homodimeric PDGFD -leads to the activation of several signaling cascades; the response depends on the nature of the bound ligand and is modulated by the formation of heterodimers between PDGFRA and PDGFRB. Phosphorylates PLCG1, PIK3R1, PTPN11, RASA1/GAP, CBL, SHC1 and NCK1. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, mobilization of cytosolic Ca(2+) and the activation of protein kinase C. Phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, leads to the activation of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Phosphorylation of SHC1, or of the C-terminus of PTPN11, creates a binding site for GRB2, resulting in the activation of HRAS, RAF1 and down-stream MAP kinases, including MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1. Promotes phosphorylation and activation of SRC family kinases. Promotes phosphorylation of PDCD6IP/ALIX and STAM. Receptor signaling is down-regulated by protein phosphatases that dephosphorylate the receptor and its down-stream effectors, and by rapid internalization of the activated receptor.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Binding of PDGFB and/or PDGFD leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by imatinib.SUBUNIT Interacts with homodimeric PDGFB and PDGFD, and with heterodimers formed by PDGFA and PDGFB. May also interact with homodimeric PDGFC. Monomer in the absence of bound ligand. Interaction with homodimeric PDGFB, heterodimers formed by PDGFA and PDGFB or homodimeric PDGFD, leads to receptor dimerization, where both PDGFRA homodimers and heterodimers with PDGFRB are observed. Interacts with SH2B2/APS. Interacts directly (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SHB. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PIK3R1 and RASA1. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with CBL. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SRC and SRC family kinases. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with PIK3C2B, maybe indirectly. Interacts (tyrosine phosphorylated) with SHC1, GRB7, GRB10 and NCK1. Interaction with GRB2 is mediated by SHC1. Interacts (via C-terminus) with SLC9A3R1.PTM Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon ligand binding. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans, i.e. one subunit of the dimeric receptor phosphorylates tyrosine residues on the other subunit. Phosphorylation at Tyr-579, and to a lesser degree, at Tyr-581, is important for interaction with SRC family kinases. Phosphorylation at Tyr-740 and Tyr-751 is important for interaction with PIK3R1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-751 is important for interaction with NCK1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-771 and Tyr-857 is important for interaction with RASA1/GAP. Phosphorylation at Tyr-857 is important for efficient phosphorylation of PLCG1 and PTPN11, resulting in increased phosphorylation of AKT1, MAPK1/ERK2 and/or MAPK3/ERK1, PDCD6IP/ALIX and STAM, and in increased cell proliferation. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1009 is important for interaction with PTPN11. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1009 and Tyr-1021 is important for interaction with PLCG1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1021 is important for interaction with CBL; PLCG1 and CBL compete for the same binding site. Dephosphorylated by PTPRJ at Tyr-751, Tyr-857, Tyr-1009 and Tyr-1021. Dephosphorylated by PTPN2 at Tyr-579 and Tyr-1021.PTM N-glycosylated.PTM Ubiquitinated. After autophosphorylation, the receptor is polyubiquitinated, leading to its degradation.DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving PDGFRB is found in a form of chronic myelomonocytic leukemia (CMML). Translocation t(5;12)(q33;p13) with EVT6/TEL. It is characterized by abnormal clonal myeloid proliferation and by progression to acute myelogenous leukemia (AML).SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. CSF-1/PDGF receptor subfamily. UniProt P09619 1009 EQUAL 1021 EQUAL 579 EQUAL 581 EQUAL 716 EQUAL 740 EQUAL 751 EQUAL 763 EQUAL 771 EQUAL 775 EQUAL 778 EQUAL 857 EQUAL 33 EQUAL 1106 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 186803 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186803 Reactome R-HSA-186803 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186803.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 186769 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186769 Reactome R-HSA-186769 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186769.1 Phospho-beta receptor homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 186805 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 186805 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186805 Reactome R-HSA-186805 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186805.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 186821 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186821 Reactome R-HSA-186821 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186821.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 186811 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186811 Reactome R-HSA-186811 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186811.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 186789 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=186789 Reactome R-HSA-186789 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-186789.2 PI3K bound to TRAT Reactome DB_ID: 202283 Phospho TRAT p-Y63,Y79,Y110-TRAT1 Reactome DB_ID: 202201 UniProt:Q6PIZ9 TRAT1 TRAT1 TCRIM HSPC062 FUNCTION Stabilizes the TCR (T-cell antigen receptor)/CD3 complex at the surface of T-cells.SUBUNIT Homodimer; disulfide-linked. Interacts with CD3Z. When phosphorylated, interacts with PIK3R1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Strongly expressed in thymus, and to a lesser extent in spleen, lymph node and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Present in T-cells and NK cells, but not B-cells (at protein level).DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Strongly expressed in fetal thymus at weeks 17-24 of gestation. Undetectable in bone marrow and fetal liver.PTM Phosphorylated on tyrosines by LCK or FYN upon TCR activation. UniProt Q6PIZ9 63 EQUAL 79 EQUAL 110 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 186 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 202201 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=202201 Reactome R-HSA-202201 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-202201.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 202283 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=202283 Reactome R-HSA-202283 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-202283.1 Phospho-IRS1/2:PI3K(p85:p110) Reactome DB_ID: 198344 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Phospho-IRS1/2 (by TRKA) Reactome DB_ID: 198369 IRS-1 p-Y-IRS1 Phospho-IRS1 (by TRKA) Reactome DB_ID: 198366 UniProt:P35568 IRS1 IRS1 FUNCTION May mediate the control of various cellular processes by insulin. When phosphorylated by the insulin receptor binds specifically to various cellular proteins containing SH2 domains such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase p85 subunit or GRB2. Activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase when bound to the regulatory p85 subunit (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with UBTF and PIK3CA (By similarity). Interacts (via phosphorylated YXXM motifs) with PIK3R1 (By similarity). Interacts with ROCK1 and FER (By similarity). Interacts (via PH domain) with PHIP (By similarity). Interacts with GRB2 (By similarity). Interacts with SOCS7 (PubMed:16127460). Interacts (via IRS-type PTB domain) with IGF1R and INSR (via the tyrosine-phosphorylated NPXY motif) (PubMed:7541045, PubMed:7559478, PubMed:7537849). Interacts with ALK (PubMed:15226403, PubMed:16878150). Interacts with EIF2AK2/PKR (By similarity). Interacts with GKAP1 (By similarity). Interacts with DGKZ in the absence of insulin; insulin stimulation decreases this interaction (By similarity). Found in a ternary complex with DGKZ and PIP5K1A in the absence of insulin stimulation (By similarity).PTM Serine phosphorylation of IRS1 is a mechanism for insulin resistance. Ser-312 phosphorylation inhibits insulin action through disruption of IRS1 interaction with the insulin receptor (By similarity). Phosphorylation of Tyr-896 is required for GRB2-binding (By similarity). Phosphorylated by ALK. Phosphorylated at Ser-270, Ser-307, Ser-636 and Ser-1101 by RPS6KB1; phosphorylation induces accelerated degradation of IRS1 (PubMed:18952604). Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to insulin (PubMed:23401856). In skeletal muscles, dephosphorylated on Tyr-612 by TNS2 under anabolic conditions; dephosphorylation results in the proteasomal degradation of IRS1 (PubMed:23401856).PTM Ubiquitinated by the Cul7-RING(FBXW8) complex in a mTOR-dependent manner, leading to its degradation: the Cul7-RING(FBXW8) complex recognizes and binds IRS1 previously phosphorylated by S6 kinase (RPS6KB1 or RPS6KB2).POLYMORPHISM The Arg-971 polymorphism impairs the ability of insulin to stimulate glucose transport, glucose transporter translocation, and glycogen synthesis by affecting the PI3K/AKT1/GSK3 signaling pathway. The polymorphism at Arg-971 may contribute to the in vivo insulin resistance observed in carriers of this variant. Arg-971 could contribute to the risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases associated with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) by producing a cluster of insulin resistance-related metabolic abnormalities. In insulin-stimulated human endothelial cells from carriers of the Arg-971 polymorphism, genetic impairment of the IRS1/PI3K/PDPK1/AKT1 insulin signaling cascade results in impaired insulin-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) release and suggested that this may be a mechanism through which the Arg-971 polymorphism contributes to the genetic predisposition to develop endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. The Arg-971 polymorphism not only reduces phosphorylation of the substrate but allows IRS1 to act as an inhibitor of PI3K, producing global insulin resistance. UniProt P35568 1 EQUAL 1242 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198366 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198366 Reactome R-HSA-198366 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198366.1 p-IRS2 p-Y-IRS2 pY-IRS2 Phospho-IRS2 (by TRKA) Reactome DB_ID: 198334 UniProt:Q9Y4H2 IRS2 IRS2 FUNCTION May mediate the control of various cellular processes by insulin.SUBUNIT Interacts with PHIP. UniProt Q9Y4H2 1 EQUAL 1338 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198334 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198334 Reactome R-HSA-198334 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198334.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198369 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198369 Reactome R-HSA-198369 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198369.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198344 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198344 Reactome R-HSA-198344 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198344.1 PI3K:GRB2:GAB1:P-ERBB2:P-EGFR EGF:p-EGFR:p-ERBB2:GRB2:GAB1:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 1306961 1 PI3Kp85:GRB2:GAB1:P-ERBB2:P-EGFR EGF:p-EGFR:p-ERBB2:GRB2:GAB1:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 1306962 EGF:p-EGFR:p-ERBB2:GRB2:GAB1 Reactome DB_ID: 1306958 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Phosphorylated ERBB2:EGFR heterodimers Reactome DB_ID: 1963587 EGF:p-6Y-EGFR:p-6Y,Y1112-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1963593 p-6Y,Y1112-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 8864081 UniProt:P04626 ERBB2 ERBB2 HER2 MLN19 NEU NGL FUNCTION Protein tyrosine kinase that is part of several cell surface receptor complexes, but that apparently needs a coreceptor for ligand binding. Essential component of a neuregulin-receptor complex, although neuregulins do not interact with it alone. GP30 is a potential ligand for this receptor. Regulates outgrowth and stabilization of peripheral microtubules (MTs). Upon ERBB2 activation, the MEMO1-RHOA-DIAPH1 signaling pathway elicits the phosphorylation and thus the inhibition of GSK3B at cell membrane. This prevents the phosphorylation of APC and CLASP2, allowing its association with the cell membrane. In turn, membrane-bound APC allows the localization of MACF1 to the cell membrane, which is required for microtubule capture and stabilization.FUNCTION In the nucleus is involved in transcriptional regulation. Associates with the 5'-TCAAATTC-3' sequence in the PTGS2/COX-2 promoter and activates its transcription. Implicated in transcriptional activation of CDKN1A; the function involves STAT3 and SRC. Involved in the transcription of rRNA genes by RNA Pol I and enhances protein synthesis and cell growth.ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by dimerization. Not activated by EGF, TGF-alpha and amphiregulin. Interaction with PTK6 increases its intrinsic kinase activity.SUBUNIT Homodimer (PubMed:21454582). Heterodimer with EGFR, ERBB3 and ERBB4 (PubMed:10358079, PubMed:15093539, PubMed:21190959, PubMed:16978839). Part of a complex with EGFR and either PIK3C2A or PIK3C2B. May interact with PIK3C2B when phosphorylated on Tyr-1196 (PubMed:10805725). Interacts with PLXNB1 (PubMed:15210733). Interacts (when phosphorylated on Tyr-1248) with MEMO1 (PubMed:15156151). Interacts with MUC1; the interaction is enhanced by heregulin (HRG) (PubMed:12939402). Interacts (when phosphorylated on Tyr-1139) with GRB7 (via SH2 domain) (PubMed:12975581). Interacts (when phosphorylated on Tyr-1248) with ERBIN (PubMed:12444095). Interacts with KPNB1, RANBP2, EEA1, CRM1 and CLTC (PubMed:16314522). Interacts with PTK6 (PubMed:18719096). Interacts with RPA194 and ACTB (PubMed:21555369). Interacts with PRKCABP, SRC and MYOC (By similarity). Interacts (preferentially with the tyrosine phosphorylated form) with CPNE3; this interaction occurs at the cell membrane and is increased in a growth factor heregulin-dependent manner (PubMed:20010870). Interacts with HSP90AA1 and HSP90AB1 in an ATP-dependent manner; the interaction suppresses ERBB2 kinase activity (PubMed:26517842). Interacts with SORL1; this interaction regulates ERBB2 subcellular distribution by promoting its recycling after internalization from endosomes back to the plasma membrane, hence stimulates ERBB2-mediated signaling (PubMed:31138794).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in a variety of tumor tissues including primary breast tumors and tumors from small bowel, esophagus, kidney and mouth.PTM Autophosphorylated. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans, i.e. one subunit of the dimeric receptor phosphorylates tyrosine residues on the other subunit (Probable). Ligand-binding increases phosphorylation on tyrosine residues (PubMed:27134172, PubMed:33497358). Signaling via SEMA4C promotes phosphorylation at Tyr-1248 (PubMed:17554007). Dephosphorylated by PTPN12 (PubMed:27134172).POLYMORPHISM There are four alleles due to the variations in positions 654 and 655. Allele B1 (Ile-654/Ile-655) has a frequency of 0.782; allele B2 (Ile-654/Val-655) has a frequency of 0.206; allele B3 (Val-654/Val-655) has a frequency of 0.012.DISEASE Chromosomal aberrations involving ERBB2 may be a cause gastric cancer. Deletions within 17q12 region producing fusion transcripts with CDK12, leading to CDK12-ERBB2 fusion leading to truncated CDK12 protein not in-frame with ERBB2.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. EGF receptor subfamily. UniProt P04626 1023 EQUAL 1112 EQUAL 1139 EQUAL 1196 EQUAL 1221 EQUAL 1222 EQUAL 1248 EQUAL 23 EQUAL 1255 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 8864081 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8864081 Reactome R-HSA-8864081 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8864081.2 1 EGF:p-6Y-EGFR Reactome DB_ID: 1248702 p-6Y-EGFR Phospho-EGFR Phosphorylated Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Reactome DB_ID: 179803 UniProt:P00533 EGFR EGFR ERBB ERBB1 HER1 FUNCTION Receptor tyrosine kinase binding ligands of the EGF family and activating several signaling cascades to convert extracellular cues into appropriate cellular responses (PubMed:2790960, PubMed:10805725, PubMed:27153536). Known ligands include EGF, TGFA/TGF-alpha, AREG, epigen/EPGN, BTC/betacellulin, epiregulin/EREG and HBEGF/heparin-binding EGF (PubMed:2790960, PubMed:7679104, PubMed:8144591, PubMed:9419975, PubMed:15611079, PubMed:12297049, PubMed:27153536, PubMed:20837704, PubMed:17909029). Ligand binding triggers receptor homo- and/or heterodimerization and autophosphorylation on key cytoplasmic residues. The phosphorylated receptor recruits adapter proteins like GRB2 which in turn activates complex downstream signaling cascades. Activates at least 4 major downstream signaling cascades including the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK, PI3 kinase-AKT, PLCgamma-PKC and STATs modules (PubMed:27153536). May also activate the NF-kappa-B signaling cascade (PubMed:11116146). Also directly phosphorylates other proteins like RGS16, activating its GTPase activity and probably coupling the EGF receptor signaling to the G protein-coupled receptor signaling (PubMed:11602604). Also phosphorylates MUC1 and increases its interaction with SRC and CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:11483589). Positively regulates cell migration via interaction with CCDC88A/GIV which retains EGFR at the cell membrane following ligand stimulation, promoting EGFR signaling which triggers cell migration (PubMed:20462955). Plays a role in enhancing learning and memory performance (By similarity).FUNCTION Isoform 2 may act as an antagonist of EGF action.FUNCTION (Microbial infection) Acts as a receptor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) in hepatocytes and facilitates its cell entry. Mediates HCV entry by promoting the formation of the CD81-CLDN1 receptor complexes that are essential for HCV entry and by enhancing membrane fusion of cells expressing HCV envelope glycoproteins.ACTIVITY REGULATION Endocytosis and inhibition of the activated EGFR by phosphatases like PTPRJ and PTPRK constitute immediate regulatory mechanisms. Upon EGF-binding phosphorylates EPS15 that regulates EGFR endocytosis and activity. Moreover, inducible feedback inhibitors including LRIG1, SOCS4, SOCS5 and ERRFI1 constitute alternative regulatory mechanisms for the EGFR signaling. Up-regulated by NEU3-mediated desialylation of N-linked glycan at Asn-528.SUBUNIT Binding of the ligand triggers homo- and/or heterodimerization of the receptor triggering its autophosphorylation. Heterodimer with ERBB2 (PubMed:10805725). Forms a complex with CCDC88A/GIV (via SH2-like regions) and GNAI3 which leads to enhanced EGFR signaling and triggering of cell migration; binding to CCDC88A requires autophosphorylation of the EGFR C-terminal region, and ligand stimulation is required for recruitment of GNAI3 to the complex (PubMed:20462955, PubMed:25187647). Interacts with ERRFI1; inhibits dimerization of the kinase domain and autophosphorylation (PubMed:18046415). Part of a complex with ERBB2 and either PIK3C2A or PIK3C2B (PubMed:10805725). Interacts with GRB2; an adapter protein coupling the receptor to downstream signaling pathways. Interacts with GAB2; involved in signaling downstream of EGFR. Interacts with STAT3; mediates EGFR downstream signaling in cell proliferation. Interacts with RIPK1; involved in NF-kappa-B activation. Interacts (autophosphorylated) with CBL, CBLB and CBLC; involved in EGFR ubiquitination and regulation. Interacts with SOCS5; regulates EGFR degradation through ELOC- and ELOB-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. Interacts with PRMT5; methylates EGFR and enhances interaction with PTPN6. Interacts (phosphorylated) with PTPN6; inhibits EGFR-dependent activation of MAPK/ERK. Interacts with COPG1; essential for regulation of EGF-dependent nuclear transport of EGFR by retrograde trafficking from the Golgi to the ER. Interacts with TNK2; this interaction is dependent on EGF stimulation and kinase activity of EGFR. Interacts with PCNA; positively regulates PCNA (PubMed:17115032). Interacts with PELP1. Interacts with MUC1. Interacts with AP2M1. Interacts with FER. May interact with EPS8; mediates EPS8 phosphorylation. Interacts (via SH2 domains) with GRB2, NCK1 and NCK2 (PubMed:10026169). Interacts with ATXN2. Interacts with GAREM1. Interacts (ubiquitinated) with ANKRD13A/B/D; the interaction is direct and may regulate EGFR internalization after EGF stimulation. Interacts with GPER1; the interaction occurs in an estrogen-dependent manner. Interacts (via C-terminal cytoplasmic kinase domain) with ZPR1 (via zinc fingers). Interacts with RNF115 and RNF126 (PubMed:23418353). Interacts with GPRC5A (via its transmembrane domain) (PubMed:25311788). Interacts with FAM83B; positively regulates EGFR inducing its autophosphorylation in absence of stimulation by EGF (PubMed:23912460). Interacts with LAPTM4B; positively correlates with EGFR activation (PubMed:28479384). Interacts with STX19 (PubMed:16420529). Interacts with CD44 (PubMed:23589287). Interacts with PGRMC1; the interaction requires PGRMC1 homodimerization (PubMed:26988023). Interacts with PIKFYVE (PubMed:17909029). Interacts with NEU3. Interacts with TRAF4 (PubMed:30352854).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitously expressed. Isoform 2 is also expressed in ovarian cancers.PTM Phosphorylated on Tyr residues in response to EGF (PubMed:20462955, PubMed:27153536). Phosphorylation at Ser-695 is partial and occurs only if Thr-693 is phosphorylated. Phosphorylation at Thr-678 and Thr-693 by PRKD1 inhibits EGF-induced MAPK8/JNK1 activation. Dephosphorylation by PTPRJ prevents endocytosis and stabilizes the receptor at the plasma membrane. Autophosphorylation at Tyr-1197 is stimulated by methylation at Arg-1199 and enhances interaction with PTPN6. Autophosphorylation at Tyr-1092 and/or Tyr-1110 recruits STAT3. Dephosphorylated by PTPN1 and PTPN2.PTM Monoubiquitinated and polyubiquitinated upon EGF stimulation; which does not affect tyrosine kinase activity or signaling capacity but may play a role in lysosomal targeting (PubMed:27153536). Polyubiquitin linkage is mainly through 'Lys-63', but linkage through 'Lys-48', 'Lys-11' and 'Lys-29' also occurs. Deubiquitination by OTUD7B prevents degradation. Ubiquitinated by RNF115 and RNF126 (By similarity).PTM Palmitoylated on Cys residues by ZDHHC20. Palmitoylation inhibits internalization after ligand binding, and increases the persistence of tyrosine-phosphorylated EGFR at the cell membrane. Palmitoylation increases the amplitude and duration of EGFR signaling.PTM Methylated. Methylation at Arg-1199 by PRMT5 stimulates phosphorylation at Tyr-1197.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. EGF receptor subfamily. UniProt P00533 992 EQUAL 1045 EQUAL 1068 EQUAL 1086 EQUAL 1148 EQUAL 1173 EQUAL 25 EQUAL 1210 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 179803 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179803 Reactome R-HSA-179803 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179803.1 1 EGF Epidermal Growth Factor Reactome DB_ID: 179863 UniProt:P01133 EGF EGF FUNCTION EGF stimulates the growth of various epidermal and epithelial tissues in vivo and in vitro and of some fibroblasts in cell culture. Magnesiotropic hormone that stimulates magnesium reabsorption in the renal distal convoluted tubule via engagement of EGFR and activation of the magnesium channel TRPM6. Can induce neurite outgrowth in motoneurons of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis in vitro (PubMed:10964941).SUBUNIT Interacts with EGFR and promotes EGFR dimerization. Interacts with RHBDF2 (By similarity). Interacts with RHBDF1; may retain EGF in the endoplasmic reticulum and regulates its degradation through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in kidney, salivary gland, cerebrum and prostate.PTM O-glycosylated with core 1-like and core 2-like glycans. It is uncertain if Ser-954 or Thr-955 is O-glycosylated. The modification here shows glycan heterogeneity: HexHexNAc (major) and Hex2HexNAc2 (minor). UniProt P01133 971 EQUAL 1023 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 179863 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179863 Reactome R-HSA-179863 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179863.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1248702 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1248702 Reactome R-HSA-1248702 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1248702.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1963593 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1963593 Reactome R-HSA-1963593 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1963593.2 EGF:p-6Y-EGFR:p-7Y,Y1112-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1248703 1 p-7Y,Y1112-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 8864079 877 EQUAL 23 EQUAL 1255 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 8864079 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8864079 Reactome R-HSA-8864079 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8864079.2 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1248703 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1248703 Reactome R-HSA-1248703 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1248703.2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1963587 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1963587 Reactome R-HSA-1963587 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1963587.1 1 GRB2:GAB1 Reactome DB_ID: 179849 GAB1 GRB2-associated binding protein 1 Reactome DB_ID: 179795 UniProt:Q13480 GAB1 GAB1 FUNCTION Adapter protein that plays a role in intracellular signaling cascades triggered by activated receptor-type kinases. Plays a role in FGFR1 signaling. Probably involved in signaling by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin receptor (INSR). Involved in the MET/HGF-signaling pathway (PubMed:29408807).SUBUNIT Identified in a complex containing FRS2, GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1 (By similarity). Forms a tripartite complex containing GAB1, METTL13 and SPRY2 (PubMed:29408807). Within the complex interacts with METTL13 (PubMed:29408807). Interacts with GRB2 and with other SH2-containing proteins (PubMed:15010462). Interacts with phosphorylated LAT2 (PubMed:12486104). Interacts with PTPRJ (PubMed:12475979). Interacts (phosphorylated) with PTPN11 (PubMed:15010462). Interacts with HCK (PubMed:15010462).PTM Phosphorylated in response to FGFR1 activation. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residue(s) by the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the insulin receptor (INSR). Tyrosine phosphorylation of GAB1 mediates interaction with several proteins that contain SH2 domains. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by HCK upon IL6 signaling.SIMILARITY Belongs to the GAB family. UniProt Q13480 1 EQUAL 694 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 179795 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179795 Reactome R-HSA-179795 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179795.1 1 Ash-L GRB2-1 GRB2 isoform 1 Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 SH2/SH3 adapter GRB2 ASH protein Reactome DB_ID: 74686 UniProt:P62993-1 GRB2 GRB2 ASH FUNCTION Adapter protein that provides a critical link between cell surface growth factor receptors and the Ras signaling pathway.SUBUNIT Associates (via SH2 domain) with activated EGF and PDGF receptors (tyrosine phosphorylated) (PubMed:10026169, PubMed:19836242). Interacts with PDGFRA (tyrosine phosphorylated); the interaction may be indirect (By similarity). Also associates to other cellular Tyr-phosphorylated proteins such as SIT1, IRS1, IRS4, SHC and LNK; probably via the concerted action of both its SH2 and SH3 domains (PubMed:8388384, PubMed:8491186, PubMed:9553137, PubMed:11433379). It also seems to interact with RAS in the signaling pathway leading to DNA synthesis. Interacts with SOS1 (PubMed:8493579, PubMed:7664271). Forms a complex with MUC1 and SOS1, through interaction of the SH3 domains with SOS1 and the SH2 domain with phosphorylated MUC1 (PubMed:7664271). Interacts with phosphorylated MET (PubMed:11063574, PubMed:11827484). Interacts with phosphorylated TOM1L1 (By similarity). Interacts with the phosphorylated C-terminus of SH2B2 (PubMed:9233773). Interacts with phosphorylated SIT1, LAX1, LAT, LAT2 and LIME1 upon TCR and/or BCR activation (By similarity) (PubMed:9489702, PubMed:12359715, PubMed:12486104, PubMed:12514734). Interacts with NISCH, PTPNS1 and REPS2 (PubMed:9062191, PubMed:9422736, PubMed:11912194). Interacts with syntrophin SNTA1 (By similarity). Interacts (via SH3 domains) with REPS1 (By similarity). Interacts (via SH3 domains) with PIK3C2B (PubMed:11533253). Interacts with CBL and CBLB (PubMed:10022120, PubMed:10086340). Interacts with AJUBA and CLNK (By similarity). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with TEK/TIE2 (tyrosine phosphorylated) (By similarity). Interacts with SHB, INPP5D/SHIP1, SKAP1 and SKAP2 (PubMed:8723348, PubMed:9108392, PubMed:9484780, PubMed:10942756, PubMed:12171928). Interacts with PTPN11 (By similarity). Interacts with PRNP (By similarity). Interacts with RALGPS1 (PubMed:10747847). Interacts with HCST (PubMed:16582911). Interacts with KDR (By similarity). Interacts with FLT1 (tyrosine-phosphorylated) (By similarity). Interacts with GAPT and PTPRE (PubMed:10980613, PubMed:18559951). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with KIF26A (PubMed:19914172). Interacts (via SH3 2) with GAB2 (PubMed:19523899). Interacts with ADAM15 (PubMed:18296648). Interacts with THEMIS2 (By similarity). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with AXL (phosphorylated) (PubMed:9178760, PubMed:19815557). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with KIT (phosphorylated) (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:16129412). Interacts with PTPRJ and BCR (PubMed:12475979, PubMed:15302586). Interacts with PTPN23 (PubMed:21179510). Interacts with FLT4 (tyrosine phosphorylated) (PubMed:15102829). Interacts with EPHB1 and SHC1; activates the MAPK/ERK cascade to regulate cell migration (PubMed:8798570, PubMed:12925710). Part of a complex including TNK2, GRB2, LTK and one receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) such as AXL and PDGFRL, in which GRB2 promotes RTK recruitment by TNK2 (PubMed:9178760, PubMed:19815557). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with CSF1R (tyrosine phosphorylated) (PubMed:8262059). Interacts with ERBB4 (PubMed:10867024). Interacts with NTRK1 (phosphorylated upon ligand-binding) (PubMed:15488758). Interacts with PTK2/FAK1 (tyrosine phosphorylated) (PubMed:9148935). Interacts with PTK2B/PYK2 (tyrosine phosphorylated) (PubMed:20521079). Interacts (via SH3 domains) with GAREM1 isoform 1 (via proline-rich domain and tyrosine phosphorylated); the interaction occurs upon EGF stimulation (PubMed:19509291). Interacts with DAB2 (By similarity). Interacts with TESPA1 (PubMed:22561606). Interacts with PLCG1, LAT and THEMIS upon TCR activation in thymocytes; the association is weaker in the absence of TESPA1 (By similarity). Interacts with CD28 (PubMed:24098653). Interacts with RAB13; may recruit RAB13 to the leading edge of migrating endothelial cells where it can activate RHOA (By similarity). Interacts with ASAP3 (phosphorylated form) (PubMed:22027826). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with PTPRH (phosphorylated form) (By similarity). Interacts with PTPRO (phosphorylated form) (By similarity). Interacts with PTPRB (phosphorylated form) (By similarity). Interacts (via SH3 domain 2) with PRR14 (via proline-rich region) (PubMed:27041574). Interacts with FCRL6 (tyrosine phosphorylated form) (PubMed:20933011). Interacts with RHEX (via tyrosine-phosphorylated form) (PubMed:25092874). Interacts with DENND2B (PubMed:29030480). Interacts with SPRY2 (PubMed:17974561). Interacts with LRRC8A (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via SH3 domain) with hepatitis E virus/HEV ORF3 protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis C virus/HCV protein NS5A via its SH3 domains.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 protein UL46.DOMAIN The SH3 domains mediate interaction with RALGPS1 and SHB.SIMILARITY Belongs to the GRB2/sem-5/DRK family.CAUTION Was shown to interact with ZDHHC19, leading to recruitment of STAT3. However, this study was later retracted. UniProt Isoform P62993-1 1 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 74686 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=74686 Reactome R-HSA-74686 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-74686.2 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 179849 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179849 Reactome R-HSA-179849 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179849.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1306958 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1306958 Reactome R-HSA-1306958 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1306958.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1306962 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1306962 Reactome R-HSA-1306962 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1306962.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1306961 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1306961 Reactome R-HSA-1306961 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1306961.1 NRG1/2:p-ERBB3:p-ERBB2:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 1250508 1 NRG1/2:p-ERBB3:p-ERBB2:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 1250191 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Phosphorylated ERBB2:ERBB3 heterodimers Reactome DB_ID: 1963572 NRG1/2:p-10Y-ERBB3:p-Y-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1963583 p-Y-ERBB2 p-Y-ErbB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1678589 23 EQUAL 1255 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1678589 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1678589 Reactome R-HSA-1678589 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1678589.1 1 NRG1/2:p-10Y-ERBB3 Reactome DB_ID: 1248743 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome NRG1/2 Neuregulins NRG1 and NRG2 Reactome DB_ID: 1227956 NRG2 Neuregulin-2 Reactome DB_ID: 1227953 UniProt:O14511 NRG2 NRG2 NTAK FUNCTION Direct ligand for ERBB3 and ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptors. Concomitantly recruits ERBB1 and ERBB2 coreceptors, resulting in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the ERBB receptors. May also promote the heterodimerization with the EGF receptor.SUBUNIT Interacts with ERBB3 and ERBB4.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Restricted to the cerebellum in the adult.DOMAIN The cytoplasmic domain may be involved in the regulation of trafficking and proteolytic processing. Regulation of the proteolytic processing involves initial intracellular domain dimerization (By similarity).DOMAIN ERBB receptor binding is elicited entirely by the EGF-like domain.PTM Proteolytic cleavage close to the plasma membrane on the external face leads to the release of the soluble growth factor form.PTM Extensive glycosylation precedes the proteolytic cleavage.SIMILARITY Belongs to the neuregulin family. UniProt O14511 112 EQUAL 404 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1227953 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1227953 Reactome R-HSA-1227953 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1227953.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome NRG1 Neuregulin-1 Reactome DB_ID: 1233225 NRG1 Neuregulin-1 Reactome DB_ID: 1227951 UniProt:Q02297 NRG1 NRG1 GGF HGL HRGA NDF SMDF FUNCTION Direct ligand for ERBB3 and ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptors. Concomitantly recruits ERBB1 and ERBB2 coreceptors, resulting in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the ERBB receptors. The multiple isoforms perform diverse functions such as inducing growth and differentiation of epithelial, glial, neuronal, and skeletal muscle cells; inducing expression of acetylcholine receptor in synaptic vesicles during the formation of the neuromuscular junction; stimulating lobuloalveolar budding and milk production in the mammary gland and inducing differentiation of mammary tumor cells; stimulating Schwann cell proliferation; implication in the development of the myocardium such as trabeculation of the developing heart. Isoform 10 may play a role in motor and sensory neuron development. Binds to ERBB4 (PubMed:10867024, PubMed:7902537). Binds to ERBB3 (PubMed:20682778). Acts as a ligand for integrins and binds (via EGF domain) to integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA6:ITGB4. Its binding to integrins and subsequent ternary complex formation with integrins and ERRB3 are essential for NRG1-ERBB signaling. Induces the phosphorylation and activation of MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK1/ERK2 and AKT1 (PubMed:20682778). Ligand-dependent ERBB4 endocytosis is essential for the NRG1-mediated activation of these kinases in neurons (By similarity).SUBUNIT The cytoplasmic domain interacts with the LIM domain region of LIMK1 (By similarity). Forms a ternary complex with ERBB3 and ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA6:ITGB4 (PubMed:20682778).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Type I isoforms are the predominant forms expressed in the endocardium. Isoform alpha is expressed in breast, ovary, testis, prostate, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, placenta liver, kidney, salivary gland, small intestine and brain, but not in uterus, stomach, pancreas, and spleen. Isoform 3 is the predominant form in mesenchymal cells and in non-neuronal organs, whereas isoform 6 is the major neuronal form. Isoform 8 is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Isoform 9 is the major form in skeletal muscle cells; in the nervous system it is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Also detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. Isoform 10 is expressed in nervous system: spinal cord motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain. Predominant isoform expressed in sensory and motor neurons. Not detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. Not expressed in fetal lung, liver and kidney. Type IV isoforms are brain-specific.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Detectable at early embryonic ages. Isoform 10 is highly expressed in developing spinal motor neurons and in developing cranial nerve nuclei. Expression is maintained only in both adult motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Type IV isoforms are expressed in fetal brain.DOMAIN The cytoplasmic domain may be involved in the regulation of trafficking and proteolytic processing. Regulation of the proteolytic processing involves initial intracellular domain dimerization (By similarity).DOMAIN ERBB receptor binding is elicited entirely by the EGF-like domain.PTM Proteolytic cleavage close to the plasma membrane on the external face leads to the release of the soluble growth factor form.PTM N- and O-glycosylated. Extensive glycosylation precedes the proteolytic cleavage (By similarity).DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving NRG1 produces gamma-heregulin. Translocation t(8;11) with TENM4. The translocation fuses the 5'-end of TENM4 to NRG1 (isoform 8). The product of this translocation was first thought to be an alternatively spliced isoform. Gamma-heregulin is a soluble activating ligand for the ERBB2-ERBB3 receptor complex and acts as an autocrine growth factor in a specific breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-175). Not detected in breast carcinoma samples, including ductal, lobular, medullary, and mucinous histological types, neither in other breast cancer cell lines.SIMILARITY Belongs to the neuregulin family. UniProt Q02297 20 EQUAL 241 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1227951 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1227951 Reactome R-HSA-1227951 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1227951.1 NRG1-10 NRG1 SMDF NRG1 Isoform 10 Neuregulin-1, sensory and motor neuron-derived factor isoform SMDF_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 197919 UniProt:Q02297-10 NRG1 NRG1 GGF HGL HRGA NDF SMDF FUNCTION Direct ligand for ERBB3 and ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptors. Concomitantly recruits ERBB1 and ERBB2 coreceptors, resulting in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the ERBB receptors. The multiple isoforms perform diverse functions such as inducing growth and differentiation of epithelial, glial, neuronal, and skeletal muscle cells; inducing expression of acetylcholine receptor in synaptic vesicles during the formation of the neuromuscular junction; stimulating lobuloalveolar budding and milk production in the mammary gland and inducing differentiation of mammary tumor cells; stimulating Schwann cell proliferation; implication in the development of the myocardium such as trabeculation of the developing heart. Isoform 10 may play a role in motor and sensory neuron development. Binds to ERBB4 (PubMed:10867024, PubMed:7902537). Binds to ERBB3 (PubMed:20682778). Acts as a ligand for integrins and binds (via EGF domain) to integrins ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA6:ITGB4. Its binding to integrins and subsequent ternary complex formation with integrins and ERRB3 are essential for NRG1-ERBB signaling. Induces the phosphorylation and activation of MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK1/ERK2 and AKT1 (PubMed:20682778). Ligand-dependent ERBB4 endocytosis is essential for the NRG1-mediated activation of these kinases in neurons (By similarity).SUBUNIT The cytoplasmic domain interacts with the LIM domain region of LIMK1 (By similarity). Forms a ternary complex with ERBB3 and ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA6:ITGB4 (PubMed:20682778).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Type I isoforms are the predominant forms expressed in the endocardium. Isoform alpha is expressed in breast, ovary, testis, prostate, heart, skeletal muscle, lung, placenta liver, kidney, salivary gland, small intestine and brain, but not in uterus, stomach, pancreas, and spleen. Isoform 3 is the predominant form in mesenchymal cells and in non-neuronal organs, whereas isoform 6 is the major neuronal form. Isoform 8 is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Isoform 9 is the major form in skeletal muscle cells; in the nervous system it is expressed in spinal cord and brain. Also detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, kidney, and pancreas. Isoform 10 is expressed in nervous system: spinal cord motor neurons, dorsal root ganglion neurons, and brain. Predominant isoform expressed in sensory and motor neurons. Not detected in adult heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, and pancreas. Not expressed in fetal lung, liver and kidney. Type IV isoforms are brain-specific.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Detectable at early embryonic ages. Isoform 10 is highly expressed in developing spinal motor neurons and in developing cranial nerve nuclei. Expression is maintained only in both adult motor neurons and dorsal root ganglion neurons. Type IV isoforms are expressed in fetal brain.DOMAIN The cytoplasmic domain may be involved in the regulation of trafficking and proteolytic processing. Regulation of the proteolytic processing involves initial intracellular domain dimerization (By similarity).DOMAIN ERBB receptor binding is elicited entirely by the EGF-like domain.PTM Proteolytic cleavage close to the plasma membrane on the external face leads to the release of the soluble growth factor form.PTM N- and O-glycosylated. Extensive glycosylation precedes the proteolytic cleavage (By similarity).DISEASE A chromosomal aberration involving NRG1 produces gamma-heregulin. Translocation t(8;11) with TENM4. The translocation fuses the 5'-end of TENM4 to NRG1 (isoform 8). The product of this translocation was first thought to be an alternatively spliced isoform. Gamma-heregulin is a soluble activating ligand for the ERBB2-ERBB3 receptor complex and acts as an autocrine growth factor in a specific breast cancer cell line (MDA-MB-175). Not detected in breast carcinoma samples, including ductal, lobular, medullary, and mucinous histological types, neither in other breast cancer cell lines.SIMILARITY Belongs to the neuregulin family. UniProt Isoform Q02297-10 20 EQUAL 640 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 197919 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=197919 Reactome R-HSA-197919 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-197919.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1233225 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1233225 Reactome R-HSA-1233225 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1233225.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1227956 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1227956 Reactome R-HSA-1227956 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1227956.1 1 p-ERBB3 p-10Y-ERBB3-1 p-ErbB3 isoform-1 Reactome DB_ID: 1248742 UniProt:P21860-1 ERBB3 ERBB3 HER3 FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role as cell surface receptor for neuregulins. Binds to neuregulin-1 (NRG1) and is activated by it; ligand-binding increases phosphorylation on tyrosine residues and promotes its association with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PubMed:20682778). May also be activated by CSPG5 (PubMed:15358134). Involved in the regulation of myeloid cell differentiation (PubMed:27416908).SUBUNIT Monomer and homodimer. Heterodimer with each of the other ERBB receptors (Potential). Interacts with CSPG5 (PubMed:15358134). Interacts with GRB7 (PubMed:9516479). Interacts with MUC1 (PubMed:12939402). Interacts with MYOC (By similarity). Interacts with isoform 2 of PA2G4 (PubMed:11325528, PubMed:16832058). Found in a ternary complex with NRG1 and ITGAV:ITGB3 or ITGA6:ITGB4 (PubMed:20682778).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Epithelial tissues and brain.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Overexpressed in a subset of human mammary tumors.DOMAIN The cytoplasmic part of the receptor may interact with the SH2 or SH3 domains of many signal-transducing proteins.PTM Autophosphorylated (PubMed:20351256). Ligand-binding increases phosphorylation on tyrosine residues and promotes its association with the p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PubMed:20682778).SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. EGF receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P21860-1 1328 EQUAL 1054 EQUAL 1197 EQUAL 1199 EQUAL 1222 EQUAL 1224 EQUAL 1260 EQUAL 1262 EQUAL 1276 EQUAL 1289 EQUAL 20 EQUAL 1342 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1248742 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1248742 Reactome R-HSA-1248742 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1248742.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1248743 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1248743 Reactome R-HSA-1248743 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1248743.2 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1963583 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1963583 Reactome R-HSA-1963583 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1963583.1 NRG1/2:p-10Y-ERBB3:p-Y,877-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1248749 p-Y,Y877-ERBB2 p-Y,Y877-ErbB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1810446 23 EQUAL 1255 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1810446 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1810446 Reactome R-HSA-1810446 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1810446.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1248749 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1248749 Reactome R-HSA-1248749 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1248749.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1963572 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1963572 Reactome R-HSA-1963572 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1963572.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250191 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250191 Reactome R-HSA-1250191 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250191.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250508 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250508 Reactome R-HSA-1250508 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250508.1 NRGs/EGFLs:p-ERBB4cyt1:p-ERBB2:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 1306974 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Phosphorylated ERBB2:ERBB4cyt1 heterodimers Reactome DB_ID: 1963568 NRGs/EGFLs:p-ERBB4cyt1:p-6Y-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1250316 p-6Y-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1963569 23 EQUAL 1255 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1963569 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1963569 Reactome R-HSA-1963569 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1963569.1 1 NRGs/EGF-like ligands:p-ERBB4cyt1 Reactome DB_ID: 1250305 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p-ERBB4cyt1 Reactome DB_ID: 1250325 p-ERBB4 JM-A CYT-1 p-Y1056,Y1188,Y1242-ERBB4 JM-A CYT-1 isoform p-HER4 JM-A-CYT-1 isoform Reactome DB_ID: 1250319 UniProt:Q15303-1 ERBB4 ERBB4 HER4 FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role as cell surface receptor for neuregulins and EGF family members and regulates development of the heart, the central nervous system and the mammary gland, gene transcription, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Required for normal cardiac muscle differentiation during embryonic development, and for postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. Required for normal development of the embryonic central nervous system, especially for normal neural crest cell migration and normal axon guidance. Required for mammary gland differentiation, induction of milk proteins and lactation. Acts as cell-surface receptor for the neuregulins NRG1, NRG2, NRG3 and NRG4 and the EGF family members BTC, EREG and HBEGF. Ligand binding triggers receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues that then serve as binding sites for scaffold proteins and effectors. Ligand specificity and signaling is modulated by alternative splicing, proteolytic processing, and by the formation of heterodimers with other ERBB family members, thereby creating multiple combinations of intracellular phosphotyrosines that trigger ligand- and context-specific cellular responses. Mediates phosphorylation of SHC1 and activation of the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 phosphorylate PIK3R1, leading to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and AKT1 and protect cells against apoptosis. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 mediate reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and promote cell migration in response to NRG1. Isoform JM-A CYT-2 and isoform JM-B CYT-2 lack the phosphotyrosine that mediates interaction with PIK3R1, and hence do not phosphorylate PIK3R1, do not protect cells against apoptosis, and do not promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration. Proteolytic processing of isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-A CYT-2 gives rise to the corresponding soluble intracellular domains (4ICD) that translocate to the nucleus, promote nuclear import of STAT5A, activation of STAT5A, mammary epithelium differentiation, cell proliferation and activation of gene expression. The ERBB4 soluble intracellular domains (4ICD) colocalize with STAT5A at the CSN2 promoter to regulate transcription of milk proteins during lactation. The ERBB4 soluble intracellular domains can also translocate to mitochondria and promote apoptosis.ACTIVITY REGULATION Binding of a cognate ligand leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. In vitro kinase activity is increased by Mg(2+). Inhibited by PD153035, lapatinib, gefitinib (iressa, ZD1839), AG1478 and BIBX1382BS.SUBUNIT Monomer in the absence of bound ligand. Homodimer or heterodimer with another ERBB family member upon ligand binding, thus forming heterotetramers. Interacts with EGFR and ERBB2. Interacts with CBFA2T3 (By similarity). Interacts with DLG2 (via its PDZ domain), DLG3 (via its PDZ domain), DLG4 (via its PDZ domain) and SNTB2 (via its PDZ domain). Interacts with MUC1. Interacts (via its PPxy motifs) with WWOX. Interacts (via the PPxY motif 3 of isoform JM-A CYT-2) with YAP1 (via the WW domain 1 of isoform 1). Interacts (isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1) with WWP1. Interacts (via its intracellular domain) with TRIM28. Interacts (via the intracellular domains of both CYT-1 and CYT-2 isoforms) with KAP1; the interaction does not phosphorylate KAP1 but represses ERBB4-mediated transcriptional activity. Interacts with PRPU, DDX23, MATR3, RBM15, ILF3, KAP1, U5S1, U2SURP, ITCH, HNRNPU, AP2A1, NULC, LEO1, WWP2, IGHG1, HXK1, GRB7 AND SRRT. Interacts (phosphorylated isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1) with PIK3R1. Interacts with SHC1. Interacts with GRB2. Interacts (soluble intracellular domain) with STAT5A. Interacts (soluble intracellular domain) with BCL2. Interacts (phosphorylated) with STAT1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at highest levels in brain, heart, kidney, in addition to skeletal muscle, parathyroid, cerebellum, pituitary, spleen, testis and breast. Lower levels in thymus, lung, salivary gland, and pancreas. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 are expressed in cerebellum, but only the isoform JM-B is expressed in the heart.PTM Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-A CYT-2 are processed by ADAM17. Proteolytic processing in response to ligand or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate stimulation results in the production of 120 kDa soluble receptor forms and intermediate membrane-anchored 80 kDa fragments (m80HER4), which are further processed by a presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase to release a cytoplasmic intracellular domain (E4ICD; E4ICD1/s80Cyt1 or E4ICD2/s80Cyt2, depending on the isoform). Membrane-anchored 80 kDa fragments of the processed isoform JM-A CYT-1 are more readily degraded by the proteasome than fragments of isoform JM-A CYT-2, suggesting a prevalence of E4ICD2 over E4ICD1. Isoform JM-B CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-2 lack the ADAM17 cleavage site and are not processed by ADAM17, precluding further processing by gamma-secretase.PTM Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to ligand binding. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans, i.e. one subunit of the dimeric receptor phosphorylates tyrosine residues on the other subunit. Ligands trigger phosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues, thereby creating binding sites for scaffold proteins and effectors. Constitutively phosphorylated at a basal level when overexpressed in heterologous systems; ligand binding leads to increased phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1035 is important for interaction with STAT1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1056 is important for interaction with PIK3R1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1242 is important for interaction with SHC1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1188 may also contribute to the interaction with SHC1. Isoform JM-A CYT-2 is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in a ligand-independent manner. E4ICD2 but not E4ICD1 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues.PTM Ubiquitinated. During mitosis, the ERBB4 intracellular domain is ubiquitinated by the APC/C complex and targeted to proteasomal degradation. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 are ubiquitinated by WWP1. The ERBB4 intracellular domain (E4ICD1) is ubiquitinated, and this involves NEDD4.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. EGF receptor subfamily.CAUTION Conflicting reports about the role of ERBB4 in mediating apoptosis, differentiation, or tumor cell proliferation may be explained by the opposite functions of the different isoforms and their intracellular fragments, and by the formation of heterodimers with other EGF receptor family members (PubMed:18454307 and PubMed:21811097). Thus, heterodimer formation of a kinase-dead ERBB4 mutant with ERBB2 is sufficient for the activation of AKT1, MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 (PubMed:19098003). UniProt Isoform Q15303-1 1056 EQUAL 1188 EQUAL 1242 EQUAL 26 EQUAL 1308 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250319 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250319 Reactome R-HSA-1250319 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250319.1 p-ERBB4 JM-B CYT-1 p-Y1046,Y1178,Y1232-ERBB4 JM-B CYT-1 isoform p-HER4 JM-B CYT-1 isoform Reactome DB_ID: 1250313 UniProt:Q15303-2 ERBB4 ERBB4 HER4 FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that plays an essential role as cell surface receptor for neuregulins and EGF family members and regulates development of the heart, the central nervous system and the mammary gland, gene transcription, cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Required for normal cardiac muscle differentiation during embryonic development, and for postnatal cardiomyocyte proliferation. Required for normal development of the embryonic central nervous system, especially for normal neural crest cell migration and normal axon guidance. Required for mammary gland differentiation, induction of milk proteins and lactation. Acts as cell-surface receptor for the neuregulins NRG1, NRG2, NRG3 and NRG4 and the EGF family members BTC, EREG and HBEGF. Ligand binding triggers receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues that then serve as binding sites for scaffold proteins and effectors. Ligand specificity and signaling is modulated by alternative splicing, proteolytic processing, and by the formation of heterodimers with other ERBB family members, thereby creating multiple combinations of intracellular phosphotyrosines that trigger ligand- and context-specific cellular responses. Mediates phosphorylation of SHC1 and activation of the MAP kinases MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 phosphorylate PIK3R1, leading to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and AKT1 and protect cells against apoptosis. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 mediate reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and promote cell migration in response to NRG1. Isoform JM-A CYT-2 and isoform JM-B CYT-2 lack the phosphotyrosine that mediates interaction with PIK3R1, and hence do not phosphorylate PIK3R1, do not protect cells against apoptosis, and do not promote reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton and cell migration. Proteolytic processing of isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-A CYT-2 gives rise to the corresponding soluble intracellular domains (4ICD) that translocate to the nucleus, promote nuclear import of STAT5A, activation of STAT5A, mammary epithelium differentiation, cell proliferation and activation of gene expression. The ERBB4 soluble intracellular domains (4ICD) colocalize with STAT5A at the CSN2 promoter to regulate transcription of milk proteins during lactation. The ERBB4 soluble intracellular domains can also translocate to mitochondria and promote apoptosis.ACTIVITY REGULATION Binding of a cognate ligand leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. In vitro kinase activity is increased by Mg(2+). Inhibited by PD153035, lapatinib, gefitinib (iressa, ZD1839), AG1478 and BIBX1382BS.SUBUNIT Monomer in the absence of bound ligand. Homodimer or heterodimer with another ERBB family member upon ligand binding, thus forming heterotetramers. Interacts with EGFR and ERBB2. Interacts with CBFA2T3 (By similarity). Interacts with DLG2 (via its PDZ domain), DLG3 (via its PDZ domain), DLG4 (via its PDZ domain) and SNTB2 (via its PDZ domain). Interacts with MUC1. Interacts (via its PPxy motifs) with WWOX. Interacts (via the PPxY motif 3 of isoform JM-A CYT-2) with YAP1 (via the WW domain 1 of isoform 1). Interacts (isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1) with WWP1. Interacts (via its intracellular domain) with TRIM28. Interacts (via the intracellular domains of both CYT-1 and CYT-2 isoforms) with KAP1; the interaction does not phosphorylate KAP1 but represses ERBB4-mediated transcriptional activity. Interacts with PRPU, DDX23, MATR3, RBM15, ILF3, KAP1, U5S1, U2SURP, ITCH, HNRNPU, AP2A1, NULC, LEO1, WWP2, IGHG1, HXK1, GRB7 AND SRRT. Interacts (phosphorylated isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1) with PIK3R1. Interacts with SHC1. Interacts with GRB2. Interacts (soluble intracellular domain) with STAT5A. Interacts (soluble intracellular domain) with BCL2. Interacts (phosphorylated) with STAT1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at highest levels in brain, heart, kidney, in addition to skeletal muscle, parathyroid, cerebellum, pituitary, spleen, testis and breast. Lower levels in thymus, lung, salivary gland, and pancreas. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 are expressed in cerebellum, but only the isoform JM-B is expressed in the heart.PTM Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-A CYT-2 are processed by ADAM17. Proteolytic processing in response to ligand or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate stimulation results in the production of 120 kDa soluble receptor forms and intermediate membrane-anchored 80 kDa fragments (m80HER4), which are further processed by a presenilin-dependent gamma-secretase to release a cytoplasmic intracellular domain (E4ICD; E4ICD1/s80Cyt1 or E4ICD2/s80Cyt2, depending on the isoform). Membrane-anchored 80 kDa fragments of the processed isoform JM-A CYT-1 are more readily degraded by the proteasome than fragments of isoform JM-A CYT-2, suggesting a prevalence of E4ICD2 over E4ICD1. Isoform JM-B CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-2 lack the ADAM17 cleavage site and are not processed by ADAM17, precluding further processing by gamma-secretase.PTM Autophosphorylated on tyrosine residues in response to ligand binding. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans, i.e. one subunit of the dimeric receptor phosphorylates tyrosine residues on the other subunit. Ligands trigger phosphorylation at specific tyrosine residues, thereby creating binding sites for scaffold proteins and effectors. Constitutively phosphorylated at a basal level when overexpressed in heterologous systems; ligand binding leads to increased phosphorylation. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1035 is important for interaction with STAT1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1056 is important for interaction with PIK3R1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1242 is important for interaction with SHC1. Phosphorylation at Tyr-1188 may also contribute to the interaction with SHC1. Isoform JM-A CYT-2 is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in a ligand-independent manner. E4ICD2 but not E4ICD1 is phosphorylated on tyrosine residues.PTM Ubiquitinated. During mitosis, the ERBB4 intracellular domain is ubiquitinated by the APC/C complex and targeted to proteasomal degradation. Isoform JM-A CYT-1 and isoform JM-B CYT-1 are ubiquitinated by WWP1. The ERBB4 intracellular domain (E4ICD1) is ubiquitinated, and this involves NEDD4.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. EGF receptor subfamily.CAUTION Conflicting reports about the role of ERBB4 in mediating apoptosis, differentiation, or tumor cell proliferation may be explained by the opposite functions of the different isoforms and their intracellular fragments, and by the formation of heterodimers with other EGF receptor family members (PubMed:18454307 and PubMed:21811097). Thus, heterodimer formation of a kinase-dead ERBB4 mutant with ERBB2 is sufficient for the activation of AKT1, MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1 (PubMed:19098003). UniProt Isoform Q15303-2 1046 EQUAL 1178 EQUAL 1232 EQUAL 26 EQUAL 1298 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250313 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250313 Reactome R-HSA-1250313 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250313.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250325 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250325 Reactome R-HSA-1250325 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250325.2 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome NRGs/EGF-like ligands Neuregulins/EGF-like ligands Reactome DB_ID: 1233236 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome EGF-like ligands EGF-like growth factors Reactome DB_ID: 1233230 BTC(32-111) Betacellulin Reactome DB_ID: 1233224 UniProt:P35070 BTC BTC FUNCTION Growth factor that binds to EGFR, ERBB4 and other EGF receptor family members. Potent mitogen for retinal pigment epithelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells.SUBUNIT Monomer. Interacts with EGFR and ERBB4.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Synthesized in several tissues and tumor cells. Predominantly expressed in pancreas and small intestine. UniProt P35070 32 EQUAL 111 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1233224 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1233224 Reactome R-HSA-1233224 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1233224.2 Epiregulin EREG(60-108) Reactome DB_ID: 1233233 UniProt:O14944 EREG EREG FUNCTION Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR and ERBB4. Stimulates EGFR and ERBB4 tyrosine phosphorylation (PubMed:9419975). Contributes to inflammation, wound healing, tissue repair, and oocyte maturation by regulating angiogenesis and vascular remodeling and by stimulating cell proliferation (PubMed:24631357).SUBUNIT Interacts with EGFR and ERBB4.TISSUE SPECIFICITY In normal adults, expressed predominantly in the placenta and peripheral blood leukocytes. High levels were detected in carcinomas of the bladder, lung, kidney and colon. UniProt O14944 60 EQUAL 108 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1233233 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1233233 Reactome R-HSA-1233233 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1233233.2 HBEGF HBEGF(63-148) HB-EGF Heparin-binding EGF-like growth factors Reactome DB_ID: 1233234 UniProt:Q99075 HBEGF HBEGF DTR DTS HEGFL FUNCTION Growth factor that mediates its effects via EGFR, ERBB2 and ERBB4. Required for normal cardiac valve formation and normal heart function. Promotes smooth muscle cell proliferation. May be involved in macrophage-mediated cellular proliferation. It is mitogenic for fibroblasts, but not endothelial cells. It is able to bind EGF receptor/EGFR with higher affinity than EGF itself and is a far more potent mitogen for smooth muscle cells than EGF. Also acts as a diphtheria toxin receptor.SUBUNIT Interacts with FBLN1 (By similarity). Interacts with EGFR and ERBB4.PTM Several N-termini have been identified by direct sequencing. The forms with N-termini 63, 73 and 74 have been tested and found to be biologically active.PTM O-glycosylated with core 1 or possibly core 8 glycans. Thr-47 is a minor glycosylation site compared to Thr-44. UniProt Q99075 63 EQUAL 148 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1233234 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1233234 Reactome R-HSA-1233234 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1233234.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1233230 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1233230 Reactome R-HSA-1233230 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1233230.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome NRG1/2/3/4 Neuregulins Reactome DB_ID: 1227957 NRG4 Neuregulin-4 Reactome DB_ID: 1227945 UniProt:Q8WWG1 NRG4 NRG4 FUNCTION Low affinity ligand for the ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptor. Concomitantly recruits ERBB1 and ERBB2 coreceptors, resulting in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the ERBB receptors. Does not bind to the ERBB1, ERBB2 and ERBB3 receptors (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with ERBB4.DOMAIN The cytoplasmic domain may be involved in the regulation of trafficking and proteolytic processing. Regulation of the proteolytic processing involves initial intracellular domain dimerization (By similarity).DOMAIN ERBB receptor binding is elicited entirely by the EGF-like domain.PTM Proteolytic cleavage close to the plasma membrane on the external face leads to the release of the soluble growth factor form.PTM Extensive glycosylation precedes the proteolytic cleavage.SIMILARITY Belongs to the neuregulin family. UniProt Q8WWG1 1 EQUAL 61 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1227945 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1227945 Reactome R-HSA-1227945 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1227945.1 NRG3 Neuregulin-3 Reactome DB_ID: 1227943 UniProt:P56975 NRG3 NRG3 FUNCTION Direct ligand for the ERBB4 tyrosine kinase receptor. Binding results in ligand-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of the receptor. Does not bind to the EGF receptor, ERBB2 or ERBB3 receptors. May be a survival factor for oligodendrocytes.SUBUNIT Interacts with ERBB4.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in most regions of the brain with the exception of corpus callosum. Expressed at lower level in testis. Not detected in heart, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus, prostate, ovary, small intestine, colon and peripheral blood leukocytes.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Isoform 3 is expressed in fetal brain but not in other fetal tissues.DOMAIN The cytoplasmic domain may be involved in the regulation of trafficking and proteolytic processing. Regulation of the proteolytic processing involves initial intracellular domain dimerization (By similarity).DOMAIN ERBB receptor binding is elicited entirely by the EGF-like domain.PTM Proteolytic cleavage close to the plasma membrane on the external face leads to the release of the soluble growth factor form.PTM Extensive glycosylation precedes the proteolytic cleavage (By similarity). Isoform 3 is glycosylated.SIMILARITY Belongs to the neuregulin family. UniProt P56975 1 EQUAL 359 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1227943 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1227943 Reactome R-HSA-1227943 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1227943.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1227957 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1227957 Reactome R-HSA-1227957 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1227957.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1233236 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1233236 Reactome R-HSA-1233236 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1233236.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250305 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250305 Reactome R-HSA-1250305 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250305.2 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250316 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250316 Reactome R-HSA-1250316 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250316.1 NRGs/EGFLs:p-ERBB4cyt1:p-7Y-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1963579 1 p-7Y-ERBB2 Reactome DB_ID: 1248698 23 EQUAL 1255 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1248698 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1248698 Reactome R-HSA-1248698 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1248698.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1963579 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1963579 Reactome R-HSA-1963579 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1963579.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1963568 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1963568 Reactome R-HSA-1963568 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1963568.1 1 PIK3CA:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 1806218 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1806218 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1806218 Reactome R-HSA-1806218 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1806218.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1306974 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1306974 Reactome R-HSA-1306974 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1306974.2 PI3K:p-ERBB4cyt1 Reactome DB_ID: 1250373 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p-ERBB4cyt1 homodimers Phosphorylated ERBB4cyt1 homodimers Reactome DB_ID: 1250351 p-ERBB4jmAcyt1 Phosphorylated ERBB4jmAcyt1 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 1251953 NRGs/EGF-like ligands:P-ERBB4jmAcyt1 Reactome DB_ID: 1251957 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1251957 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1251957 Reactome R-HSA-1251957 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1251957.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1251953 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1251953 Reactome R-HSA-1251953 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1251953.1 p-ERBB4jmBcyt1 Phosphorylated ERBB4jmBcyt1 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 1251954 NRGs/EGF-like ligands:P-ERBB4jmBcyt1 Reactome DB_ID: 1251958 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1251958 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1251958 Reactome R-HSA-1251958 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1251958.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1251954 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1251954 Reactome R-HSA-1251954 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1251954.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250351 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250351 Reactome R-HSA-1250351 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250351.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1250373 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1250373 Reactome R-HSA-1250373 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1250373.2 EGF-like ligands:p-6Y-EGFR:GRB2:p-5Y-GAB1:PI3K EGF:Phospho-EGFR-GRB2:p-5Y-GAB1:PI3Kreg:PI3Kcat Reactome DB_ID: 179791 GRB2:Phospho GAB1-EGF-Phospho-EGFR dimer EGF-like ligands:p-6Y-EGFR:GRB2:p-5Y-GAB1 Reactome DB_ID: 180286 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome GRB2:p-5Y-GAB1,GRB2:p-5Y-GAB1:PIP3 Reactome DB_ID: 9038398 GRB2:Phospho-GAB1 Reactome DB_ID: 180304 1 p-5Y-GAB1 Phospho-GAB1 Phosphorylated GRB2-associated binding protein 1 Reactome DB_ID: 180344 627 EQUAL 659 EQUAL 447 EQUAL 472 EQUAL 589 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 694 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 180344 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=180344 Reactome R-HSA-180344 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-180344.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 180304 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=180304 Reactome R-HSA-180304 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-180304.1 GRB2:p-5Y-GAB1:PIP3 Reactome DB_ID: 9038396 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 9038396 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9038396 Reactome R-HSA-9038396 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9038396.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 9038398 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9038398 Reactome R-HSA-9038398 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9038398.2 1 EGF-like ligands:p-6Y EGFR dimer Reactome DB_ID: 9624425 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome EGF-like ligands Reactome DB_ID: 9624194 TGFA_HUMAN TGFA(24-98) Protransforming growth factor alpha component recommendedName: Transforming growth factor alpha Reactome DB_ID: 9624183 UniProt:P01135 TGFA TGFA FUNCTION TGF alpha is a mitogenic polypeptide that is able to bind to the EGF receptor/EGFR and to act synergistically with TGF beta to promote anchorage-independent cell proliferation in soft agar.SUBUNIT Interacts with the PDZ domains of MAGI3, SDCBP and SNTA1. The interaction with SDCBP, is required for the targeting to the cell surface. In the endoplasmic reticulum, in its immature form (i.e. with a prosegment and lacking full N-glycosylation), interacts with CNIH. In the Golgi apparatus, may form a complex with CNIH and GORASP2. Interacts (via cytoplasmic C-terminal domain) with NKD2.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Isoform 1, isoform 3 and isoform 4 are expressed in keratinocytes and tumor-derived cell lines. UniProt P01135 24 EQUAL 98 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 9624183 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9624183 Reactome R-HSA-9624183 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9624183.1 AREG_HUMAN AREG(101-187) fullName evidence="8"Amphiregulin Reactome DB_ID: 9624190 UniProt:P15514 AREG AREG AREGB SDGF FUNCTION Ligand of the EGF receptor/EGFR. Autocrine growth factor as well as a mitogen for a broad range of target cells including astrocytes, Schwann cells and fibroblasts.SUBUNIT The immature precursor interacts with CNIH.INDUCTION By phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA).MISCELLANEOUS AR is a protein containing cysteines in disulfide linkage(s) that are essential for its biological activity. AR may contain oligosaccharides and/or lipid moieties that are not obligatory for the biological activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the amphiregulin family. UniProt P15514 101 EQUAL 187 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 9624190 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9624190 Reactome R-HSA-9624190 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9624190.1 Epigen EPGN(23-154) EPGN_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 9624187 UniProt:Q6UW88 EPGN EPGN UNQ3072/PRO9904 FUNCTION Promotes the growth of epithelial cells. May stimulate the phosphorylation of EGFR and mitogen-activated protein kinases. UniProt Q6UW88 23 EQUAL 154 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 9624187 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9624187 Reactome R-HSA-9624187 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9624187.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 9624194 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9624194 Reactome R-HSA-9624194 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9624194.1 2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 9624425 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9624425 Reactome R-HSA-9624425 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9624425.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 180286 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=180286 Reactome R-HSA-180286 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-180286.3 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 179791 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179791 Reactome R-HSA-179791 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179791.4 CD19 Signalosome Reactome DB_ID: 2076233 Ash-L GRB2-1 GRB2 isoform 1 Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 SH2/SH3 adapter GRB2 ASH protein Reactome DB_ID: 202993 1 EQUAL 217 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 202993 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=202993 Reactome R-HSA-202993 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-202993.1 1 p-6Y-CD19 B-lymphocyte antigen CD19 precursor CD19_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 2076270 UniProt:P15391 CD19 CD19 FUNCTION Functions as coreceptor for the B-cell antigen receptor complex (BCR) on B-lymphocytes. Decreases the threshold for activation of downstream signaling pathways and for triggering B-cell responses to antigens (PubMed:2463100, PubMed:1373518, PubMed:16672701). Activates signaling pathways that lead to the activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and the mobilization of intracellular Ca(2+) stores (PubMed:9382888, PubMed:9317126, PubMed:12387743, PubMed:16672701). Is not required for early steps during B cell differentiation in the blood marrow (PubMed:9317126). Required for normal differentiation of B-1 cells (By similarity). Required for normal B cell differentiation and proliferation in response to antigen challenges (PubMed:2463100, PubMed:1373518). Required for normal levels of serum immunoglobulins, and for production of high-affinity antibodies in response to antigen challenge (PubMed:9317126, PubMed:12387743, PubMed:16672701).SUBUNIT Interacts with CR2/CD21 (PubMed:1702139). Part of a complex composed of CD19, CR2/CD21, CD81 and IFITM1/CD225 in the membrane of mature B-cells (PubMed:1383329). Interacts directly with CD81 (via the second extracellular domain); this interaction is initiated early during biosynthesis in the ER/pre-Golgi compartments and is essential for trafficking and compartmentalization of CD19 receptor on the cell surface of activated B cells (PubMed:16449649). Interacts with VAV (PubMed:10706702). Interacts with GRB2 and SOS when phosphorylated on Tyr-348 and/or Tyr-378. Interacts with PLCG2 when phosphorylated on Tyr-409 (PubMed:10706702). Interacts with LYN (PubMed:7687428). Interacts (when tyrosine phosphorylated) with the regulatory p85 subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PIK3R1 or PIK3R2) (PubMed:7684160).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Detected on marginal zone and germinal center B cells in lymph nodes (PubMed:2463100). Detected on blood B cells (at protein level) (PubMed:2463100, PubMed:16672701).PTM Phosphorylated on tyrosine following B-cell activation (PubMed:7684160, PubMed:7687539, PubMed:10706702, PubMed:12387743). Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by LYN (PubMed:7687428). Tyrosine residues are phosphorylated sequentially after activation of the B cell receptor. Phosphorylation of Tyr-531 is extremely rapid, followed by phosphorylation at Tyr-409. In contrast, phosphorylation of Tyr-500 appears more slowly and is more transient, returning rapidly to basal levels (By similarity). UniProt P15391 348 EQUAL 378 EQUAL 409 EQUAL 439 EQUAL 500 EQUAL 531 EQUAL 20 EQUAL 556 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2076270 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2076270 Reactome R-HSA-2076270 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2076270.1 1 PIK3CD:PIK3R1 PI3K p85:p110 Phosphoinositide 3-kinase p85:p110 PI3-kinase p85:PI3-kinase p110 Reactome DB_ID: 1045152 PIK3CD PI3-kinase p110 subunit delta PK3CD_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 392274 UniProt:O00329 PIK3CD PIK3CD FUNCTION Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) phosphorylates phosphatidylinositol (PI) and its phosphorylated derivatives at position 3 of the inositol ring to produce 3-phosphoinositides (PubMed:9235916). Uses ATP and PtdIns(4,5)P2 (phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate) to generate phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) (PubMed:15135396). PIP3 plays a key role by recruiting PH domain-containing proteins to the membrane, including AKT1 and PDPK1, activating signaling cascades involved in cell growth, survival, proliferation, motility and morphology. Mediates immune responses. Plays a role in B-cell development, proliferation, migration, and function. Required for B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Mediates B-cell proliferation response to anti-IgM, anti-CD40 and IL4 stimulation. Promotes cytokine production in response to TLR4 and TLR9. Required for antibody class switch mediated by TLR9. Involved in the antigen presentation function of B-cells. Involved in B-cell chemotaxis in response to CXCL13 and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P). Required for proliferation, signaling and cytokine production of naive, effector and memory T-cells. Required for T-cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Mediates TCR signaling events at the immune synapse. Activation by TCR leads to antigen-dependent memory T-cell migration and retention to antigenic tissues. Together with PIK3CG participates in T-cell development. Contributes to T-helper cell expansion and differentiation. Required for T-cell migration mediated by homing receptors SELL/CD62L, CCR7 and S1PR1 and antigen dependent recruitment of T-cells. Together with PIK3CG is involved in natural killer (NK) cell development and migration towards the sites of inflammation. Participates in NK cell receptor activation. Plays a role in NK cell maturation and cytokine production. Together with PIK3CG is involved in neutrophil chemotaxis and extravasation. Together with PIK3CG participates in neutrophil respiratory burst. Plays important roles in mast-cell development and mast cell mediated allergic response. Involved in stem cell factor (SCF)-mediated proliferation, adhesion and migration. Required for allergen-IgE-induced degranulation and cytokine release. The lipid kinase activity is required for its biological function. Isoform 2 may be involved in stabilizing total RAS levels, resulting in increased ERK phosphorylation and increased PI3K activity.ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by growth factors and cytokine receptors through a tyrosine-kinase-dependent mechanism. Activated by RAS. IC87114 inhibits lipid kinase activity and is selective in cells at doses up to 5-10 uM. IC87114 blocks T-cell receptor signaling in naive and memory T-cells and reduces cytokine production by memory T-cells.PATHWAY Phospholipid metabolism; phosphatidylinositol phosphate biosynthesis.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of a catalytic subunit PIK3CD and a p85 regulatory subunit (PIK3R1, PIK3R2 or PIK3R3). Interacts with ERAS (By similarity). Interacts with HRAS.TISSUE SPECIFICITY In humans, the highest levels of expression are seen in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, spleen, and thymus, and low levels of expression in testes, uterus, colon, and small intestine but not in other tissues examined including prostate, heart, brain, and liver (PubMed:9235916). Isoform 2 is expressed in normal thymus, lung and spleen tissues, and is detected at low levels in normal lysates from colon and ovarian biopsies, at elevated levels in lysates from colorectal tumors and is abundantly expressed in some ovarian tumors (at protein level). Both isoform 1 and isoform 2 are widely expressed. Isoform 1 is expressed predominantly in leukocytes.PTM Autophosphorylation on Ser-1039 results in the almost complete inactivation of the lipid kinase activity.MISCELLANEOUS IC87114 inhibitor reduces passive cutaneous anaphylaxis, attenuates allergic airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness and allergen induced rhinitis response. Inhibitors may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of immune system-mediated diseases such as auto-immune diseases, inflammation and allergy (PubMed:20940048; PubMed:17290298).SIMILARITY Belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. UniProt O00329 1 EQUAL 1044 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 392274 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=392274 Reactome R-HSA-392274 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-392274.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 1045152 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1045152 Reactome R-HSA-1045152 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1045152.1 ComplexPortal CPX-5984 ComplexPortal CPX-5985 ComplexPortal CPX-5983 1 VAV1 Reactome DB_ID: 1045153 UniProt:P15498 VAV1 VAV1 VAV FUNCTION Couples tyrosine kinase signals with the activation of the Rho/Rac GTPases, thus leading to cell differentiation and/or proliferation.SUBUNIT Interacts with SHB (PubMed:12084069). Interacts with SH2B2, GRB2, GRB3, DOCK2, SLA, TEC and ZNF655/VIK (PubMed:12393632, PubMed:12400014, PubMed:15558030). Interacts with SIAH2; without leading to its degradation (PubMed:10207103). Associates with BLNK, PLCG1, GRB2 and NCK1 in a B-cell antigen receptor-dependent fashion (PubMed:9697839). Interacts with CBLB; which inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation and down-regulates activity (PubMed:9399639). May interact with CCPG1. Interacts with CLNK. Interacts with THEMIS2 (By similarity). Interacts with NEK3 and this interaction is prolactin-dependent (PubMed:15618286). Interacts with ITK (PubMed:15661896). Interacts with PTK2B/PYK2 (By similarity). Interacts with HCK. Interacts with PTK2B/PYK2 (PubMed:19207108). Interacts (via SH2 domain) with SYK (PubMed:8986718). Interacts with ANKRD54. Interacts with CD6 (By similarity). Interacts with isoform 2 of CRACR2A (PubMed:27016526).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed in hematopoietic cells but not in other cell types.DOMAIN The DH domain is involved in interaction with CCPG1.PTM Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by HCK in response to IFNG and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (By similarity). Phosphorylated by FYN.MISCELLANEOUS 'Vav' stands for the sixth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. UniProt P15498 1 EQUAL 845 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 1045153 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=1045153 Reactome R-HSA-1045153 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-1045153.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2076233 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2076233 Reactome R-HSA-2076233 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2076233.1 BCAP Signalosome p-PIK3AP1:PIK3CD:PIK3R1 p-BCAP:PI3K delta Reactome DB_ID: 2045909 PIK3AP1 p-4Y-PIK3AP1 BCAP phosphorylated at Tyr-263, Tyr-419, Tyr-444, and Tyr-459 Phosphoinositide 3-kinase adapter protein 1 BCAP_HUMAN B cell adaptor for phosphoinositide 3-kinase Reactome DB_ID: 984814 UniProt:Q6ZUJ8 PIK3AP1 PIK3AP1 BCAP FUNCTION Signaling adapter that contributes to B-cell development by linking B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway. Has a complementary role to the BCR coreceptor CD19, coupling BCR and PI3K activation by providing a docking site for the PI3K subunit PIK3R1. Alternatively, links Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling to PI3K activation, a process preventing excessive inflammatory cytokine production. Also involved in the activation of PI3K in natural killer cells. May be involved in the survival of mature B-cells via activation of REL.SUBUNIT Homooligomer (By similarity). Interacts (phosphorylated on tyrosine residues within YXXM motifs) with PIK3R1 (via SH2 domain); required for BCR- and TLR-mediated activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase. Interacts (via polyproline C-terminal region) with ABI1 (via SH3 domain); the interaction promotes phosphorylation of PIK3AP1 by ABL1. May interact with MYD88 and TIRAP (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in natural killer (NK) cells.DOMAIN The DBB domain is required for dimerization.PTM Constitutively phosphorylated. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in C-terminal region by ABL1. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues within the YXXM motifs by BTK and SYK (By similarity). Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are phosphorylated on tyrosine residues, most likely within the YXXM motifs, via CD19 activation (By similarity). Toll-like receptor activation induces appearance of a phosphorylated form associated with membranes (By similarity). UniProt Q6ZUJ8 263 EQUAL 419 EQUAL 444 EQUAL 459 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 805 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 984814 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=984814 Reactome R-HSA-984814 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-984814.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2045909 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2045909 Reactome R-HSA-2045909 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2045909.2 ICOS:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 388785 1 p-Y180-ICOS Phosphorylated ICOS Reactome DB_ID: 389927 UniProt:Q9Y6W8-1 ICOS ICOS AILIM FUNCTION Enhances all basic T-cell responses to a foreign antigen, namely proliferation, secretion of lymphokines, up-regulation of molecules that mediate cell-cell interaction, and effective help for antibody secretion by B-cells. Essential both for efficient interaction between T and B-cells and for normal antibody responses to T-cell dependent antigens. Does not up-regulate the production of interleukin-2, but superinduces the synthesis of interleukin-10. Prevents the apoptosis of pre-activated T-cells. Plays a critical role in CD40-mediated class switching of immunoglobin isotypes (By similarity).SUBUNIT Homodimer; disulfide-linked.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Activated T-cells. Highly expressed on tonsillar T-cells, which are closely associated with B-cells in the apical light zone of germinal centers, the site of terminal B-cell maturation. Expressed at lower levels in thymus, lung, lymph node and peripheral blood leukocytes. Expressed in the medulla of fetal and newborn thymus.INDUCTION By phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin. Up-regulated early on T-cells and continues to be expressed into the later phases of T-cell activation.PTM N-glycosylated. UniProt Isoform Q9Y6W8-1 180 EQUAL 21 EQUAL 199 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 389927 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=389927 Reactome R-HSA-389927 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-389927.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 388785 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=388785 Reactome R-HSA-388785 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-388785.1 Activated FGFR1:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 5654205 Activated FGFR1:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 5654186 GRB2:GAB1:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 179864 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 179864 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=179864 Reactome R-HSA-179864 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-179864.2 1 Activated FGFR1:p-FRS2 Reactome DB_ID: 5654200 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activated FGFR1 Reactome DB_ID: 5654170 Activated FGFR1b homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190430 HS Heparan Sulphate heparan sulfate Reactome DB_ID: 190915 heparan sulfate [ChEBI:28815] heparan sulfate N-Acetylheparan sulfate Heparin monosulfate Heparatan sulfate Heparitin monosulfate Heparan sulphate Heparan N-sulfate Heparitin sulfate Heparin sulfate ChEBI CHEBI:28815 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190915 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190915 Reactome R-ALL-190915 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-190915.3 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FGFR1b-binding FGFs Reactome DB_ID: 189963 FGF1 Fibroblast growth factor-1 Heparin-binding growth factor 1 FGF1_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189856 UniProt:P05230 FGF1 FGF1 FGFA FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, cell division, angiogenesis, cell differentiation and cell migration. Functions as potent mitogen in vitro. Acts as a ligand for FGFR1 and integrins. Binds to FGFR1 in the presence of heparin leading to FGFR1 dimerization and activation via sequential autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues which act as docking sites for interacting proteins, leading to the activation of several signaling cascades. Binds to integrin ITGAV:ITGB3. Its binding to integrin, subsequent ternary complex formation with integrin and FGFR1, and the recruitment of PTPN11 to the complex are essential for FGF1 signaling. Induces the phosphorylation and activation of FGFR1, FRS2, MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK1/ERK2 and AKT1 (PubMed:18441324, PubMed:20422052). Can induce angiogenesis (PubMed:23469107).SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer. Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Found in a complex with FGFBP1, FGF1 and FGF2. Interacts with FGFBP1. Part of a Cu(2+)-dependent multiprotein aggregate containing FGF1, S100A13 and SYT1. Interacts with SYT1. Interacts with S100A13. Interacts with LRRC59. Interacts with CSNKA, CSNKB and FIBP. While binding with LRRC59, CSNKA and FIBP seem mutually exclusive, CSNKB and FIBP may cooperatively interact with FGF1. Forms a ternary complex with FGFR1 and ITGAV:ITGB3 and induces the recruitment of PTPN11 to the complex (PubMed:20422052).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Predominantly expressed in kidney and brain. Detected at much lower levels in heart and skeletal muscle.PTM In the nucleus, phosphorylated by PKC/PRKCD.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt P05230 16 EQUAL 155 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189856 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189856 Reactome R-HSA-189856 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189856.1 FGF2 FGF2(10-155) Fibroblast growth factor-2 Heparin-binding growth factor 2 FGF2_HUMAN Basic fibroblast growth factor bFGF Reactome DB_ID: 189898 UniProt:P09038 FGF2 FGF2 FGFB FUNCTION Acts as a ligand for FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4 (PubMed:8663044). Also acts as an integrin ligand which is required for FGF2 signaling (PubMed:28302677). Binds to integrin ITGAV:ITGB3 (PubMed:28302677). Plays an important role in the regulation of cell survival, cell division, cell differentiation and cell migration (PubMed:8663044, PubMed:28302677). Functions as a potent mitogen in vitro (PubMed:1721615, PubMed:3964259, PubMed:3732516). Can induce angiogenesis (PubMed:23469107, PubMed:28302677). Mediates phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and thereby promotes retinal lens fiber differentiation (PubMed:29501879).SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer. Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Interacts with CSPG4, FGFBP1 and TEC. Found in a complex with FGFBP1, FGF1 and FGF2. Interacts with FGFBP3 (PubMed:18669637). Interacts with integrin ITGAV:ITGB3; the interaction is required for FGF2 signaling (PubMed:28302677). Interacts with SNORC (via the extracellular domain) (By similarity). Interacts with glypican GPC3 (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in granulosa and cumulus cells. Expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma cells, but not in non-cancerous liver tissue.PTM Phosphorylation at Tyr-215 regulates FGF2 unconventional secretion.PTM Several N-termini starting at positions 94, 125, 126, 132, 143 and 162 have been identified by direct sequencing.MISCELLANEOUS This protein binds heparin more strongly than does aFGF.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt P09038 10 EQUAL 155 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189898 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189898 Reactome R-HSA-189898 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189898.1 FGF3 Fibroblast growth factor-3 INT-2 proto-oncogene protein FGF3_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189886 UniProt:P11487 FGF3 FGF3 INT2 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. Required for normal ear development.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1 and FGFR2. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt P11487 18 EQUAL 239 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189886 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189886 Reactome R-HSA-189886 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189886.1 FGF10 Fibroblast growth factor-10 Reactome DB_ID: 189869 UniProt:O15520 FGF10 FGF10 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Required for normal branching morphogenesis. May play a role in wound healing.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1 and FGFR2. Interacts with FGFBP1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt O15520 38 EQUAL 208 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189869 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189869 Reactome R-HSA-189869 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189869.1 FGF22 Fibroblast growth factor-22 FGFM_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189877 UniProt:Q9HCT0 FGF22 FGF22 UNQ2500/PRO5800 FUNCTION Plays a role in the fasting response, glucose homeostasis, lipolysis and lipogenesis. Can stimulate cell proliferation (in vitro). May be involved in hair development.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1 and FGFR2. Interacts with FGFBP1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt Q9HCT0 23 EQUAL 170 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189877 Reactome R-HSA-189877 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189877.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 189963 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189963 Reactome R-HSA-189963 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189963.1 2 p-8Y-FGFR1b dimer Reactome DB_ID: 5656340 FGR1_HUMAN p-8Y-FGFR1b Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1b Reactome DB_ID: 5656338 UniProt:P11362-19 FGFR1 FGFR1 BFGFR CEK FGFBR FLG FLT2 HBGFR FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Required for normal mesoderm patterning and correct axial organization during embryonic development, normal skeletogenesis and normal development of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2, GAB1 and SHB. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Promotes phosphorylation of SHC1, STAT1 and PTPN11/SHP2. In the nucleus, enhances RPS6KA1 and CREB1 activity and contributes to the regulation of transcription. FGFR1 signaling is down-regulated by IL17RD/SEF, and by FGFR1 ubiquitination, internalization and degradation.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by sequential autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by ARQ 069; this compound maintains the kinase in an inactive conformation and inhibits autophosphorylation. Inhibited by PD173074.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts predominantly with FGF1 and FGF2, but can also interact with FGF3, FGF4, FGF5, FGF6, FGF8, FGF10, FGF19, FGF21, FGF22 and FGF23 (in vitro) (PubMed:1697263, PubMed:1722683, PubMed:8663044, PubMed:9655399, PubMed:12181353, PubMed:16597617, PubMed:17623664). Ligand specificity is determined by tissue-specific expression of isoforms, and differences in the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand specificity. Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 (PubMed:19966287). Interacts (phosphorylated on Tyr-766) with PLCG1 (via SH2 domains) (PubMed:1656221, PubMed:1379697, PubMed:21765395). Interacts with FRS2 (PubMed:21765395). Interacts with RPS6KA1 (PubMed:15117958). Interacts (via C-terminus) with NEDD4 (via WW3 domain) (PubMed:21765395). Interacts with KL (By similarity). Interacts with SHB (via SH2 domain) (PubMed:12181353). Interacts with GRB10 (PubMed:10454568). Interacts with ANOS1; this interaction does not interfere with FGF2-binding to FGFR1, but prevents binding of heparin-bound FGF2 (PubMed:19696444). Interacts with SOX2 and SOX3. Interacts with FLRT1, FLRT2 and FLRT3 (By similarity). Found in a ternary complex with FGF1 and ITGAV:ITGB3 (PubMed:20422052, PubMed:18441324).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Detected in astrocytoma, neuroblastoma and adrenal cortex cell lines. Some isoforms are detected in foreskin fibroblast cell lines, however isoform 17, isoform 18 and isoform 19 are not detected in these cells.DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Isoforms lacking the first Ig-like domain have higher affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans than isoforms with all three Ig-like domains.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer and proceeds in a highly ordered manner. Initial autophosphorylation at Tyr-653 increases the kinase activity by a factor of 50 to 100. After this, Tyr-583 becomes phosphorylated, followed by phosphorylation of Tyr-463, Tyr-766, Tyr-583 and Tyr-585. In a third stage, Tyr-654 is autophosphorylated, resulting in a further tenfold increase of kinase activity. Phosphotyrosine residues provide docking sites for interacting proteins and so are crucial for FGFR1 function and its regulation.PTM Ubiquitinated. FGFR1 is rapidly ubiquitinated by NEDD4 after autophosphorylation, leading to internalization and lysosomal degradation. CBL is recruited to activated FGFR1 via FRS2 and GRB2, and mediates ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of FGFR1.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.DISEASE Chromosomal aberrations involving FGFR1 are a cause of chromosome 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome. Translocation t(8;13)(p11;q12) with ZMYM2. Translocation t(6;8)(q27;p11) with CEP43. Insertion ins(12;8)(p11;p11p22) with FGFR1OP2. Translocation t(8;9)(p12;q33) with CNTRL. Translocation t(2;8)(q12;p11) with RANBP2. Chromosome 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is characterized by myeloid hyperplasia, eosinophilia and T-cell or B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. In general it progresses to acute myeloid leukemia. The fusion proteins FGFR1OP2-FGFR1, CEP43-FGFR1 or FGFR1-CEP43 may exhibit constitutive kinase activity and be responsible for the transforming activity. The fusion protein CNTRL-FGFR1 is found in the cytoplasm, exhibits constitutive kinase activity and may be responsible for the transforming activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P11362-19 463 EQUAL 583 EQUAL 585 EQUAL 653 EQUAL 654 EQUAL 730 EQUAL 766 EQUAL 776 EQUAL 2 EQUAL 822 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 5656338 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5656338 Reactome R-HSA-5656338 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5656338.2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5656340 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5656340 Reactome R-HSA-5656340 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5656340.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190430 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190430 Reactome R-HSA-190430 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190430.1 Activated FGFR1c homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190425 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FGFR1c-binding FGFs Reactome DB_ID: 189953 FGF4 Fibroblast growth factor-4 FGF4_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189907 UniProt:P08620 FGF4 FGF4 HST HSTF1 KS3 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, and cell differentiation. Required for normal limb and cardiac valve development during embryogenesis.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt P08620 31 EQUAL 206 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189907 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189907 Reactome R-HSA-189907 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189907.1 FGF5-1 Fibroblast growth factor-5 isoform 1 FGF5_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189903 UniProt:P12034-1 FGF5 FGF5 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Required for normal regulation of the hair growth cycle. Functions as an inhibitor of hair elongation by promoting progression from anagen, the growth phase of the hair follicle, into catagen the apoptosis-induced regression phase (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1 and FGFR2. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in neonatal brain.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Can transform NIH 3T3 cells.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt Isoform P12034-1 18 EQUAL 268 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189903 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189903 Reactome R-HSA-189903 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189903.1 FGF6 Fibroblast growth factor-6 FGF6_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189881 UniProt:P10767 FGF6 FGF6 HST2 HSTF2 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, angiogenesis and myogenesis, and is required for normal muscle regeneration.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Leukemia cell lines with platelet/ megakaryocytic differentiation potential.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt P10767 38 EQUAL 208 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189881 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189881 Reactome R-HSA-189881 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189881.1 FGF8-1 Fibroblast growth factor-8 FGF8_HUMAN FGF8 isoform 1 Reactome DB_ID: 189892 UniProt:P55075-1 FGF8 FGF8 AIGF FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. Required for normal brain, eye, ear and limb development during embryogenesis. Required for normal development of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system (PubMed:16384934, PubMed:16597617, PubMed:8663044). Plays a role in neurite outgrowth in hippocampal cells (PubMed:21576111).SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer. Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE In adults expression is restricted to the gonads.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt Isoform P55075-1 23 EQUAL 233 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189892 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189892 Reactome R-HSA-189892 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189892.1 FGF9 Fibroblast growth factor-9 Glia-activating factor FGF9_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189870 UniProt:P31371 FGF9 FGF9 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. May have a role in glial cell growth and differentiation during development, gliosis during repair and regeneration of brain tissue after damage, differentiation and survival of neuronal cells, and growth stimulation of glial tumors.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer. Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Glial cells.PTM Three molecular species were found (30 kDa, 29 kDa and 25 kDa), cleaved at Leu-4, Val-13 and Ser-34 respectively. The smaller ones might be products of proteolytic digestion. Furthermore, there may be a functional signal sequence in the 30 kDa species which is uncleavable in the secretion step.PTM N-glycosylated.MISCELLANEOUS Biochemical analysis of the Asn-99 mutation reveals a significantly impaired FGF signaling, as evidenced by diminished activity of the MAPK1/MAPK2 pathway and decreases CTNNB1 and MYC expression when compared with wild-type protein. Binding of mutant protein to the receptor FGFR3 is severely impaired, although homodimerization of mutant to itself or wild-type is not detectably affected, providing a basis for the observed defective FGF9 signaling.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt P31371 4 EQUAL 208 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189870 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189870 Reactome R-HSA-189870 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189870.1 FGF17-1 Fibroblast growth factor-17 FGFH_HUMAN FGF17 isoform 1 Reactome DB_ID: 189914 UniProt:O60258-1 FGF17 FGF17 UNQ161/PRO187 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development and as signaling molecule in the induction and patterning of the embryonic brain. Required for normal brain development.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR3 and FGFR4.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Preferentially expressed in the embryonic brain.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Detected in embryos at E14.5, but not at E10.5 and E19.5. Preferentially expressed in the neuroepithelia of the isthmus and septum of the embryonic brain at E14.5.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt Isoform O60258-1 23 EQUAL 216 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189914 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189914 Reactome R-HSA-189914 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189914.1 FGF20 Fibroblast growth factor-20 FGFK_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189862 UniProt:Q9NP95 FGF20 FGF20 FUNCTION Neurotrophic factor that regulates central nervous development and function.SUBUNIT Homodimer. Interacts with FGFR2 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Predominantly expressed in the cerebellum.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family.CAUTION It is uncertain whether variants in this gene are associated with Parkinson disease. Some authors mention association with the disease (PubMed:18252210). In contrast, some others do not observe any association (PubMed:19133659). UniProt Q9NP95 1 EQUAL 211 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189862 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189862 Reactome R-HSA-189862 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189862.1 FGF23 GalNAc-T178-FGF23(25-251) Fibroblast growth factor-23 FGFN_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 8851633 UniProt:Q9GZV9 FGF23 FGF23 HYPF UNQ3027/PRO9828 FUNCTION Regulator of phosphate homeostasis. Inhibits renal tubular phosphate transport by reducing SLC34A1 levels. Up-regulates EGR1 expression in the presence of KL (By similarity). Acts directly on the parathyroid to decrease PTH secretion (By similarity). Regulator of vitamin-D metabolism. Negatively regulates osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3 and FGFR4. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by KL and heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in osteogenic cells particularly during phases of active bone remodeling. In adult trabecular bone, expressed in osteocytes and flattened bone-lining cells (inactive osteoblasts).PTM Following secretion this protein is inactivated by cleavage into a N-terminal fragment and a C-terminal fragment. The processing is effected by proprotein convertases.PTM O-glycosylated by GALT3. Glycosylation is necessary for secretion; it blocks processing by proprotein convertases when the O-glycan is alpha 2,6-sialylated. Competition between proprotein convertase cleavage and block of cleavage by O-glycosylation determines the level of secreted active FGF23.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt Q9GZV9 178 EQUAL O-(N-acetylamino)galactosyl-L-threonine MOD MOD:00164 25 EQUAL 251 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 8851633 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8851633 Reactome R-HSA-8851633 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8851633.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 189953 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189953 Reactome R-HSA-189953 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189953.2 2 1 FGFR1 p-8Y-FGFR1c p-8Y-FGFR1-1 phosphorylated FGFR1c Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1c FGR1_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 190434 UniProt:P11362-1 FGFR1 FGFR1 BFGFR CEK FGFBR FLG FLT2 HBGFR FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Required for normal mesoderm patterning and correct axial organization during embryonic development, normal skeletogenesis and normal development of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neuronal system. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2, GAB1 and SHB. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Promotes phosphorylation of SHC1, STAT1 and PTPN11/SHP2. In the nucleus, enhances RPS6KA1 and CREB1 activity and contributes to the regulation of transcription. FGFR1 signaling is down-regulated by IL17RD/SEF, and by FGFR1 ubiquitination, internalization and degradation.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by sequential autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by ARQ 069; this compound maintains the kinase in an inactive conformation and inhibits autophosphorylation. Inhibited by PD173074.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts predominantly with FGF1 and FGF2, but can also interact with FGF3, FGF4, FGF5, FGF6, FGF8, FGF10, FGF19, FGF21, FGF22 and FGF23 (in vitro) (PubMed:1697263, PubMed:1722683, PubMed:8663044, PubMed:9655399, PubMed:12181353, PubMed:16597617, PubMed:17623664). Ligand specificity is determined by tissue-specific expression of isoforms, and differences in the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand specificity. Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 (PubMed:19966287). Interacts (phosphorylated on Tyr-766) with PLCG1 (via SH2 domains) (PubMed:1656221, PubMed:1379697, PubMed:21765395). Interacts with FRS2 (PubMed:21765395). Interacts with RPS6KA1 (PubMed:15117958). Interacts (via C-terminus) with NEDD4 (via WW3 domain) (PubMed:21765395). Interacts with KL (By similarity). Interacts with SHB (via SH2 domain) (PubMed:12181353). Interacts with GRB10 (PubMed:10454568). Interacts with ANOS1; this interaction does not interfere with FGF2-binding to FGFR1, but prevents binding of heparin-bound FGF2 (PubMed:19696444). Interacts with SOX2 and SOX3. Interacts with FLRT1, FLRT2 and FLRT3 (By similarity). Found in a ternary complex with FGF1 and ITGAV:ITGB3 (PubMed:20422052, PubMed:18441324).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Detected in astrocytoma, neuroblastoma and adrenal cortex cell lines. Some isoforms are detected in foreskin fibroblast cell lines, however isoform 17, isoform 18 and isoform 19 are not detected in these cells.DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Isoforms lacking the first Ig-like domain have higher affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans than isoforms with all three Ig-like domains.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer and proceeds in a highly ordered manner. Initial autophosphorylation at Tyr-653 increases the kinase activity by a factor of 50 to 100. After this, Tyr-583 becomes phosphorylated, followed by phosphorylation of Tyr-463, Tyr-766, Tyr-583 and Tyr-585. In a third stage, Tyr-654 is autophosphorylated, resulting in a further tenfold increase of kinase activity. Phosphotyrosine residues provide docking sites for interacting proteins and so are crucial for FGFR1 function and its regulation.PTM Ubiquitinated. FGFR1 is rapidly ubiquitinated by NEDD4 after autophosphorylation, leading to internalization and lysosomal degradation. CBL is recruited to activated FGFR1 via FRS2 and GRB2, and mediates ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of FGFR1.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.DISEASE Chromosomal aberrations involving FGFR1 are a cause of chromosome 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome. Translocation t(8;13)(p11;q12) with ZMYM2. Translocation t(6;8)(q27;p11) with CEP43. Insertion ins(12;8)(p11;p11p22) with FGFR1OP2. Translocation t(8;9)(p12;q33) with CNTRL. Translocation t(2;8)(q12;p11) with RANBP2. Chromosome 8p11 myeloproliferative syndrome is characterized by myeloid hyperplasia, eosinophilia and T-cell or B-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma. In general it progresses to acute myeloid leukemia. The fusion proteins FGFR1OP2-FGFR1, CEP43-FGFR1 or FGFR1-CEP43 may exhibit constitutive kinase activity and be responsible for the transforming activity. The fusion protein CNTRL-FGFR1 is found in the cytoplasm, exhibits constitutive kinase activity and may be responsible for the transforming activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P11362-1 463 EQUAL 583 EQUAL 585 EQUAL 653 EQUAL 654 EQUAL 730 EQUAL 766 EQUAL 776 EQUAL 22 EQUAL 822 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 190434 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190434 Reactome R-HSA-190434 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190434.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190425 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190425 Reactome R-HSA-190425 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190425.1 Activated FGFR1c bound to FGF23:Klotho Reactome DB_ID: 500333 1 Klotho bound to FGF23 Reactome DB_ID: 190208 FGF23 FGF23(25-251) Fibroblast growth factor-23 FGFN_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189891 25 EQUAL 251 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189891 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189891 Reactome R-HSA-189891 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189891.1 1 Klotho homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190309 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Klotho Reactome DB_ID: 190207 Membrane-bound Klotho homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190204 KL-1 Klotho isoform 1 KLOT_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 190198 UniProt:Q9UEF7-1 KL KL FUNCTION May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).FUNCTION The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.SUBUNIT Homodimer. Interacts with FGF23 and FGFR1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Present in cortical renal tubules (at protein level). Soluble peptide is present in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Expressed in kidney, placenta, small intestine and prostate. Down-regulated in renal cell carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and in chronic renal failure kidney.DOMAIN Contains 2 glycosyl hydrolase 1 regions. However, the first region lacks the essential Glu active site residue at position 239, and the second one lacks the essential Glu active site residue at position 872.PTM N-glycosylated.POLYMORPHISM Homozygosity for KL-VS allele is associated with decreased longevity and increased cardiovascular disease risk.MISCELLANEOUS Defects in KL may be a cause of chronic renal failure complications.SIMILARITY Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 1 family. Klotho subfamily. UniProt Isoform Q9UEF7-1 34 EQUAL 1012 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 190198 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190198 Reactome R-HSA-190198 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190198.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190204 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190204 Reactome R-HSA-190204 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190204.1 Secreted Klotho homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190203 KL-2 Klotho isoform 2 KLOT_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 190201 UniProt:Q9UEF7-2 KL KL FUNCTION May have weak glycosidase activity towards glucuronylated steroids. However, it lacks essential active site Glu residues at positions 239 and 872, suggesting it may be inactive as a glycosidase in vivo. May be involved in the regulation of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis by inhibiting the synthesis of active vitamin D (By similarity). Essential factor for the specific interaction between FGF23 and FGFR1 (By similarity).FUNCTION The Klotho peptide generated by cleavage of the membrane-bound isoform may be an anti-aging circulating hormone which would extend life span by inhibiting insulin/IGF1 signaling.SUBUNIT Homodimer. Interacts with FGF23 and FGFR1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Present in cortical renal tubules (at protein level). Soluble peptide is present in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. Expressed in kidney, placenta, small intestine and prostate. Down-regulated in renal cell carcinomas, hepatocellular carcinomas, and in chronic renal failure kidney.DOMAIN Contains 2 glycosyl hydrolase 1 regions. However, the first region lacks the essential Glu active site residue at position 239, and the second one lacks the essential Glu active site residue at position 872.PTM N-glycosylated.POLYMORPHISM Homozygosity for KL-VS allele is associated with decreased longevity and increased cardiovascular disease risk.MISCELLANEOUS Defects in KL may be a cause of chronic renal failure complications.SIMILARITY Belongs to the glycosyl hydrolase 1 family. Klotho subfamily. UniProt Isoform Q9UEF7-2 34 EQUAL 549 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 190201 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190201 Reactome R-HSA-190201 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190201.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190203 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190203 Reactome R-HSA-190203 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190203.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190207 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190207 Reactome R-HSA-190207 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190207.2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190309 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190309 Reactome R-HSA-190309 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190309.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190208 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190208 Reactome R-HSA-190208 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190208.1 2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 500333 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=500333 Reactome R-HSA-500333 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-500333.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654170 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654170 Reactome R-HSA-5654170 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654170.1 1 p-6Y-FRS2 Phospho-Frs2-alpha Reactome DB_ID: 170959 UniProt:Q8WU20 FRS2 FRS2 FUNCTION Adapter protein that links activated FGR and NGF receptors to downstream signaling pathways. Plays an important role in the activation of MAP kinases and in the phosphorylation of PIK3R1, the regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, in response to ligand-mediated activation of FGFR1. Modulates signaling via SHC1 by competing for a common binding site on NTRK1.SUBUNIT Part of a complex containing FRS2, GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1. Part of a complex containing GRB2 and CBL. Identified in a complex containing FGFR4, NCAM1, CDH2, PLCG1, FRS2, SRC, SHC1, GAP43 and CTTN. Binds RET (By similarity). Binds ALK, FGFR1, CKS2, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and SRC. The tyrosine-phosphorylated protein binds the SH2 domains of GRB2 and PTPN11. Interacts with NTRK1, NTRK2 and NTRK3 (phosphorylated upon ligand-binding).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in heart, brain, spleen, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and testis.PTM Phosphorylated by ULK2 in vitro (By similarity). Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon stimulation by NGF or FGF2. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues by activated ALK and FGFR1. Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues upon activation of FGFR2 and FGFR3. Phosphorylated on threonine residues by MAP kinases; this inhibits tyrosine phosphorylation, and thereby down-regulates FRS2-mediated activation of MAP kinases.PTM Ubiquitinated when tyrosine phosphorylated and in a complex with GRB2. The unphosphorylated form is not subject to ubiquitination (By similarity). UniProt Q8WU20 436 EQUAL 196 EQUAL 306 EQUAL 349 EQUAL 392 EQUAL 471 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 508 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 170959 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=170959 Reactome R-HSA-170959 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-170959.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654200 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654200 Reactome R-HSA-5654200 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654200.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654186 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654186 Reactome R-HSA-5654186 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654186.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654205 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654205 Reactome R-HSA-5654205 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654205.1 Activated FGFR2:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 5654190 Activated FGFR2:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 5654189 1 Activated FGFR2:p-FRS2 Reactome DB_ID: 5654201 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activated FGFR2 Reactome DB_ID: 5654152 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activated FGFR2b homodimer bound to FGF Reactome DB_ID: 192606 Activated FGFR2b long homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190411 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FGFR2b-binding FGFs Reactome DB_ID: 189967 FGF7 Fibroblast growth factor-7 Keratinocyte growth factor FGF7_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189884 UniProt:P21781 FGF7 FGF7 KGF FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. Required for normal branching morphogenesis. Growth factor active on keratinocytes. Possible major paracrine effector of normal epithelial cell proliferation.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFBP1. Interacts with FGFR2. Affinity between fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) and their receptors is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Epithelial cell.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt P21781 32 EQUAL 194 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189884 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189884 Reactome R-HSA-189884 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189884.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 189967 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189967 Reactome R-HSA-189967 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189967.1 2 FGFR2 p-8Y-FGFR2-3 Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b long FGR2_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 190412 UniProt:P21802-3 FGFR2 FGFR2 BEK KGFR KSAM FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and in the regulation of embryonic development. Required for normal embryonic patterning, trophoblast function, limb bud development, lung morphogenesis, osteogenesis and skin development. Plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Promotes cell proliferation in keratinocytes and immature osteoblasts, but promotes apoptosis in differentiated osteoblasts. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2 and PAK4. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. FGFR2 signaling is down-regulated by ubiquitination, internalization and degradation. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR2 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed FGFR2 promotes activation of STAT1.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by ARQ 523 and ARQ 069; these compounds maintain the kinase in an inactive conformation and inhibit autophosphorylation.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts predominantly with FGF1 and FGF2, but can also interact with FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF17, FGF18 and FGF22 (in vitro). Ligand specificity is determined by tissue-specific expression of isoforms, and differences in the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand specificity. Isoform 1 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF2, but low affinity for FGF7. Isoform 3 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF7, and has much higher affinity for FGF7 than isoform 1 (in vitro). Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19 and FGF21. Interacts with PLCG1, GRB2 and PAK4. Interacts with FLRT2 (By similarity).DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Alternative splicing events affecting the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand selectivity.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on several tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer. Phosphorylation at Tyr-769 is essential for interaction with PLCG1.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.PTM Ubiquitinated. FGFR2 is rapidly ubiquitinated after autophosphorylation, leading to internalization and degradation. Subject to degradation both in lysosomes and by the proteasome.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P21802-3 467 EQUAL 587 EQUAL 589 EQUAL 657 EQUAL 658 EQUAL 734 EQUAL 770 EQUAL 780 EQUAL 22 EQUAL 822 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 190412 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190412 Reactome R-HSA-190412 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190412.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190411 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190411 Reactome R-HSA-190411 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190411.1 Activated FGFR2b short homodimer bound to FGF Reactome DB_ID: 192597 1 p-8Y-FGFR2-18 Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2b short Reactome DB_ID: 192603 UniProt:P21802-18 FGFR2 FGFR2 BEK KGFR KSAM FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and in the regulation of embryonic development. Required for normal embryonic patterning, trophoblast function, limb bud development, lung morphogenesis, osteogenesis and skin development. Plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Promotes cell proliferation in keratinocytes and immature osteoblasts, but promotes apoptosis in differentiated osteoblasts. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2 and PAK4. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. FGFR2 signaling is down-regulated by ubiquitination, internalization and degradation. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR2 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed FGFR2 promotes activation of STAT1.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by ARQ 523 and ARQ 069; these compounds maintain the kinase in an inactive conformation and inhibit autophosphorylation.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts predominantly with FGF1 and FGF2, but can also interact with FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF17, FGF18 and FGF22 (in vitro). Ligand specificity is determined by tissue-specific expression of isoforms, and differences in the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand specificity. Isoform 1 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF2, but low affinity for FGF7. Isoform 3 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF7, and has much higher affinity for FGF7 than isoform 1 (in vitro). Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19 and FGF21. Interacts with PLCG1, GRB2 and PAK4. Interacts with FLRT2 (By similarity).DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Alternative splicing events affecting the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand selectivity.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on several tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer. Phosphorylation at Tyr-769 is essential for interaction with PLCG1.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.PTM Ubiquitinated. FGFR2 is rapidly ubiquitinated after autophosphorylation, leading to internalization and degradation. Subject to degradation both in lysosomes and by the proteasome.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P21802-18 465 EQUAL 585 EQUAL 587 EQUAL 655 EQUAL 656 EQUAL 732 EQUAL 768 EQUAL 778 EQUAL 22 EQUAL 820 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 192603 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=192603 Reactome R-HSA-192603 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-192603.1 2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 192597 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=192597 Reactome R-HSA-192597 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-192597.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 192606 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=192606 Reactome R-HSA-192606 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-192606.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activated FGFR2c homodimer bound to FGF Reactome DB_ID: 192616 Activated FGFR2c long homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190418 1 FGR2_HUMAN p-8Y-FGFR2c long Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2c long p-8xY-FGFR2 isoform 1 Reactome DB_ID: 190416 UniProt:P21802-1 FGFR2 FGFR2 BEK KGFR KSAM FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and in the regulation of embryonic development. Required for normal embryonic patterning, trophoblast function, limb bud development, lung morphogenesis, osteogenesis and skin development. Plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Promotes cell proliferation in keratinocytes and immature osteoblasts, but promotes apoptosis in differentiated osteoblasts. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2 and PAK4. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. FGFR2 signaling is down-regulated by ubiquitination, internalization and degradation. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR2 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed FGFR2 promotes activation of STAT1.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by ARQ 523 and ARQ 069; these compounds maintain the kinase in an inactive conformation and inhibit autophosphorylation.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts predominantly with FGF1 and FGF2, but can also interact with FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF17, FGF18 and FGF22 (in vitro). Ligand specificity is determined by tissue-specific expression of isoforms, and differences in the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand specificity. Isoform 1 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF2, but low affinity for FGF7. Isoform 3 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF7, and has much higher affinity for FGF7 than isoform 1 (in vitro). Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19 and FGF21. Interacts with PLCG1, GRB2 and PAK4. Interacts with FLRT2 (By similarity).DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Alternative splicing events affecting the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand selectivity.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on several tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer. Phosphorylation at Tyr-769 is essential for interaction with PLCG1.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.PTM Ubiquitinated. FGFR2 is rapidly ubiquitinated after autophosphorylation, leading to internalization and degradation. Subject to degradation both in lysosomes and by the proteasome.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P21802-1 466 EQUAL 586 EQUAL 588 EQUAL 656 EQUAL 657 EQUAL 733 EQUAL 769 EQUAL 779 EQUAL 22 EQUAL 821 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 190416 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190416 Reactome R-HSA-190416 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190416.1 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FGFR2c-binding FGFs Reactome DB_ID: 189957 FGF16 Fibroblast growth factor-16 FGFG_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189918 UniProt:O43320 FGF16 FGF16 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of embryonic development, cell proliferation and cell differentiation, and is required for normal cardiomyocyte proliferation and heart development.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR1 and FGFR2.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt O43320 1 EQUAL 207 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189918 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189918 Reactome R-HSA-189918 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189918.1 FGF18 Fibroblast growth factor-18 FGFI_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 189905 UniProt:O76093 FGF18 FGF18 UNQ420/PRO856 FUNCTION Plays an important role in the regulation of cell proliferation, cell differentiation and cell migration. Required for normal ossification and bone development. Stimulates hepatic and intestinal proliferation.SUBUNIT Interacts with FGFR3 and FGFR4.SIMILARITY Belongs to the heparin-binding growth factors family. UniProt O76093 28 EQUAL 207 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 189905 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189905 Reactome R-HSA-189905 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189905.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 189957 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189957 Reactome R-HSA-189957 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189957.2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190418 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190418 Reactome R-HSA-190418 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190418.1 Activated FGFR2c short homodimer bound to FGF Reactome DB_ID: 192592 1 2 p-8Y-FGFR2-5 Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2c short Reactome DB_ID: 192600 UniProt:P21802-5 FGFR2 FGFR2 BEK KGFR KSAM FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis, and in the regulation of embryonic development. Required for normal embryonic patterning, trophoblast function, limb bud development, lung morphogenesis, osteogenesis and skin development. Plays an essential role in the regulation of osteoblast differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Promotes cell proliferation in keratinocytes and immature osteoblasts, but promotes apoptosis in differentiated osteoblasts. Phosphorylates PLCG1, FRS2 and PAK4. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. FGFR2 signaling is down-regulated by ubiquitination, internalization and degradation. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR2 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed FGFR2 promotes activation of STAT1.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by ARQ 523 and ARQ 069; these compounds maintain the kinase in an inactive conformation and inhibit autophosphorylation.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts predominantly with FGF1 and FGF2, but can also interact with FGF3, FGF4, FGF6, FGF7, FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF17, FGF18 and FGF22 (in vitro). Ligand specificity is determined by tissue-specific expression of isoforms, and differences in the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand specificity. Isoform 1 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF2, but low affinity for FGF7. Isoform 3 has high affinity for FGF1 and FGF7, and has much higher affinity for FGF7 than isoform 1 (in vitro). Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19 and FGF21. Interacts with PLCG1, GRB2 and PAK4. Interacts with FLRT2 (By similarity).DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Alternative splicing events affecting the third Ig-like domain are crucial for ligand selectivity.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on several tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer. Phosphorylation at Tyr-769 is essential for interaction with PLCG1.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.PTM Ubiquitinated. FGFR2 is rapidly ubiquitinated after autophosphorylation, leading to internalization and degradation. Subject to degradation both in lysosomes and by the proteasome.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P21802-5 464 EQUAL 584 EQUAL 586 EQUAL 654 EQUAL 655 EQUAL 731 EQUAL 767 EQUAL 22 EQUAL 819 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 192600 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=192600 Reactome R-HSA-192600 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-192600.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 192592 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=192592 Reactome R-HSA-192592 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-192592.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 192616 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=192616 Reactome R-HSA-192616 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-192616.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654152 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654152 Reactome R-HSA-5654152 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654152.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654201 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654201 Reactome R-HSA-5654201 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654201.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654189 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654189 Reactome R-HSA-5654189 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654189.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654190 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654190 Reactome R-HSA-5654190 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654190.1 Activated FGFR3:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 5654195 1 Activated FGFR3:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 5654203 1 Activated FGFR3:p-FRS2 Reactome DB_ID: 5654196 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activated FGFR3 Reactome DB_ID: 5654146 Activated FGFR3b homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190380 1 FGFR3 p-6Y-FGFR3b p-6Y-FGFR3-2 phosphorylated FGFR3b Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3b FGR3_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 190384 UniProt:P22607-2 FGFR3 FGFR3 JTK4 FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Plays an essential role in the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Regulates both osteogenesis and postnatal bone mineralization by osteoblasts. Promotes apoptosis in chondrocytes, but can also promote cancer cell proliferation. Required for normal development of the inner ear. Phosphorylates PLCG1, CBL and FRS2. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Plays a role in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR3 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed or constitutively activated FGFR3 promotes activation of PTPN11/SHP2, STAT1, STAT5A and STAT5B. Secreted isoform 3 retains its capacity to bind FGF1 and FGF2 and hence may interfere with FGF signaling.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by SU5402.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts with FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, FGF6; FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF17, FGF18, FGF19, FGF20 and FGF23 (in vitro). Interacts with KLB. Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19 and FGF21. Interacts with PIK3R1, PLCG1, SOCS1 and SOCS3. Isoform 3 forms disulfide-linked dimers.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in brain, kidney and testis. Very low or no expression in spleen, heart, and muscle. In 20- to 22-week old fetuses it is expressed at high level in kidney, lung, small intestine and brain, and to a lower degree in spleen, liver, and muscle. Isoform 2 is detected in epithelial cells. Isoform 1 is not detected in epithelial cells. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are detected in fibroblastic cells.DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer. Phosphorylation at Tyr-724 is essential for stimulation of cell proliferation and activation of PIK3R1, STAT1 and MAP kinase signaling. Phosphorylation at Tyr-760 is required for interaction with PIK3R1 and PLCG1.PTM Ubiquitinated. Is rapidly ubiquitinated after ligand binding and autophosphorylation, leading to receptor internalization and degradation. Subject to both proteasomal and lysosomal degradation.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P22607-2 579 EQUAL 649 EQUAL 650 EQUAL 726 EQUAL 762 EQUAL 772 EQUAL 23 EQUAL 806 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 190384 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190384 Reactome R-HSA-190384 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190384.1 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FGFR3b-binding FGFs Reactome DB_ID: 189964 Reactome Database ID Release 82 189964 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189964 Reactome R-HSA-189964 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189964.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190380 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190380 Reactome R-HSA-190380 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190380.1 Activated FGFR3c homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190389 1 FGFR3 p-6Y-FGFR3c p-6Y-FGFR3-1(23-808) phosphorylated FGFR3c Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3c FGR3_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 190382 UniProt:P22607-1 FGFR3 FGFR3 JTK4 FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Plays an essential role in the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis, and is required for normal skeleton development. Regulates both osteogenesis and postnatal bone mineralization by osteoblasts. Promotes apoptosis in chondrocytes, but can also promote cancer cell proliferation. Required for normal development of the inner ear. Phosphorylates PLCG1, CBL and FRS2. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Plays a role in the regulation of vitamin D metabolism. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR3 maturation, internalization and degradation lead to aberrant signaling. Over-expressed or constitutively activated FGFR3 promotes activation of PTPN11/SHP2, STAT1, STAT5A and STAT5B. Secreted isoform 3 retains its capacity to bind FGF1 and FGF2 and hence may interfere with FGF signaling.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Inhibited by SU5402.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts with FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, FGF6; FGF8, FGF9, FGF10, FGF17, FGF18, FGF19, FGF20 and FGF23 (in vitro). Interacts with KLB. Affinity for fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) is increased by heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans that function as coreceptors. Likewise, KLB increases the affinity for FGF19 and FGF21. Interacts with PIK3R1, PLCG1, SOCS1 and SOCS3. Isoform 3 forms disulfide-linked dimers.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in brain, kidney and testis. Very low or no expression in spleen, heart, and muscle. In 20- to 22-week old fetuses it is expressed at high level in kidney, lung, small intestine and brain, and to a lower degree in spleen, liver, and muscle. Isoform 2 is detected in epithelial cells. Isoform 1 is not detected in epithelial cells. Isoform 1 and isoform 2 are detected in fibroblastic cells.DOMAIN The second and third Ig-like domains directly interact with fibroblast growth factors (FGF) and heparan sulfate proteoglycans.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylation occurs in trans between the two FGFR molecules present in the dimer. Phosphorylation at Tyr-724 is essential for stimulation of cell proliferation and activation of PIK3R1, STAT1 and MAP kinase signaling. Phosphorylation at Tyr-760 is required for interaction with PIK3R1 and PLCG1.PTM Ubiquitinated. Is rapidly ubiquitinated after ligand binding and autophosphorylation, leading to receptor internalization and degradation. Subject to both proteasomal and lysosomal degradation.PTM N-glycosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum. The N-glycan chains undergo further maturation to an Endo H-resistant form in the Golgi apparatus.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Tyr protein kinase family. Fibroblast growth factor receptor subfamily. UniProt Isoform P22607-1 577 EQUAL 647 EQUAL 648 EQUAL 724 EQUAL 760 EQUAL 770 EQUAL 23 EQUAL 808 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 190382 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190382 Reactome R-HSA-190382 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190382.1 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome FGFR3c-binding FGFs Reactome DB_ID: 189955 Reactome Database ID Release 82 189955 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=189955 Reactome R-HSA-189955 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-189955.2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 190389 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=190389 Reactome R-HSA-190389 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-190389.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654146 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654146 Reactome R-HSA-5654146 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654146.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654196 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654196 Reactome R-HSA-5654196 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654196.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654203 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654203 Reactome R-HSA-5654203 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654203.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 5654195 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5654195 Reactome R-HSA-5654195 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5654195.1 Activated FGFR4:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PI3K Reactome DB_ID: 5654187 Activated FGFR4:p-FRS2:GRB2:GAB1:PIK3R1 Reactome DB_ID: 5654191 1 Activated FGFR4:p-FRS2 Reactome DB_ID: 5654193 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activated FGFR4 Reactome DB_ID: 5654158 Activated FGFR4 homodimer Reactome DB_ID: 190328 1 FGFR4 p-5Y-FGFR4 phosphorylated FGFR4 Phosphorylated Fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 FGR4_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 190330 UniProt:P22455 FGFR4 FGFR4 JTK2 TKF FUNCTION Tyrosine-protein kinase that acts as cell-surface receptor for fibroblast growth factors and plays a role in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation and migration, and in regulation of lipid metabolism, bile acid biosynthesis, glucose uptake, vitamin D metabolism and phosphate homeostasis. Required for normal down-regulation of the expression of CYP7A1, the rate-limiting enzyme in bile acid synthesis, in response to FGF19. Phosphorylates PLCG1 and FRS2. Ligand binding leads to the activation of several signaling cascades. Activation of PLCG1 leads to the production of the cellular signaling molecules diacylglycerol and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate. Phosphorylation of FRS2 triggers recruitment of GRB2, GAB1, PIK3R1 and SOS1, and mediates activation of RAS, MAPK1/ERK2, MAPK3/ERK1 and the MAP kinase signaling pathway, as well as of the AKT1 signaling pathway. Promotes SRC-dependent phosphorylation of the matrix protease MMP14 and its lysosomal degradation. FGFR4 signaling is down-regulated by receptor internalization and degradation; MMP14 promotes internalization and degradation of FGFR4. Mutations that lead to constitutive kinase activation or impair normal FGFR4 inactivation lead to aberrant signaling.ACTIVITY REGULATION Present in an inactive conformation in the absence of bound ligand. Ligand binding leads to dimerization and activation by autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues.SUBUNIT Monomer. Homodimer after ligand binding. Interacts with FGF1, FGF2, FGF4, FGF6, FGF8, FGF9, FGF16, FGF17, FGF18, FGF19, FGF21 and FGF23 (in vitro). Binding affinity for FGF family members is enhanced by interactions between FGFs and heparan sulfate proteoglycans. Interacts with KLB; this strongly increases the affinity for FGF19 and FGF23. Affinity for FGF19 is strongly increased by KLB and sulfated glycosaminoglycans. KLB and KL both interact with the core-glycosylated FGFR4 in the endoplasmic reticulum and promote its degradation, so that only FGFR4 with fully mature N-glycans is expressed at the cell surface. Identified in a complex with NCAM1, CDH2, PLCG1, FRS2, SRC, SHC1, GAP43 and CTTN. Interacts with MMP14 and HIP1 (PubMed:11433297, PubMed:16597617, PubMed:17623664, PubMed:18670643, PubMed:20683963, PubMed:20798051, PubMed:21653700, PubMed:7518429, PubMed:8663044). Interacts with STAT3 (PubMed:26675719).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in gastrointestinal epithelial cells, pancreas, and gastric and pancreatic cancer cell lines.PTM N-glycosylated. Full maturation of the glycan chains in the Golgi is essential for high affinity interaction with FGF19.PTM Ubiquitinated. Subject to proteasomal degradation when not fully glycosylated.PTM Autophosphorylated. Binding of FGF family members together with heparan sulfate proteoglycan or heparin promotes receptor dimerization and autophosphorylation on tyrosine residues. Autophosphorylati