BioPAX pathway converted from "AKT1 E17K mutant phosphorylates GSK3" in the Reactome database. LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 AKT1 E17K mutant phosphorylates GSK3 AKT1 E17K gain-of-function mutant preserves the ability to phosphorylate GSK3 (Malanga et al. 2008). AKT-mediated phosphorylation inactivates GSK3 and enables WNT-independent stabilization of beta-catenin (CTNNB1) (Haq et al. 2003). AKT-mediated inactivation of GSK3 also triggers changes in glucose metabolism (Ueki et al. 1997). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, M, 2012-07-18 Reviewed: Thorpe, Lauren, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Yuzugullu, Haluk, 2012-08-13 Reviewed: Zhao, Jean J, 2012-08-13 Edited: Matthews, L, 2012-08-03 ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 113592 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) ATP atp Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:30616 Reactome Database ID Release 82 113592 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113592 Reactome R-ALL-113592 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113592.5 Reactome http://www.reactome.org COMPOUND C00002 additional information MI MI:0361 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome GSK3 Reactome DB_ID: 198358 GSK3A Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha KG3A_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 198326 UniProt:P49840 GSK3A GSK3A FUNCTION Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC and AXIN1 (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Regulates glycogen metabolism in liver, but not in muscle (By similarity). May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors (PubMed:10868943, PubMed:17478001). In Wnt signaling, regulates the level and transcriptional activity of nuclear CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:17229088). Facilitates amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the generation of APP-derived amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer disease (PubMed:12761548). May be involved in the regulation of replication in pancreatic beta-cells (By similarity). Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth (By similarity). Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of autophagy by mediating phosphorylation of KAT5/TIP60 under starvation conditions which activates KAT5/TIP60 acetyltransferase activity and promotes acetylation of key autophagy regulators, such as ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer (PubMed:30704899). Negatively regulates extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors. Promotes the formation of an anti-apoptotic complex, made of DDX3X, BRIC2 and GSK3B, at death receptors, including TNFRSF10B. The anti-apoptotic function is most effective with weak apoptotic signals and can be overcome by stronger stimulation (By similarity). Phosphorylates mTORC2 complex component RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-279. In response to insulin, inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser-21 by PKB/AKT1; phosphorylation at this site causes a conformational change, preventing access of substrates to the active site. Inhibited by lithium.SUBUNIT Monomer. Interacts with ARRB2 (By similarity). Interacts with AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:17229088). Interacts with CTNND2 (PubMed:19706605). Interacts with LMBR1L (PubMed:31073040). Interacts with DDX3X (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with TNFRSF10B (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with RICTOR; the interaction results in phosphorylation of RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' by GSK3A which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with M.tuberculosis PtpA.PTM Phosphorylated by AKT1 at Ser-21: upon insulin-mediated signaling, the activated PKB/AKT1 protein kinase phosphorylates and deactivates GSK3A, resulting in the dephosphorylation and activation of GYS1. Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-279.PTM (Microbial infection) Dephosphorylated at Tyr-279 by M.tuberculosis PtpA, which leads to prevention of apoptosis during early stages of microbial infection.MISCELLANEOUS Higher expression and activity of GSK3A are found in the skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) of patients with type 2 diabetes (PubMed:10868943). Several potent GSK3 (GSK3A and GSK3B) inhibitors have been identified and characterized in preclinical models for treatments of type 2 diabetes (PubMed:19366350).SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GSK-3 subfamily. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt P49840 2 EQUAL 483 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198326 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198326 Reactome R-HSA-198326 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198326.1 GSK3B Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta GSK3B_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 2997551 UniProt:P49841 GSK3B GSK3B FUNCTION Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), EIF2B, CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC, AXIN1, DPYSL2/CRMP2, JUN, NFATC1/NFATC, MAPT/TAU and MACF1 (PubMed:1846781, PubMed:9072970, PubMed:14690523, PubMed:20937854, PubMed:12554650, PubMed:11430833, PubMed:16484495). Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates (PubMed:11430833, PubMed:16484495). In skeletal muscle, contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis (PubMed:8397507). May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors (PubMed:8397507). Regulates protein synthesis by controlling the activity of initiation factor 2B (EIF2BE/EIF2B5) in the same manner as glycogen synthase (PubMed:8397507). In Wnt signaling, GSK3B forms a multimeric complex with APC, AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin and phosphorylates the N-terminus of CTNNB1 leading to its degradation mediated by ubiquitin/proteasomes (PubMed:12554650). Phosphorylates JUN at sites proximal to its DNA-binding domain, thereby reducing its affinity for DNA (PubMed:1846781). Phosphorylates NFATC1/NFATC on conserved serine residues promoting NFATC1/NFATC nuclear export, shutting off NFATC1/NFATC gene regulation, and thereby opposing the action of calcineurin (PubMed:9072970). Phosphorylates MAPT/TAU on 'Thr-548', decreasing significantly MAPT/TAU ability to bind and stabilize microtubules (PubMed:14690523). MAPT/TAU is the principal component of neurofibrillary tangles in Alzheimer disease (PubMed:14690523). Plays an important role in ERBB2-dependent stabilization of microtubules at the cell cortex (PubMed:20937854). Phosphorylates MACF1, inhibiting its binding to microtubules which is critical for its role in bulge stem cell migration and skin wound repair (By similarity). Probably regulates NF-kappa-B (NFKB1) at the transcriptional level and is required for the NF-kappa-B-mediated anti-apoptotic response to TNF-alpha (TNF/TNFA) (By similarity). Negatively regulates replication in pancreatic beta-cells, resulting in apoptosis, loss of beta-cells and diabetes (By similarity). Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation (By similarity). Phosphorylates MUC1 in breast cancer cells, decreasing the interaction of MUC1 with CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:9819408). Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth (PubMed:20067585). Phosphorylates MARK2, leading to inhibition of its activity (By similarity). Phosphorylates SIK1 at 'Thr-182', leading to sustainment of its activity (PubMed:18348280). Phosphorylates ZC3HAV1 which enhances its antiviral activity (PubMed:22514281). Phosphorylates SNAI1, leading to its BTRC-triggered ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (PubMed:15448698, PubMed:15647282). Phosphorylates SFPQ at 'Thr-687' upon T-cell activation (PubMed:20932480). Phosphorylates NR1D1 st 'Ser-55' and 'Ser-59' and stabilizes it by protecting it from proteasomal degradation. Regulates the circadian clock via phosphorylation of the major clock components including ARNTL/BMAL1, CLOCK and PER2 (PubMed:19946213, PubMed:28903391). Phosphorylates CLOCK AT 'Ser-427' and targets it for proteasomal degradation (PubMed:19946213). Phosphorylates ARNTL/BMAL1 at 'Ser-17' and 'Ser-21' and primes it for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (PubMed:28903391). Phosphorylates OGT at 'Ser-3' or 'Ser-4' which positively regulates its activity. Phosphorylates MYCN in neuroblastoma cells which may promote its degradation (PubMed:24391509). Regulates the circadian rhythmicity of hippocampal long-term potentiation and ARNTL/BMLA1 and PER2 expression (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of autophagy by mediating phosphorylation of KAT5/TIP60 under starvation conditions, activating KAT5/TIP60 acetyltransferase activity and promoting acetylation of key autophagy regulators, such as ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer (PubMed:30704899). Negatively regulates extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors. Promotes the formation of an anti-apoptotic complex, made of DDX3X, BRIC2 and GSK3B, at death receptors, including TNFRSF10B. The anti-apoptotic function is most effective with weak apoptotic signals and can be overcome by stronger stimulation (PubMed:18846110). Phosphorylates E2F1, promoting the interaction between E2F1 and USP11, stabilizing E2F1 and promoting its activity (PubMed:17050006, PubMed:28992046). Phosphorylates mTORC2 complex component RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-216. In response to insulin, inhibited by phosphorylation at Ser-9 by PKB/AKT1 and RPS6KA3; phosphorylation at this site causes a conformational change, preventing access of substrates to the active site. Inhibited by lithium.SUBUNIT Monomer. Interacts with ARRB2, DISC1 and ZBED3 (By similarity). Interacts with CABYR, MMP2, MUC1, NIN and PRUNE1. Interacts with AXIN1; the interaction mediates hyperphosphorylation of CTNNB1 leading to its ubiquitination and destruction. Interacts with and phosphorylates SNAI1. Interacts with DNM1L (via a C-terminal domain). Found in a complex composed of MACF1, APC, AXIN1, CTNNB1 and GSK3B (By similarity). Interacts with SGK3. Interacts with DAB2IP (via C2 domain); the interaction stimulates GSK3B kinase activation. Interacts (via C2 domain) with PPP2CA. Interacts with the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 heterodimer (PubMed:19946213). Interacts with the ARNTL/BMAL1 (PubMed:28903391). Interacts with CTNND2 (PubMed:19706605). Interacts with NCYM (PubMed:24391509). The complex composed, at least, of APC, CTNNB1 and GSK3B interacts with JPT1; the interaction requires the inactive form of GSK3B (phosphorylated at 'Ser-9') (PubMed:25169422). Forms a complex composed of PRKAR2A or PRKAR2B, GSK3B and GSKIP through GSKIP interaction; facilitates PKA-induced phosphorylation and regulates GSK3B activity (PubMed:27484798, PubMed:20007971, PubMed:25920809). Interacts with GSKIP (PubMed:16981698). Interacts with GID8 (PubMed:28829046). Interacts with PIWIL2 (By similarity). Interacts with LMBR1L (PubMed:31073040). Interacts with DDX3X (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with BIRC2 (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with TNFRSF10B; TNFRSF10B stimulation inhibits GSK3B kinase activity (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with RICTOR; the interaction results in phosphorylation of RICTOR at 'Thr-1695' by GSK3B which facilitates FBXW7-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of RICTOR (PubMed:25897075).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in testis, thymus, prostate and ovary and weakly expressed in lung, brain and kidney. Colocalizes with EIF2AK2/PKR and TAU in the Alzheimer disease (AD) brain.PTM Phosphorylated by AKT1 and ILK1. Upon insulin-mediated signaling, the activated PKB/AKT1 protein kinase phosphorylates and deactivates GSK3B, resulting in the dephosphorylation and activation of GYS1. Activated by phosphorylation at Tyr-216 (PubMed:25169422). Inactivated by phosphorylation at Ser-9 (Probable). Phosphorylated in a circadian manner in the hippocampus (By similarity).PTM Mono-ADP-ribosylation by PARP10 negatively regulates kinase activity.MISCELLANEOUS Higher expression and activity of GSK3B are found in the skeletal muscle (vastus lateralis) of patients with type 2 diabetes (PubMed:10868943). Several potent GSK3 (GSK3A and GSK3B) inhibitors have been identified and characterized in preclinical models for treatments of type 2 diabetes (PubMed:19366350).SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. GSK-3 subfamily. UniProt P49841 1 EQUAL 420 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2997551 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2997551 Reactome R-HSA-2997551 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2997551.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198358 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198358 Reactome R-HSA-198358 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198358.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p-S9/21-GSK3 Phospho-GSK3 Reactome DB_ID: 198373 GSK3A p-S21-GSK3A Phospho-GSK3A KG3A_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 198352 21 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine MOD MOD:00046 2 EQUAL 483 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 198352 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198352 Reactome R-HSA-198352 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198352.1 GSK3B p-S9-GSK3B pS9-GSK3B Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta GSK3B_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 3149577 9 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 420 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 3149577 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=3149577 Reactome R-HSA-3149577 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-3149577.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 198373 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=198373 Reactome R-HSA-198373 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-198373.1 ADP Adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 29370 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP 5'-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP trianion ChEBI CHEBI:456216 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29370 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29370 Reactome R-ALL-29370 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29370.5 COMPOUND C00008 ACTIVATION p-T308,S473-AKT1 E17K Reactome DB_ID: 2243935 UniProt:P31749 AKT1 AKT1 PKB RAC FUNCTION AKT1 is one of 3 closely related serine/threonine-protein kinases (AKT1, AKT2 and AKT3) called the AKT kinase, and which regulate many processes including metabolism, proliferation, cell survival, growth and angiogenesis (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). This is mediated through serine and/or threonine phosphorylation of a range of downstream substrates (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). Over 100 substrate candidates have been reported so far, but for most of them, no isoform specificity has been reported (PubMed:15526160, PubMed:11882383, PubMed:21620960, PubMed:21432781). AKT is responsible of the regulation of glucose uptake by mediating insulin-induced translocation of the SLC2A4/GLUT4 glucose transporter to the cell surface (By similarity). Phosphorylation of PTPN1 at 'Ser-50' negatively modulates its phosphatase activity preventing dephosphorylation of the insulin receptor and the attenuation of insulin signaling (By similarity). Phosphorylation of TBC1D4 triggers the binding of this effector to inhibitory 14-3-3 proteins, which is required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport (PubMed:11994271). AKT regulates also the storage of glucose in the form of glycogen by phosphorylating GSK3A at 'Ser-21' and GSK3B at 'Ser-9', resulting in inhibition of its kinase activity (By similarity). Phosphorylation of GSK3 isoforms by AKT is also thought to be one mechanism by which cell proliferation is driven (By similarity). AKT regulates also cell survival via the phosphorylation of MAP3K5 (apoptosis signal-related kinase) (PubMed:11154276). Phosphorylation of 'Ser-83' decreases MAP3K5 kinase activity stimulated by oxidative stress and thereby prevents apoptosis (PubMed:11154276). AKT mediates insulin-stimulated protein synthesis by phosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-939' and 'Thr-1462', thereby activating the TORC1 signaling pathway, and leading to both phosphorylation of 4E-BP1 and in activation of RPS6KB1 (PubMed:12150915). Also regulates the TORC1 signaling pathway by catalyzing phosphorylation of CASTOR1 (PubMed:33594058). AKT is involved in the phosphorylation of members of the FOXO factors (Forkhead family of transcription factors), leading to binding of 14-3-3 proteins and cytoplasmic localization (PubMed:10358075). In particular, FOXO1 is phosphorylated at 'Thr-24', 'Ser-256' and 'Ser-319' (PubMed:10358075). FOXO3 and FOXO4 are phosphorylated on equivalent sites (PubMed:10358075). AKT has an important role in the regulation of NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription and positively regulates the activity of CREB1 (cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element binding protein) (PubMed:9829964). The phosphorylation of CREB1 induces the binding of accessory proteins that are necessary for the transcription of pro-survival genes such as BCL2 and MCL1 (PubMed:9829964). AKT phosphorylates 'Ser-454' on ATP citrate lyase (ACLY), thereby potentially regulating ACLY activity and fatty acid synthesis (By similarity). Activates the 3B isoform of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE3B) via phosphorylation of 'Ser-273', resulting in reduced cyclic AMP levels and inhibition of lipolysis (By similarity). Phosphorylates PIKFYVE on 'Ser-318', which results in increased PI(3)P-5 activity (By similarity). The Rho GTPase-activating protein DLC1 is another substrate and its phosphorylation is implicated in the regulation cell proliferation and cell growth. AKT plays a role as key modulator of the AKT-mTOR signaling pathway controlling the tempo of the process of newborn neurons integration during adult neurogenesis, including correct neuron positioning, dendritic development and synapse formation (By similarity). Signals downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI(3)K) to mediate the effects of various growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) (PubMed:12176338, PubMed:12964941). AKT mediates the antiapoptotic effects of IGF-I (By similarity). Essential for the SPATA13-mediated regulation of cell migration and adhesion assembly and disassembly (PubMed:19934221). May be involved in the regulation of the placental development (By similarity). Phosphorylates STK4/MST1 at 'Thr-120' and 'Thr-387' leading to inhibition of its: kinase activity, nuclear translocation, autophosphorylation and ability to phosphorylate FOXO3 (PubMed:17726016). Phosphorylates STK3/MST2 at 'Thr-117' and 'Thr-384' leading to inhibition of its: cleavage, kinase activity, autophosphorylation at Thr-180, binding to RASSF1 and nuclear translocation (PubMed:20086174, PubMed:20231902). Phosphorylates SRPK2 and enhances its kinase activity towards SRSF2 and ACIN1 and promotes its nuclear translocation (PubMed:19592491). Phosphorylates RAF1 at 'Ser-259' and negatively regulates its activity (PubMed:10576742). Phosphorylation of BAD stimulates its pro-apoptotic activity (PubMed:10926925). Phosphorylates KAT6A at 'Thr-369' and this phosphorylation inhibits the interaction of KAT6A with PML and negatively regulates its acetylation activity towards p53/TP53 (PubMed:23431171). Phosphorylates palladin (PALLD), modulating cytoskeletal organization and cell motility (PubMed:20471940). Phosphorylates prohibitin (PHB), playing an important role in cell metabolism and proliferation (PubMed:18507042). Phosphorylates CDKN1A, for which phosphorylation at 'Thr-145' induces its release from CDK2 and cytoplasmic relocalization (PubMed:16982699). These recent findings indicate that the AKT1 isoform has a more specific role in cell motility and proliferation (PubMed:16139227). Phosphorylates CLK2 thereby controlling cell survival to ionizing radiation (PubMed:20682768). Phosphorylates PCK1 at 'Ser-90', reducing the binding affinity of PCK1 to oxaloacetate and changing PCK1 into an atypical protein kinase activity using GTP as donor (PubMed:32322062). Also acts as an activator of TMEM175 potassium channel activity in response to growth factors: forms the lysoK(GF) complex together with TMEM175 and acts by promoting TMEM175 channel activation, independently of its protein kinase activity (PubMed:32228865).ACTIVITY REGULATION Three specific sites, one in the kinase domain (Thr-308) and the two other ones in the C-terminal regulatory region (Ser-473 and Tyr-474), need to be phosphorylated for its full activation (PubMed:20481595, PubMed:21392984, PubMed:9512493, PubMed:9736715). Inhibited by pyrrolopyrimidine inhibitors like aniline triazole and spiroindoline (PubMed:18456494, PubMed:20810279).SUBUNIT Interacts with BTBD10 (By similarity). Interacts with KCTD20 (By similarity). Interacts (via the C-terminus) with CCDC88A (via its C-terminus). Interacts with GRB10; the interaction leads to GRB10 phosphorylation thus promoting YWHAE-binding (By similarity). Interacts with AGAP2 (isoform 2/PIKE-A); the interaction occurs in the presence of guanine nucleotides. Interacts with AKTIP. Interacts (via PH domain) with MTCP1, TCL1A AND TCL1B. Interacts with CDKN1B; the interaction phosphorylates CDKN1B promoting 14-3-3 binding and cell-cycle progression. Interacts with MAP3K5 and TRAF6. Interacts with BAD, PPP2R5B, STK3 and STK4. Interacts (via PH domain) with SIRT1. Interacts with SRPK2 in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Interacts with RAF1. Interacts with TRIM13; the interaction ubiquitinates AKT1 leading to its proteasomal degradation. Interacts with TNK2 and CLK2. Interacts (via the C-terminus) with THEM4 (via its C-terminus). Interacts with and phosphorylated by PDPK1. Interacts with PA2G4 (By similarity). Interacts with KIF14; the interaction is detected in the plasma membrane upon INS stimulation and promotes AKT1 phosphorylation (PubMed:24784001). Interacts with FAM83B; activates the PI3K/AKT signaling cascade (PubMed:23676467). Interacts with WDFY2 (via WD repeats 1-3) (PubMed:16792529). Forms a complex with WDFY2 and FOXO1 (By similarity). Interacts with FAM168A (PubMed:23251525). Interacts with SYAP1 (via phosphorylated form and BSD domain); this interaction is enhanced in a mTORC2-mediated manner in response to epidermal growth factor (EGF) stimulation and activates AKT1 (PubMed:23300339). Interacts with PKHM3 (By similarity). Interacts with FKBP5/FKBP51; promoting interaction between Akt/AKT1 and PHLPP1, thereby enhancing dephosphorylation and subsequent activation of Akt/AKT1 (PubMed:28147277). Interacts with TMEM175; leading to formation of the lysoK(GF) complex (PubMed:32228865). Acts as a negative regulator of the cGAS-STING pathway by mediating phosphorylation of CGAS during mitosis, leading to its inhibition (PubMed:26440888).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in prostate cancer and levels increase from the normal to the malignant state (at protein level). Expressed in all human cell types so far analyzed. The Tyr-176 phosphorylated form shows a significant increase in expression in breast cancers during the progressive stages i.e. normal to hyperplasia (ADH), ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and lymph node metastatic (LNMM) stages.DOMAIN Binding of the PH domain to phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3) following phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase alpha (PIK3CA) activity results in its targeting to the plasma membrane. The PH domain mediates interaction with TNK2 and Tyr-176 is also essential for this interaction.DOMAIN The AGC-kinase C-terminal mediates interaction with THEM4.PTM O-GlcNAcylation at Thr-305 and Thr-312 inhibits activating phosphorylation at Thr-308 via disrupting the interaction between AKT1 and PDPK1. O-GlcNAcylation at Ser-473 also probably interferes with phosphorylation at this site.PTM Phosphorylation on Thr-308, Ser-473 and Tyr-474 is required for full activity (PubMed:12149249, PubMed:14761976, PubMed:15047712, PubMed:16266983, PubMed:17013611, PubMed:20978158, PubMed:9736715, PubMed:23799035, PubMed:8978681, PubMed:28147277). Activated TNK2 phosphorylates it on Tyr-176 resulting in its binding to the anionic plasma membrane phospholipid PA (PubMed:20333297). This phosphorylated form localizes to the cell membrane, where it is targeted by PDPK1 and PDPK2 for further phosphorylations on Thr-308 and Ser-473 leading to its activation (PubMed:9512493). Ser-473 phosphorylation by mTORC2 favors Thr-308 phosphorylation by PDPK1 (PubMed:21464307, PubMed:8978681). Phosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by IKBKE and TBK1 (PubMed:15718470, PubMed:18456494, PubMed:20481595, PubMed:8978681). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by interaction with AGAP2 isoform 2 (PIKE-A) (PubMed:14761976). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced in focal cortical dysplasias with Taylor-type balloon cells (PubMed:17013611). Ser-473 phosphorylation is enhanced by signaling through activated FLT3 (By similarity). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by PHLPP (PubMed:28147277). Dephosphorylated at Thr-308 and Ser-473 by PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). The phosphorylated form of PPP2R5B is required for bridging AKT1 with PP2A phosphatase (PubMed:21329884). Ser-473 is dephosphorylated by CPPED1, leading to termination of signaling (PubMed:9512493).PTM Ubiquitinated; undergoes both 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination. TRAF6-induced 'Lys-63'-linked AKT1 ubiquitination is critical for phosphorylation and activation (PubMed:19713527). When ubiquitinated, it translocates to the plasma membrane, where it becomes phosphorylated (PubMed:20059950). When fully phosphorylated and translocated into the nucleus, undergoes 'Lys-48'-polyubiquitination catalyzed by TTC3, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:20059950). Also ubiquitinated by TRIM13 leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:21333377). Phosphorylated, undergoes 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination preferentially at Lys-284 catalyzed by MUL1, leading to its proteasomal degradation (PubMed:22410793). Ubiquitinated via 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by ZNRF1, leading to its degradation by the proteasome (By similarity).PTM Acetylated on Lys-14 and Lys-20 by the histone acetyltransferases EP300 and KAT2B. Acetylation results in reduced phosphorylation and inhibition of activity. Deacetylated at Lys-14 and Lys-20 by SIRT1. SIRT1-mediated deacetylation relieves the inhibition.PTM Cleavage by caspase-3/CASP3 (By similarity). Cleaved at the caspase-3 consensus site Asp-462 during apoptosis, resulting in down-regulation of the AKT signaling pathway and decreased cell survival (PubMed:23152800).DISEASE Genetic variations in AKT1 may play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. AGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. RAC subfamily.CAUTION PUBMED:19940129 has been retracted because the same data were used to represent different experimental conditions.CAUTION In light of strong homologies in the primary amino acid sequence, the 3 AKT kinases were long surmised to play redundant and overlapping roles. More recent studies has brought into question the redundancy within AKT kinase isoforms and instead pointed to isoform specific functions in different cellular events and diseases. AKT1 is more specifically involved in cellular survival pathways, by inhibiting apoptotic processes; whereas AKT2 is more specific for the insulin receptor signaling pathway. Moreover, while AKT1 and AKT2 are often implicated in many aspects of cellular transformation, the 2 isoforms act in a complementary opposing manner. The role of AKT3 is less clear, though it appears to be predominantly expressed in brain. UniProt P31749 17 EQUAL L-glutamic acid removal MOD MOD:01636 473 EQUAL 308 EQUAL O-phospho-L-threonine MOD MOD:00047 1 EQUAL 480 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 2243935 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2243935 Reactome R-HSA-2243935 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2243935.1 COSMIC COSV62571334 COSMIC COSM34142 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004674 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399974 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399974 Reactome Database ID Release 82 2399966 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2399966 Reactome R-HSA-2399966 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2399966.1 18256540 Pubmed 2008 Activating E17K mutation in the gene encoding the protein kinase AKT1 in a subset of squamous cell carcinoma of the lung Malanga, Donatella Scrima, Marianna De Marco, Carmela Fabiani, Fernanda De Rosa, Nicla De Gisi, Silvia Malara, Natalia Savino, Rocco Rocco, Gaetano Chiappetta, Gennaro Franco, Renato Tirino, Virginia Pirozzi, Giuseppe Viglietto, Giuseppe Cell Cycle 7:665-9 12668767 Pubmed 2003 Stabilization of beta-catenin by a Wnt-independent mechanism regulates cardiomyocyte growth Haq, Syed Michael, Ashour Andreucci, Michele Bhattacharya, Kausik Dotto, Paolo Walters, Brian Woodgett, James Kilter, Heiko Force, Thomas Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100:4610-5 9478990 Pubmed 1998 Potential role of protein kinase B in insulin-induced glucose transport, glycogen synthesis, and protein synthesis Ueki, K Yamamoto-Honda, R Kaburagi, Y Yamauchi, T Tobe, K Burgering, B M Coffer, P J Komuro, I Akanuma, Y Yazaki, Y Kadowaki, T J. Biol. Chem. 273:5315-22