BioPAX pathway converted from "TRAF6 mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines" in the Reactome database. TRAF6 mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines Together with ubiquitin-conjugating E2-type enzymes UBC13 and UEV1A (also known as UBE2V1), TRAF6 catalyzes Lys63-linked ubiquitination. It is believed that auto polyubiquitination and oligomerization of TRAF6 is followed by binding the ubiquitin receptors of TAB2 or TAB3 (TAK1 binding protein 2 and 3), which stimulates phosphorylation and activation of TGF beta-activated kinase 1(TAK1).<p>TAK1 phosphorylates IKK alpha and IKK beta, which in turn phosphorylate NF-kB inhibitors - IkB and eventually results in IkB degradation and NF-kB translocation to the nucleus. Also TAK1 mediates JNK and p38 MAP kinases activation by phosphorylating MKK4/7 and MKK3/6 respectively resulting in the activation of many transcription factors. <p>The role of TRAF6 is somewhat controversial and probably cell type specific. TRAF6 autoubiquitination was found to be dispensable for TRAF6 function to activate the TAK1 pathway. These findings are consistent with the new mechanism of TRAF6-mediated NF-kB activation that was suggested by Xia et al. (2009). TRAF6 generates unanchored Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains that bind to the regulatory subunits of the TAK1 (TAB2 or TAB3) and IKK (NEMO), leading to the activation of the kinases.<p> Xia et al. (2009) demonstrated in vitro that unlike polyubiquitin chains covalently attached to TRAF6 or IRAK, TAB2 and NEMO-associated ubiquitin chains were unanchored and susceptible to N-terminal ubiquitin cleavage. Only K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, but not monomeric ubiquitin, activated TAK1 in a dose-dependent manner. Optimal activation of the IKK complex was achieved using ubiquitin polymers containing both K48 and K63 linkages.<p>Furthermore, the authors proposed that the TAK1 complexes might be brougt in close proximity by binding several TAB2/3 to a single polyubiquitin chain to facilitate TAK1 kinases trans-phosphorylation. Alternatively, the possibility that polyUb binding promotes allosteric activation of TAK1 complex should be considered. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 LEFT-TO-RIGHT viral dsRNA: TLR3: TICAM1 recruits TRAF6 TRAF6 is recruited to the N-terminal domain of TICAM1 and this event is followed by auto polyubiquitination and oligomerization of TRAF6. Chicken TRAF6 protein, confirmed by transcript evidence, shows 76% amino acid sequence identity with human TRAF6. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 433886 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 UniProt:E1C626 TRAF6 TRAF6 SIMILARITY: Contains 1 MATH domain. Gallus gallus NCBI Taxonomy 9031 UniProt E1C626 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433886 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433886 Reactome R-GGA-433886 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433886.1 Reactome http://www.reactome.org 2 viral dsRNA : TLR3 : TICAM1 Reactome DB_ID: 433947 endosome membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0010008 viral dsRNA:TLR3 Reactome DB_ID: 433883 IBV dsRNA intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 9014378 endosome lumen GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0031904 Reactome Database ID Release 82 9014378 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9014378 Reactome R-IBR-9014378 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-IBR-9014378.1 1 TLR3 Reactome DB_ID: 433892 UniProt:Q0PQ88 Toll-like receptor 3 Toll-like receptor 3 TLR3 SIMILARITY Contains 1 TIR domain. UniProt Q0PQ88 1 EQUAL 1011 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433892 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433892 Reactome R-GGA-433892 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433892.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433883 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433883 Reactome R-GGA-433883 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433883.3 1 TRIF TICAM1 TLR_adaptor_molecule1 Reactome DB_ID: 433979 UniProt:A0FKC7 Toll/IL-1 recepter (TIR)-domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta Toll/IL-1 recepter (TIR)-domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta TLR adaptor molecule 1(TRIF) <submittedName> <fullName>Toll/IL-1 recepter (TIR)-domain containing adapter inducing interferon beta</fullName> </submittedName> UniProt A0FKC7 1 EQUAL 735 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433979 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433979 Reactome R-GGA-433979 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433979.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433947 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433947 Reactome R-GGA-433947 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433947.2 viral ds RNA : TLR3 : TICAM1 : TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 433968 TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 433792 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433792 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433792 Reactome R-GGA-433792 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433792.1 2 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433968 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433968 Reactome R-GGA-433968 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433968.2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433808 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433808 Reactome R-GGA-433808 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433808.3 16306937 Pubmed 2006 Specificity in Toll-like receptor signalling through distinct effector functions of TRAF3 and TRAF6 Häcker, H Redecke, V Blagoev, B Kratchmarova, I Hsu, LC Wang, GG Kamps, MP Raz, E Wagner, H Häcker, G Mann, M Karin, M Nature 439:204-7 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 6.3.2.19 Auto ubiquitination of the TRAF6 within the complex viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1:TRAF6 TRAF6 possesses ubiquitin ligase activity and undergoes K-63-linked auto-ubiquitination after its oligomerization. In the first step, ubiquitin is activated by an E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme. The activated ubiquitin is transferred to a E2 conjugating enzyme (a heterodimer of proteins Ubc13 and Uev1A) forming the E2-Ub thioester. Finally, in the presence of ubiquitin-protein ligase E3 (TRAF6, a RING-domain E3), ubiquitin is attached to the target protein (TRAF6 on residue Lysine 124) through an isopeptide bond between the C-terminus of ubiquitin and the epsilon-amino group of a lysine residue in the target protein. In contrast to K-48-linked ubiquitination that leads to the proteosomal degradation of the target protein, K-63-linked polyubiquitin chains act as a scaffold to assemble protein kinase complexes and mediate their activation through proteosome-independent mechanisms. This K63 polyubiquitinated TRAF6 activates the TAK1 kinase complex. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 Ubiquitin:UBE2N : UBE2V complex Reactome DB_ID: 446245 UBE2V1 Reactome DB_ID: 434105 UniProt:Q90879 UBE2V1 UBE2V1 FUNCTION Has no ubiquitin ligase activity on its own. The UBE2V1-UBE2N heterodimer catalyzes the synthesis of non-canonical poly-ubiquitin chains that are linked through 'Lys-63'. This type of poly-ubiquitination activates IKK and does not seem to involve protein degradation by the proteasome. Plays a role in the activation of NF-kappa-B. Mediates transcriptional activation of target genes. Plays a role in the control of progress through the cell cycle and differentiation. Plays a role in the error-free DNA repair pathway and contributes to the survival of cells after DNA damage (By similarity). Together with RNF135 and UBE2N, may catalyze the viral RNA-dependent 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitination of RIG-I/DDX58 to activate the downstream signaling pathway that leads to interferon beta production (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. UniProt Q90879 1 EQUAL 145 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 434105 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434105 Reactome R-GGA-434105 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434105.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Ubiquitin Reactome DB_ID: 434147 ubiquitin (RPS27A) Reactome DB_ID: 939879 UniProt:P79781 RPS27A RPS27A UBA80 FUNCTION Ubiquitin Exists either covalently attached to another protein, or free (unanchored). When covalently bound, it is conjugated to target proteins via an isopeptide bond either as a monomer (monoubiquitin), a polymer linked via different Lys residues of the ubiquitin (polyubiquitin chains) or a linear polymer linked via the initiator Met of the ubiquitin (linear polyubiquitin chains). Polyubiquitin chains, when attached to a target protein, have different functions depending on the Lys residue of the ubiquitin that is linked: Lys-6-linked may be involved in DNA repair; Lys-11-linked is involved in ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation) and in cell-cycle regulation; Lys-29-linked is involved in proteotoxic stress response and cell cycle; Lys-33-linked is involved in kinase modification; Lys-48-linked is involved in protein degradation via the proteasome; Lys-63-linked is involved in endocytosis, DNA-damage responses as well as in signaling processes leading to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa-B. Linear polymer chains formed via attachment by the initiator Met lead to cell signaling. Ubiquitin is usually conjugated to Lys residues of target proteins, however, in rare cases, conjugation to Cys or Ser residues has been observed. When polyubiquitin is free (unanchored-polyubiquitin), it also has distinct roles, such as in activation of protein kinases, and in signaling (By similarity).FUNCTION Ribosomal protein S27a is a component of the 40S subunit of the ribosome.SUBUNIT Ribosomal protein S27a is part of the 40S ribosomal subunit.MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. Uba52 and Rps27a genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.SIMILARITY In the N-terminal section; belongs to the ubiquitin family.SIMILARITY In the C-terminal section; belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS31 family. UniProt P79781 1 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 939879 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939879 Reactome R-GGA-939879 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-939879.1 ubiquitin (UBA52) Reactome DB_ID: 939891 UniProt:P62985 UBA52 UBA52 UBCEP2 SUBUNIT Ribosomal protein L40 is part of the 60S ribosomal subunit.MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. Uba52 and Rps27a genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.SIMILARITY In the N-terminal section; belongs to the ubiquitin family.SIMILARITY In the C-terminal section; belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL40 family. UniProt P62985 17 EQUAL 1 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 939891 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939891 Reactome R-GGA-939891 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-939891.1 ubiquitin (UBB 1) Reactome DB_ID: 939892 UniProt:P0CG62 UBB UBB FUNCTION Ubiquitin Exists either covalently attached to another protein, or free (unanchored). When covalently bound, it is conjugated to target proteins via an isopeptide bond either as a monomer (monoubiquitin), a polymer linked via different Lys residues of the ubiquitin (polyubiquitin chains) or a linear polymer linked via the initiator Met of the ubiquitin (linear polyubiquitin chains). Polyubiquitin chains, when attached to a target protein, have different functions depending on the Lys residue of the ubiquitin that is linked: Lys-6-linked may be involved in DNA repair; Lys-11-linked is involved in ERAD (endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation) and in cell-cycle regulation; Lys-29-linked is involved in proteotoxic stress response and cell cycle; Lys-33-linked is involved in kinase modification; Lys-48-linked is involved in protein degradation via the proteasome; Lys-63-linked is involved in endocytosis, DNA-damage responses as well as in signaling processes leading to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappa-B. Linear polymer chains formed via attachment by the initiator Met lead to cell signaling. Ubiquitin is usually conjugated to Lys residues of target proteins, however, in rare cases, conjugation to Cys or Ser residues has been observed. When polyubiquitin is free (unanchored-polyubiquitin), it also has distinct roles, such as in activation of protein kinases, and in signaling (By similarity).MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. Uba52 and Rps27a genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.MISCELLANEOUS For the sake of clarity sequence features are annotated only for the first chain, and are not repeated for each of the following chains.SIMILARITY Belongs to the ubiquitin family. UniProt P0CG62 1 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 939892 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939892 Reactome R-GGA-939892 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-939892.1 ubiquitin (UBB 2) Reactome DB_ID: 939878 77 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 939878 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939878 Reactome R-GGA-939878 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-939878.1 ubiquitin (UBB 3) Reactome DB_ID: 939877 153 EQUAL 228 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 939877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939877 Reactome R-GGA-939877 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-939877.1 ubiquitin (UBB 4) Reactome DB_ID: 939898 229 EQUAL 304 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 939898 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939898 Reactome R-GGA-939898 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-939898.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434147 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434147 Reactome R-GGA-434147 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434147.1 1 UBE2N Ubiquitin carier protein (UBC13 homolog) Reactome DB_ID: 433933 UniProt:Q5F405 RCJMB04_3o20 RCJMB04_3o20 SIMILARITY Belongs to the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme family. UniProt Q5F405 1 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433933 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433933 Reactome R-GGA-433933 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433933.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 446245 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=446245 Reactome R-GGA-446245 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-446245.1 viral ds RNA : TLR3 : TICAM1 : pUb-TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 434102 pUb_TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 434011 K63_polyubiquitin chain Reactome DB_ID: 433989 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433989 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433989 Reactome R-GGA-433989 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433989.1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434011 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434011 Reactome R-GGA-434011 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434011.1 2 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434102 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434102 Reactome R-GGA-434102 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434102.2 UBE2N : UBE2V complex Reactome DB_ID: 433960 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433960 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433960 Reactome R-GGA-433960 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433960.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein4 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004842 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 82 434017 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434017 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433981 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433981 Reactome R-GGA-433981 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433981.3 17135271 Pubmed 2007 Site-specific Lys-63-linked tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 auto-ubiquitination is a critical determinant of I kappa B kinase activation Lamothe, B Besse, A Campos, AD Webster, WK Wu, H Darnay, BG J Biol Chem 282:4102-12 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 6.3.2.19 Activated chicken TRAF6 synthesizes free K63bound poly_Ub chains within the complex dsRNA :TLR3 :TICAM1 TRAF6 generates unanchored Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains that bind to the regulatory subunits of the TAK1 (TAB2 or TAB3), leading to the activation of TAK1[Xia et al. 2009]. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 3 free K63_polyubiquitin chain Reactome DB_ID: 451962 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451962 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451962 Reactome R-GGA-451962 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451962.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Complex6 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433906 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433906 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433936 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433936 Reactome R-GGA-433936 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433936.2 15836773 Pubmed 2005 TAK1-binding protein 2 facilitates ubiquitination of TRAF6 and assembly of TRAF6 with IKK in the IL-1 signaling pathway Kishida, S Sanjo, H Akira, Shizuo Matsumoto, K Ninomiya-Tsuji, J Genes Cells 10:447-54 14633987 Pubmed 2003 Role of the TAB2-related protein TAB3 in IL-1 and TNF signaling Ishitani, T Takaesu, G Ninomiya-Tsuji, J Shibuya, H Gaynor, RB Matsumoto, K EMBO J 22:6277-88 17496917 Pubmed 2007 Ubiquitin-mediated activation of TAK1 and IKK Adhikari, A Xu, M Chen, ZJ Oncogene 26:3214-26 19675569 Pubmed 2009 Direct activation of protein kinases by unanchored polyubiquitin chains Xia, ZP Sun, L Chen, X Pineda, G Jiang, X Adhikari, A Zeng, W Chen, ZJ Nature GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0010994 gene ontology term for cellular process MI MI:0359 LEFT-TO-RIGHT TRAF6 recruits TAK1 kinase complex Polyubiquitinated TRAF6 activates TAK1 by binding to the ubiquitin receptor TAB2 (also known as MAP3K7IP2). This binding leads to autophosphorylation and activation of TAK1. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2012-05-25 2 TAK1 : TAB1 : TAB2/TAB3 complex Reactome DB_ID: 433839 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome chicken TAB2/TAB3 Reactome DB_ID: 975711 TAB2 Reactome DB_ID: 434032 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000020155 TAB2 TAB2 MAP3K7IP2 (TAB2) ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000020155 1 EQUAL 697 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 434032 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434032 Reactome R-GGA-434032 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434032.1 TAB3 Reactome DB_ID: 442867 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000026205 TAB3 TAB3 MAP3K7IP3 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000026205 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442867 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442867 Reactome R-GGA-442867 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442867.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 975711 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975711 Reactome R-GGA-975711 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975711.1 1 TAB1 Reactome DB_ID: 433882 UniProt:Q5ZJW3 RCJMB04_15c17 RCJMB04_15c17 <submittedName> <fullName>Putative uncharacterized protein</fullName> </submittedName> UniProt Q5ZJW3 1 EQUAL 438 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433882 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433882 Reactome R-GGA-433882 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433882.1 1 TAK1 Reactome DB_ID: 433825 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000025101 TGF-beta- activated kinase 1 TGF-beta- activated kinase 1 MAP3K7 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000025101 1 EQUAL 617 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433825 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433825 Reactome R-GGA-433825 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433825.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433839 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433839 Reactome R-GGA-433839 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433839.1 2 viral dsRNA : TLR3 : TICAM1 : pUb_TRAF6 :TAB2 :TAB3: TAK1 : TAB1: free_pUb_chain Reactome DB_ID: 434146 TAK1 : TAB1 : TAB2/TAB3 complex Reactome DB_ID: 433931 TAB1 Reactome DB_ID: 434141 1 EQUAL 438 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 434141 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434141 Reactome R-GGA-434141 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434141.1 1 TAK1 Reactome DB_ID: 433956 1 EQUAL 617 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433956 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433956 Reactome R-GGA-433956 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433956.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome chicken TAB2/TAB3 Reactome DB_ID: 993984 TAB3 Reactome DB_ID: 442975 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442975 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442975 Reactome R-GGA-442975 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442975.1 TAB2 Reactome DB_ID: 433923 1 EQUAL 697 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433923 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433923 Reactome R-GGA-433923 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433923.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 993984 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=993984 Reactome R-GGA-993984 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-993984.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433931 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433931 Reactome R-GGA-433931 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433931.1 2 1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434146 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434146 Reactome R-GGA-434146 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434146.2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433950 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433950 Reactome R-GGA-433950 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433950.3 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 Activation of recruited TAK1 Polyubiquitinated TRAF6 activates TAK1 by binding to the ubiquitin receptor TAB2 (also known as MAP3K7IP2). This binding leads to autophosphorylation and activation of TAK1. Chicken TAK1 complex proteins TAK1, TAB1, TAB2 and TAB3, confirmed by transcript evidence, show 89%, 88% , 87%, 85% amino acid identity with their human counterparts respectively.<p>Embryonic fibroblasts and B cells derived from TAK1-deficient mice show reduced NF-kappaB, JNK and p38 activation in response to various TLR ligands. Furthermore, ERK1 and ERK2 activation was also reduced in TAK1-deficient mouse B cells [Sato S et al 2005].<p>Although there are no experimental data showing a TAK1 functional role in chicken innate immune response, its kinase activity was demonstrated to be essential for BCR (B cell antigen receptor)-mediated IKK and JNK activation in chicken DT40 B cells [Shinohara H et al 2005]. When BCR-mediated NF-kappaB activation was abolished, JNK phosphorylation was completely abolished, while ERK was activated normally in a TAK1-deficient chicken DT40 B cell line. <p>Thus, TAK1 is believed to activate the IKK complex that leads to NF-kappaB activation. Also TAK1 phosphorylates members of the MAP kinase kinase family, MKK4, MKK3 and MKK6, which subsequently activate JNK and p38. ERK is also activated in response to TLR ligands through the activation of MEK1 and MEK2, although an upstream kinase activating MEK1 and MEK2 in TLR signaling remains unknown. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2012-05-25 ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 113592 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) ATP atp Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:30616 Reactome Database ID Release 82 113592 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113592 Reactome R-ALL-113592 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113592.5 COMPOUND C00002 additional information MI MI:0361 4 ADP Adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 29370 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP 5&apos;-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP trianion ChEBI CHEBI:456216 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29370 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29370 Reactome R-ALL-29370 5 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29370.5 COMPOUND C00008 4 viral dsRNA : TLR3 : TICAM1 : pUb_TRAF6 :TAB2:TAB3 :phospho TAK1 : TAB1 : free pUb chain Reactome DB_ID: 434152 2 2 phosphorylated TAK1 Reactome DB_ID: 433952 O-phospho-L-threonine MOD MOD:00047 1 EQUAL 617 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433952 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433952 Reactome R-GGA-433952 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433952.1 2 1 2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434152 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434152 Reactome R-GGA-434152 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434152.2 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein20 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004674 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434006 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434006 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433957 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433957 Reactome R-GGA-433957 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433957.3 16186825 Pubmed 2005 Essential function for the kinase TAK1 in innate and adaptive immune responses Sato, S Sanjo, H Takeda, K Ninomiya-Tsuji, J Yamamoto, M Kawai, T Matsumoto, K Takeuchi, O Akira, Shizuo Nat Immunol 6:1087-95 11460167 Pubmed 2001 TAK1 is a ubiquitin-dependent kinase of MKK and IKK Wang, C Deng, L Hong, M Akkaraju, GR Inoue, J Chen, ZJ Nature 412:346-51 15145317 Pubmed 2004 The two NF-kappaB activation pathways and their role in innate and adaptive immunity Bonizzi, G Karin, M Trends Immunol 25:280-8 16301747 Pubmed 2005 PKC beta regulates BCR-mediated IKK activation by facilitating the interaction between TAK1 and CARMA1 Shinohara, H Yasuda, T Aiba, Y Sanjo, H Hamadate, M Watarai, H Sakurai, H Kurosaki, T J Exp Med 202:1423-31 16260493 Pubmed 2005 TAK1, but not TAB1 or TAB2, plays an essential role in multiple signaling pathways in vivo Shim, JH Xiao, C Paschal, AE Bailey, ST Rao, P Hayden, MS Lee, KY Bussey, C Steckel, M Tanaka, N Yamada, G Akira, Shizuo Matsumoto, K Ghosh, S Genes Dev 19:2668-81 LEFT-TO-RIGHT Activated chicken TAK1 dissociates from the activated TLR3 complex Phosphorylated TAK1 complexed with TRAF6-TAB1-TAB2/TAB3 leaves the activated TLR4 complex and translocates to the cytosol Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2010-08-04 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-10-15 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-11-05 pUB-TRAF6:TAB2:TAB3:TAB1:free K63-pUb chain:phospho TAK1 Reactome DB_ID: 921146 K63_polyubiquitin chain Reactome DB_ID: 434061 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434061 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434061 Reactome R-GGA-434061 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434061.1 2 pUb_TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 451455 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451455 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451455 Reactome R-GGA-451455 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451455.1 2 2 phosphorylated TAK1 Reactome DB_ID: 451473 1 EQUAL 617 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 451473 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451473 Reactome R-GGA-451473 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451473.1 2 2 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 921146 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=921146 Reactome R-GGA-921146 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-921146.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 921145 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=921145 Reactome R-GGA-921145 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-921145.3 12609980 Pubmed 2003 Poly(I-C)-induced Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3)-mediated activation of NFkappa B and MAP kinase is through an interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK)-independent pathway employing the signaling components TLR3-TRAF6-TAK1-TAB2-PKR Jiang, Z Zamanian-Daryoush, M Nie, H Silva, AM Williams, BR Li, X J Biol Chem 278:16713-9 TAK1 activates NFkB by phosphorylation and activation of IKKs complex NF-kappa-B is sequestered in the cytoplasm in a complex with inhibitor of NF-kappa-B (IkB). Almost all NF-kappa-B activation pathways are mediated by IkB kinase (IKK), which phosphorylates IkB resulting in dissociation of NF-kappa-B from the complex. This allows translocation of NF-kappa-B to the nucleus where it regulates gene expression. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 Phosphorylation of IKKs complex by activated TAK1 The IKKs - IkB kinase (IKK) complex serves as the master regulator for the activation of NF-kB by various stimuli. It contains two catalytic subunits, IKK alpha and IKK beta, and a regulatory subunit, IKKgamma/NEMO. The activation of IKK complex and the NFkB mediated antiviral response are dependent on the phosphorylation of IKK alpha/beta at its activation loop and the K63-linked ubiquitination of NEMO[Solt et al 2009; Li et al 2002]. NEMO ubiquitination by TRAF6 is required for optimal activation of IKKalpha/beta. This basic trimolecular complex is referred to as the IKK complex. <p>Each catalytic IKK subunit has an N-terminus kinase domain, a leucine zipper (LZ) motif, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) and a C-terminus NEMO binding domain (NBD). IKK catalytic subunits are dimerized through their LZ motifs.<p>IKK beta is the major IKK catalytic subunit for NF-kB activation. Phosphorylation in the activation loop of IKK beta requires Ser177 and Ser181 (data for human proteins) and thus activates the IKK kinase activity, leading to the IkB alpha phosphorylation and NF-kB activation.<p>Chicken IKK alpha and IKK beta showed 81% and 68% identity to the corresponding human IKK kinases (UniProtKB sequence data using NCBI BLASTP 2.2.20). Multiple sequence alignment of the proteins by ClustalW demonstrated that chicken IKK alpha serine residues 190 and 194 correspond to human Ser176 and Ser180, that are required for the activation. It is unclear what serine residues of chicken IKK beta are involved into the phosphorylation.<p>Chicken IKK gamma or NEMO is considered as avian lost.[Cormican et al 2009]. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 IKKs_complex (Inhibitor of kappa B kinases) Reactome DB_ID: 434005 IKBKB(IKK_beta) Reactome DB_ID: 433865 UniProt:Q5ZI83 RCJMB04_29g15 RCJMB04_29g15 <submittedName> <fullName>Putative uncharacterized protein</fullName> </submittedName> UniProt Q5ZI83 1 EQUAL 739 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433865 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433865 Reactome R-GGA-433865 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433865.1 1 Inhibitor of NF kappa B kinase(IKKA)_subunit alpha Reactome DB_ID: 433915 UniProt:Q5ZJB4 CHUK CHUK IKKA RCJMB04_19h23 FUNCTION Phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B thus leading to the dissociation of the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex and ultimately the degradation of the inhibitor. Phosphorylates 'Ser-10' of histone H3 at NF-kappa-B-regulated promoters during inflammatory responses triggered by cytokines.ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated when phosphorylated and inactivated when dephosphorylated.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. I-kappa-B kinase subfamily. UniProt Q5ZJB4 1 EQUAL 759 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433915 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433915 Reactome R-GGA-433915 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433915.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434005 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434005 Reactome R-GGA-434005 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434005.2 2 activated IKKs complex Reactome DB_ID: 433938 phospho IKBKA (IKK alpha)_CHICK Reactome DB_ID: 434000 190 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine MOD MOD:00046 194 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 759 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 434000 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434000 Reactome R-GGA-434000 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434000.1 1 phospho_IKBKB(IKK_beta)_CHICK Reactome DB_ID: 433953 1 EQUAL 739 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433953 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433953 Reactome R-GGA-433953 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433953.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433938 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433938 Reactome R-GGA-433938 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433938.1 2 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein24 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Activated chicken TAK1 complexes Reactome DB_ID: 975491 p-IRAK2: pUb_oligo TRAF6 : phospho TAK1 :TAB1 : TAB2/TAB3 : K63linked free pUb chain Reactome DB_ID: 451458 plasma membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005886 TAB1 Reactome DB_ID: 975709 1 EQUAL 438 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 975709 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975709 Reactome R-GGA-975709 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975709.1 2 2 phosphorylated TAK1 Reactome DB_ID: 975700 1 EQUAL 617 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 975700 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975700 Reactome R-GGA-975700 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975700.1 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome chicken TAB2/TAB3 Reactome DB_ID: 975702 TAB2 Reactome DB_ID: 975705 1 EQUAL 697 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 975705 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975705 Reactome R-GGA-975705 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975705.1 TAB3 Reactome DB_ID: 975707 Reactome Database ID Release 82 975707 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975707 Reactome R-GGA-975707 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975707.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 975702 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975702 Reactome R-GGA-975702 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975702.1 2 pUb oligo TRAF6 : p-IRAK2 Reactome DB_ID: 451453 phosphorylated IRAK2 Reactome DB_ID: 433788 UniProt:Q5F382 RCJMB04_29d24 RCJMB04_29d24 <submittedName> <fullName>Putative uncharacterized protein</fullName> </submittedName> UniProt Q5F382 phosphorylated residue MOD MOD:00696 1 EQUAL 691 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433788 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433788 Reactome R-GGA-433788 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433788.1 1 K63 linked pUb TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 433856 K63 polyubiquitin chain Reactome DB_ID: 975690 Reactome Database ID Release 82 975690 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975690 Reactome R-GGA-975690 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975690.1 1 K63-linked Ub TRAF6 Reactome DB_ID: 975686 ubiquitinylated lysine MOD MOD:01148 Reactome Database ID Release 82 975686 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975686 Reactome R-GGA-975686 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975686.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433856 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433856 Reactome R-GGA-433856 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433856.1 3 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451453 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451453 Reactome R-GGA-451453 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451453.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451458 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451458 Reactome R-GGA-451458 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451458.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 975491 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=975491 Reactome R-GGA-975491 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-975491.2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434076 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434076 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433955 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433955 Reactome R-GGA-433955 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433955.1 19539094 Pubmed 2009 The avian Toll-Like receptor pathway--subtle differences amidst general conformity Cormican, P Lloyd, AT Downing, T Connell, SJ Bradley, D O'Farrelly, C Dev Comp Immunol 33:967-73 17047224 Pubmed 2006 Regulation and function of IKK and IKK-related kinases Hacker, H Karin, M Sci STKE 2006:re13 17332413 Pubmed 2007 Multiple functions of the IKK-related kinase IKKepsilon in interferon-mediated antiviral immunity Tenoever, BR Ng, SL Chua, MA McWhirter, SM Garcia-Sastre, A Maniatis, T Science 315:1274-8 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 activated IKKs phosphorylates IkB alpha causing the NFkB complex to dissociate from the phospho-IkB The phosphorylation and ubiquitination of IkB kinase complex is mediated by two distinct pathways, either the classical or alternative pathway. In the classical NF-kB signaling pathway, the activated IKK complex, predominantly acting through IKK beta in an IKK gamma-dependent manner, catalyzes the phosphorylation of IkBs (at sites corresponding to Ser32 and Ser36 of human IkB-alpha or Ser19 and Ser22 of human IkB-beta), polyubiquitination (at sites corresponding to Lys21 and Lys22 of human IkB-alpha) and subsequent degradation by the 26S proteasome. The K-48 ubiquitination is mediated by the E2 ubiquitin ligases (or SCFs) formed by three subunits: Skp1, Cul A (Cdc53), and one of many F-box proteins.<p>Chicken IkB-alpha shows 71% identity to the human IkB alpha kinase. Multiple sequence alignment of the human and chicken IKB-alpha showed that chicken Ser36 and Ser40 correspond to human Ser32 and Ser 36 mentioned above.<p>There is insufficient data for chicken IkB beta to make a comparison with other species. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 IkB alpha : NFkB complex Reactome DB_ID: 434019 REL_A Reactome DB_ID: 433980 UniProt:P98152 RELA RELA FUNCTION NF-kappa-B is a pleiotropic transcription factor present in almost all cell types and is the endpoint of a series of signal transduction events that are initiated by a vast array of stimuli related to many biological processes such as inflammation, immunity, differentiation, cell growth, tumorigenesis and apoptosis. NF-kappa-B is a homo- or heterodimeric complex formed by the Rel-like domain-containing proteins. The dimers bind at kappa-B sites in the DNA of their target genes and the individual dimers have distinct preferences for different kappa-B sites that they can bind with distinguishable affinity and specificity. Different dimer combinations act as transcriptional activators or repressors, respectively. NF-kappa-B is controlled by various mechanisms of post-translational modification and subcellular compartmentalization as well as by interactions with other cofactors or corepressors. NF-kappa-B complexes are held in the cytoplasm in an inactive state complexed with members of the NF-kappa-B inhibitor (I-kappa-B) family. In a conventional activation pathway, I-kappa-B is phosphorylated by I-kappa-B kinases (IKKs) in response to different activators, subsequently degraded thus liberating the active NF-kappa-B complex which translocates to the nucleus. RELA shows a weak DNA-binding site which could contribute directly to DNA binding in the NF-kappa-B complex.SUBUNIT Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-p50 complex. Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-c-Rel complex. Component of the NF-kappa-B p65-p105 complex.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Spleen; lower level in brain.DOMAIN The transcriptional activation domain 1/TA1 and the transcriptional activation domain 2/TA2 have direct transcriptional activation properties (By similarity). The 9aaTAD motif found within the transcriptional activation domain 2 is a conserved motif present in a large number of transcription factors that is required for their transcriptional transactivation activity (By similarity). UniProt P98152 1 EQUAL 558 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433980 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433980 Reactome R-GGA-433980 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433980.1 1 IkB_alpha Reactome DB_ID: 433811 UniProt:Q91974 NFKBIA NFKBIA IKBA FUNCTION Inhibits NF-kappa-B by complexing with and trapping it in the cytoplasm. May be involved in regulation of transcriptional responses to NF-kappa-B, including cell adhesion, immune and pro-inflammatory responses, apoptosis, differentiation and growth. Controlled by sequential serine-phosphorylation, ubiquitination and degradation. Tyrosine-phosphorylation could only lead to dissociation from NF-kappa-B (By similarity).SUBUNIT Interacts with RELA.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in lymph node, thymus followed by liver, brain, muscle, kidney, gastrointestinal and reproductive tract.PTM Ubiquitinated; subsequent to stimulus-dependent phosphorylation on serines, polyubiquitination targets the protein for rapid degradation via the ubiquitin system.SIMILARITY Belongs to the NF-kappa-B inhibitor family. UniProt Q91974 1 EQUAL 318 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433811 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433811 Reactome R-GGA-433811 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433811.1 1 NFkB1_p50 Reactome DB_ID: 433962 UniProt:Q04861 NFKB1 NFKB1 FUNCTION P105 is the precursor of the p50 subunit of the nuclear factor NF-kappa-B, which binds to the kappa-B consensus sequence 5'-GGRNNYYCC-3', located in the enhancer region of genes involved in immune response and acute phase reactions. The precursor protein itself does not bind to DNA.SUBUNIT Active NF-kappa-B is a heterodimer of an about 50 kDa DNA-binding subunit and the weak DNA-binding subunit p65. Two heterodimers might form a labile tetramer.DOMAIN The C-terminus of p105 might be involved in cytoplasmic retention, inhibition of DNA-binding by p50 homodimers, and/or transcription activation.PTM While translation occurs, the particular unfolded structure after the GRR repeat promotes the generation of p50 making it an acceptable substrate for the proteasome. This process is known as cotranslational processing. The processed form is active and the unprocessed form acts as an inhibitor (I kappa B-like), being able to form cytosolic complexes with NF-kappa B, trapping it in the cytoplasm. Complete folding of the region downstream of the GRR repeat precludes processing (By similarity).PTM S-nitrosylation of Cys-66 affects DNA binding. UniProt Q04861 1 EQUAL 984 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433962 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433962 Reactome R-GGA-433962 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433962.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434019 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434019 Reactome R-GGA-434019 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434019.1 2 NFkB complex(p50/p65) Reactome DB_ID: 434125 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434125 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434125 Reactome R-GGA-434125 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434125.1 2 phosphorylated IkB_alpha Reactome DB_ID: 433842 36 EQUAL 40 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 318 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433842 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433842 Reactome R-GGA-433842 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433842.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein29 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434081 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434081 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433986 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433986 Reactome R-GGA-433986 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433986.1 LEFT-TO-RIGHT Released NFkB complex migrates to the nucleus and turns on transcription NFkB is a family of transcription factors that play pivotal roles in immune, inflammatory, and antiapoptotic responses. There are five NF-kB/Rel family members, p65 (RelA), RelB, c-Rel, p50/p105 (NF-kappa-B1) and p52/p100 (NF-kappa-B2). All members of the NFkB family contain a highly conserved DNA-binding and dimerization domain called Rel-homology region (RHR). The RHR is responsible for homo- or heterodimerization. Therefore, NF-kappa-B exists in unstimulated cells as homo or heterodimers; the most common heterodimer is p65/p50. NF-kappa-B is sequestered in the cytosol of unstimulated cells through the interactions with a class of inhibitor proteins called IkBs, which mask the nuclear localization signal of NF-kB and prevent its nuclear translocation. Various stimuli induce the activation of the IkB kinase (IKK) complex, which then phosphorylates IkBs. The phosphorylated IkBs are ubiquitinated and then degraded through the proteasome-mediated pathway. The degradation of IkBs releases NF-kappa-B and and it can be transported into nucleus where it induces the expression of target genes.<br> Chicken NFkB p105 (precursor of p50) subunit and NFkB p65 subunit showed 71% and 51% identity to the corresponding human NFkB subunits (UniProtKB sequence data using NCBI BLASTP 2.2.20). Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-08-26 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 NFkB complex(p50/p65) Reactome DB_ID: 433908 nucleoplasm GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005654 REL_A Reactome DB_ID: 433824 1 EQUAL 558 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433824 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433824 Reactome R-GGA-433824 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433824.1 1 NFkB1_p50 Reactome DB_ID: 434062 1 EQUAL 984 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 434062 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434062 Reactome R-GGA-434062 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434062.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433908 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433908 Reactome R-GGA-433908 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433908.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433823 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433823 Reactome R-GGA-433823 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433823.1 16056267 Pubmed 2005 Ubiquitin signalling in the NF-kappaB pathway Chen, ZJ Nat Cell Biol 7:758-65 15371334 Pubmed 2004 Signaling to NF-kappaB Hayden, MS Ghosh, S Genes Dev 18:2195-224 Reactome Database ID Release 82 434001 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434001 Reactome R-GGA-434001 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434001.1 1533881 Pubmed 1992 p105, the NF-kappa B p50 precursor protein, is one of the cellular proteins complexed with the v-Rel oncoprotein in transformed chicken spleen cells Capobianco, AJ Chang, D Mosialos, G Gilmore, TD J Virol 66:3758-67 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0007250 MAPK activation in TLR cascade The mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, one of the most ancient and evolutionarily conserved signaling pathways, is involved in many processes of immune responses. The MAP kinases cascade transduces signals from the cell membrane to the nucleus in response to a wide range of stimuli (Chang and Karin, 2001; Johnson et al, 2002). <p>There are three major groups of MAP kinases<ul><li>the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases ERK1/2, <li>the p38 MAP kinase<li> and the c-Jun NH-terminal kinases JNK.</ul><p>ERK1 and ERK2 are activated in response to growth stimuli. Both JNKs and p38-MAPK are activated in response to a variety of cellular and environmental stresses. The MAP kinases are activated by dual phosphorylation of Thr and Tyr within the tripeptide motif Thr-Xaa-Tyr. The sequence of this tripeptide motif is different in each group of MAP kinases: ERK (Thr-Glu-Tyr); p38 (Thr-Gly-Tyr); and JNK (Thr-Pro-Tyr).<p>MAPK activation is mediated by signal transduction in the conserved three-tiered kinase cascade: MAPKKKK (MAP4K or MKKKK or MAPKKK Kinase) activates the MAPKKK. The MAPKKKs then phosphorylates a dual-specificity protein kinase MAPKK, which in turn phosphorylates the MAPK.<p>The dual specificity MAP kinase kinases (MAPKK or MKK) differ for each group of MAPK. The ERK MAP kinases are activated by the MKK1 and MKK2; the p38 MAP kinases are activated by MKK3, MKK4, and MKK6; and the JNK pathway is activated by MKK4 and MKK7. The ability of MAP kinase kinases (MKKs, or MEKs) to recognize their cognate MAPKs is facilitated by a short docking motif (the D-site) in the MKK N-terminus, which binds to a complementary region on the MAPK. MAPKs then recognize many of their targets using the same strategy, because many MAPK substrates also contain D-sites.<p>The upstream signaling events in the TLR cascade that initiate and mediate the ERK signaling pathway remain unclear. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2010-01-05 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2011-02-17 Activated TAK1 mediates Jun kinases (JNK) phosphorylation and activation C-Jun NH2 terminal kinases are stress activated MAPKs, also known as SAPKs. The JNK pathway is activated by heat shock, or inflammatory cytokines, or UV radiation. The JNKs are encoded by at least three genes: JNK1/SAPK-gamma, JNK2/SAPK-alpha and JNK3/ SAPK-beta.<p>Activation of JNKs is mediated by activated TAK1 which phosphorylates two dual specificity enzymes MKK4 (MAPK kinase 4) and MKK7(MAPK kinase 7). Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2011-02-17 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 Phosphorylation of MKK4 by activated TAK1 Phosphorylation of MKK4 and MKK7 by TAK1 occurs at the typical Ser-Xaa-Ala-Xaa-Thr motif in their activation loops. <p>Residues involved in activation of these protein kinases correspond to human Ser271, Thr275 in MKK7 and Ser257, Thr261 in MKK4.<p>Cell lines lacking MKK4 exhibit defective activation of JNK and AP-1 dependent transcription activity in response to some cellular stresses; JNK and p38 MAPK activities were decreased by around 80% and 20%, respectively, following the deletion of the mkk4 gene.<p>Chicken MKK4 protein as confirmed by mRNA sequence shows 96% identity to human MKK4 (UniProtKB sequence data using NCBI BLASTP 2.2.20). Multiple sequence alignment of the proteins by ClustalW demonstrated that chicken MKK4 serine residue 224 and threonine 228 correspond to human Ser257 and Thr261, that are required for the activation.<p> Since no MKK7 ortholog was identified in the chicken genome, only chicken MKK4 protein is annotated in the chicken JNK pathway as a homolog of the well characterized human MKK4 / MKK7 proteins. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 MKK4 MAP2K4 SEK1 C-JUN N-terminal kinase kinase 1 Reactome DB_ID: 437642 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000001475 MKK4 MKK4 MAP2K4 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000001475 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437642 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437642 Reactome R-GGA-437642 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437642.1 2 phosphorylated MKK4 Reactome DB_ID: 437975 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437975 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437975 Reactome R-GGA-437975 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437975.1 2 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein24 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437999 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437999 Reactome R-GGA-437999 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437999.1 15837794 Pubmed 2005 Simultaneous blockade of NFkappaB, JNK, and p38 MAPK by a kinase-inactive mutant of the protein kinase TAK1 sensitizes cells to apoptosis and affects a distinct spectrum of tumor necrosis factor [corrected] target genes Thiefes, A Wolter, S Mushinski, JF Hoffmann, E Dittrich-Breiholz, O Graue, N Dörrie, A Schneider, H Wirth, D Luckow, B Resch, K Kracht, M J Biol Chem 280:27728-41 17875933 Pubmed 2007 Targeted deletion of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 gene in the nervous system causes severe brain developmental defects and premature death Wang, X Nadarajah, B Robinson, AC McColl, BW Jin, JW Dajas-Bailador, F Boot-Handford, RP Tournier, C Mol Cell Biol 27:7935-46 8533096 Pubmed 1995 Identification of a member of the MAPKKK family as a potential mediator of TGF-beta signal transduction Yamaguchi, K Shirakabe, K Shibuya, H Irie, K Oishi, I Ueno, N Taniguchi, T Nishida, E Matsumoto, K Science 270:2008-11 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.12.1 MKK4 phosphorylates JNK Activated JNK kinases (MKK4 and MKK7) phosphorylate threonine and tyrosine residues in the characteristic Thr-Pro-Tyr phosphoacceptor loop of each JNK isoform.<p>Chicken JNK2(MAPK9) shows 98% identity with human JNK2 (UniProtKB sequence data using NCBI BLASTP 2.2.20). Multiple sequence alignment of the human, mouse and chicken JNK2 proteins by ClustalW showed that Thr183 and Tyr185 residues, that are responsible for the JNK activation in human, are identical for all three orthologs.<p>Other chicken JNK isoforms JNK1(MAPK8) and JNK3(MAPK10), whose existence is confirmed at the transcript level, share 99% and 95% amino-acid sequence identity with their human counterparts respectively. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2011-02-17 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome JNK homologs Reactome DB_ID: 433872 MAPK9_(JNK2) mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 Reactome DB_ID: 434057 UniProt:P79996 MAPK9 MAPK9 JNK2 FUNCTION Responds to activation by environmental stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines by phosphorylating a number of transcription factors, primarily components of AP-1 such as JUN and ATF2 and thus regulates AP-1 transcriptional activity (By similarity). May play a role in the development of the central nervous system during embryogenesis. May play a role in the regulation of the circadian clock (By similarity).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated by threonine and tyrosine phosphorylation.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in the neuroepithelium of developing brain at stages 16 to 26.DOMAIN The TXY motif contains the threonine and tyrosine residues whose phosphorylation activates the MAP kinases.PTM Dually phosphorylated on Thr-183 and Tyr-185, which activates the enzyme.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. CMGC Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase subfamily. UniProt P79996 1 EQUAL 382 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 434057 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=434057 Reactome R-GGA-434057 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-434057.1 MAPK10 Reactome DB_ID: 433946 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000018075 MAPK10 MAPK10 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000018075 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433946 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433946 Reactome R-GGA-433946 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433946.1 MAPK8 Reactome DB_ID: 433810 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000009848 MAPK8 MAPK8 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000009848 1 EQUAL 427 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433810 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433810 Reactome R-GGA-433810 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433810.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433872 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433872 Reactome R-GGA-433872 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433872.1 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phosphorylated JNK homologs Reactome DB_ID: 437957 phosphorylated MAPK9_(JNK2) mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 Reactome DB_ID: 438015 183 EQUAL 185 EQUAL O4'-phospho-L-tyrosine MOD MOD:00048 1 EQUAL 382 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 438015 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438015 Reactome R-GGA-438015 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438015.1 phosphorylated MAPK10 Reactome DB_ID: 437973 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437973 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437973 Reactome R-GGA-437973 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437973.1 phosphorylated MAPK8 Reactome DB_ID: 437976 1 EQUAL 427 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 437976 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437976 Reactome R-GGA-437976 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437976.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437957 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437957 Reactome R-GGA-437957 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437957.1 2 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein44 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004712 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438025 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438025 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438005 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438005 Reactome R-GGA-438005 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438005.1 LEFT-TO-RIGHT Activated JNK migrates to the nucleoplasm Shortly after phosphorylation JNKs are translocated to nucleus where they associate and activate their target transcription factors. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phosphorylated JNK homologs Reactome DB_ID: 438012 phosphorylated MAPK9_(JNK2) mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 Reactome DB_ID: 437993 1 EQUAL 382 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 437993 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437993 Reactome R-GGA-437993 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437993.1 phosphorylated MAPK10 Reactome DB_ID: 437960 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437960 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437960 Reactome R-GGA-437960 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437960.1 phosphorylated MAPK8 Reactome DB_ID: 437983 1 EQUAL 427 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 437983 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437983 Reactome R-GGA-437983 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437983.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438012 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438012 Reactome R-GGA-438012 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438012.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437995 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437995 Reactome R-GGA-437995 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437995.1 9195981 Pubmed 1997 A novel mechanism of JNK1 activation. Nuclear translocation and activation of JNK1 during ischemia and reperfusion. Mizukami, Y Yoshioka, K Morimoto, S Yoshida, K J Biol Chem 272:16657-62 12193592 Pubmed 2002 Evidence of functional modulation of the MEKK/JNK/cJun signaling cascade by the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) Lutz, C Nimpf, J Jenny, M Boecklinger, K Enzinger, C Utermann, G Baier-Bitterlich, G Baier, G J Biol Chem 277:43143-51 13130464 Pubmed 2003 Expression of the MAPK kinases MKK-4 and MKK-7 in rheumatoid arthritis and their role as key regulators of JNK Sundarrajan, M Boyle, DL Chabaud-Riou, M Hammaker, D Firestein, GS Arthritis Rheum 48:2450-60 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11 Activation and dimerization of c-JUN in the nucleus Shortly after phosphorylation JNKs are translocated to nucleus where they associate and activate their target transcription factors. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 29358 Reactome Database ID Release 82 29358 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29358 Reactome R-ALL-29358 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29358.3 COMPOUND C00002 4 c-JUN Transcription factor AP-1 Reactome DB_ID: 438016 UniProt:P18870 JUN JUN FUNCTION Transcription factor that recognizes and binds to the enhancer heptamer motif 5'-TGA[CG]TCA-3'. May be involved in activated KRAS-mediated transcriptional activation of USP28. May bind to the USP28 promoter.SUBUNIT Interacts with FOS to form a dimer. Interacts with Gallid herpesvirus 2 MEQ protein.SIMILARITY Belongs to the bZIP family. Jun subfamily. UniProt P18870 1 EQUAL 314 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 438016 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438016 Reactome R-GGA-438016 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438016.1 2 ADP Adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 113582 Reactome Database ID Release 82 113582 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113582 Reactome R-ALL-113582 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113582.3 COMPOUND C00008 4 activated c-JUN dimer Reactome DB_ID: 437991 phosphorylated c-JUN Transcription factor AP-1 Reactome DB_ID: 438013 63 EQUAL 73 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 314 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 438013 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438013 Reactome R-GGA-438013 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438013.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437991 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437991 Reactome R-GGA-437991 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437991.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein51 activeUnit: #Protein52 activeUnit: #Protein50 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004705 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438001 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438001 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438026 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438026 Reactome R-GGA-438026 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438026.2 18793328 Pubmed 2008 c-Jun expression, activation and function in neural cell death, inflammation and repair Raivich, G J Neurochem 107:898-906 INHIBITION Reactome Database ID Release 82 442857 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442857 Reactome R-GGA-442857 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442857.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome MAPK phosphatases dual specificity phosphatases Reactome DB_ID: 442886 MKP1 Dual specificity protein phosphatase 1 Reactome DB_ID: 442888 UniProt:O42253 Dual specificity protein phosphatase 1 Dual specificity protein phosphatase 1 MKP1 UniProt O42253 1 EQUAL 353 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 442888 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442888 Reactome R-GGA-442888 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442888.1 MKP2 DUSP4 Reactome DB_ID: 442850 UniProt:Q9PW71 DUSP4 DUSP4 MKP2 FUNCTION Regulates mitogenic signal transduction by dephosphorylating both Thr and Tyr residues on MAP kinases ERK1 and ERK2.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein-tyrosine phosphatase family. Non-receptor class dual specificity subfamily. UniProt Q9PW71 1 EQUAL 375 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 442850 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442850 Reactome R-GGA-442850 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442850.1 MKP3 DUSP6 Reactome DB_ID: 442887 UniProt:Q7T2L9 MKP3 MKP3 dual specificity phosphatase 6 UniProt Q7T2L9 1 EQUAL 382 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 442887 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442887 Reactome R-GGA-442887 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442887.1 MKP5 DUSP10 Reactome DB_ID: 442877 UniProt:Q5ZJF8 Dual specificity protein phosphatase 10 Dual specificity protein phosphatase 10 RCJMB04_18i8 UniProt Q5ZJF8 1 EQUAL 478 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 442877 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442877 Reactome R-GGA-442877 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442877.1 DUSP16 Reactome DB_ID: 442935 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000001453 DUSP16 DUSP16 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000001453 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442935 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442935 Reactome R-GGA-442935 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442935.1 DUSP3 dual specificity phosphatase 3 Reactome DB_ID: 442882 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000016127 DUSP3 DUSP3 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000016127 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442882 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442882 Reactome R-GGA-442882 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442882.1 DUSP5 Reactome DB_ID: 442941 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000013956 dual specificity phosphatase 5 dual specificity phosphatase 5 DUSP5 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000013956 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442941 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442941 Reactome R-GGA-442941 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442941.1 DUSP8 Reactome DB_ID: 442917 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000010737 DUSP8 DUSP8 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000010737 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442917 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442917 Reactome R-GGA-442917 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442917.1 MKP6 DUSP14 Reactome DB_ID: 442874 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000008741 DUSP14 DUSP14 dual specificity phosphatase 14 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000008741 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442874 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442874 Reactome R-GGA-442874 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442874.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442886 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442886 Reactome R-GGA-442886 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442886.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437986 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437986 Reactome R-GGA-437986 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437986.2 7839144 Pubmed 1995 Independent human MAP-kinase signal transduction pathways defined by MEK and MKK isoforms Derijard, B Raingeaud, J Barrett, T Wu, IH Han, J Ulevitch, RJ Davis, RJ Science 267:682-5 11057897 Pubmed 2000 Signal transduction by the JNK group of MAP kinases Davis, RJ Cell 103:239-52 9162092 Pubmed 1997 Characterization of the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 4 (MKK4)/c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase 1 and MKK3/p38 pathways regulated by MEK kinases 2 and 3. MEK kinase 3 activates MKK3 but does not cause activation of p38 kinase in vivo. Deacon, K Blank, JL J Biol Chem 272:14489-96 12471242 Pubmed 2002 Mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways mediated by ERK, JNK, and p38 protein kinases Johnson, GL Lapadat, R Science 298:1911-2 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0007254 Activated TAK1 mediates p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) belongs to a highly conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases. <p>The p38 MAPK-dependent signaling cascade is activated by pro-inflammatory or stressful stimuli such as ultraviolet radiation, oxidative injury, heat shock, cytokines, and other pro-inflammatory stimuli. p38 MAPK exists as four isoforms (alpha, beta, gamma, and delta). Of these, p38alpha and p38beta are ubiquitously expressed while p38gamma and p38delta are differentially expressed depending on tissue type. Each isoform is activated by upstream kinases including MAP kinase kinases (MKK) 3, 4, and 6, which in turn are phosphorylated by activated TAK1 at the typical Ser-Xaa-Ala-Xaa-Thr motif in their activation loops.<p>Once p38 MAPK is phosphorylated it activates numerous downstream substrates, including MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 and 3 (MAPKAPK-2 or 3) and mitogen and stress-activated kinase-1/2 (MSK1/2). MAPKAPK-2/3 and MSK1/2 function to phosphorylate heat shock protein 27 (HSP27) and cAMP-response element binding protein transcriptional factor, respectively. Other transcription factors, including activating transcription factor 2, Elk, CHOP/GADD153, and myocyte enhancer factor 2, are known to be regulated by these kinases. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2011-02-17 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 Phosphorylation of MKK3/MKK6 by activated TAK1 MKK3 and MKK6 are two closely related dual-specificity protein kinases that activate p38 MAP kinase. MKK3 and MKK6 both phosphorylate and activate p38 MAP kinase at its activation site Thr-Gly-Tyr but do not phosphorylate or activate Erk1/2 or SAPK/JNK. MKK3 and MKK6 are both activated by different forms of cellular stress and inflammatory cytokines. Activation of MKK3 and MKK6 occurs through phosphorylation of serine and threonine residues at the typical Ser-Xaa-Ala-Xaa-Thr motif in their activation loop. Residues involved in activation of these protein kinases correspond to human sites Ser189 and Thr193 for MKK3 and Ser207 and Thr211 for MKK6.<p>Since there is no data for chicken MKK6, this hypothetical chicken protein is annotated in the chicken p38 pathway as homolog of well characterized human MKK6. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome MKK3/MKK6 Reactome DB_ID: 437632 MKK3 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 Reactome DB_ID: 437639 UniProt:Q5ZL06 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 3 RCJMB04_8f10 UniProt Q5ZL06 1 EQUAL 258 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 437639 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437639 Reactome R-GGA-437639 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437639.1 MKK6 Mitogen activated protein kinase 6 Reactome DB_ID: 437637 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437637 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437637 Reactome R-GGA-437637 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437637.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437632 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437632 Reactome R-GGA-437632 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437632.1 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phospho MKK3/ phospho MKK6 Reactome DB_ID: 437977 phosphorylated MKK3 Reactome DB_ID: 437990 129 EQUAL 133 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 258 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 437990 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437990 Reactome R-GGA-437990 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437990.1 phosphorylated MKK6 Reactome DB_ID: 437965 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437965 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437965 Reactome R-GGA-437965 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437965.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437977 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437977 Reactome R-GGA-437977 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437977.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein24 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437984 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437984 Reactome R-GGA-437984 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437984.1 LEFT-TO-RIGHT activated MAPK3/MAPK6 migrates to nucleus The p38 activators MKK3 (MAP2K3) and MKK6 (MAP2K6) were present in both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, consistent with a role in activating p38 in the nucleus. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phospho MKK3/ phospho MKK6 Reactome DB_ID: 442940 phosphorylated MKK3 Reactome DB_ID: 571403 1 EQUAL 258 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 571403 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=571403 Reactome R-GGA-571403 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-571403.1 phosphorylated MKK6 Reactome DB_ID: 571405 Reactome Database ID Release 82 571405 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=571405 Reactome R-GGA-571405 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-571405.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442940 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442940 Reactome R-GGA-442940 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442940.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442938 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442938 Reactome R-GGA-442938 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442938.1 7535770 Pubmed 1995 Pro-inflammatory cytokines and environmental stress cause p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activation by dual phosphorylation on tyrosine and threonine Raingeaud, J Gupta, S Rogers, JS Dickens, M Han, J Ulevitch, RJ Davis, RJ J Biol Chem 270:7420-6 9768359 Pubmed 1998 Nuclear export of the stress-activated protein kinase p38 mediated by its substrate MAPKAP kinase-2 Ben-Levy, R Hooper, S Wilson, R Paterson, HF Marshall, CJ Curr Biol 8:1049-57 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.12.1 activated chicken MKK3/MKK6 phosphorylates p38 MAPK complexed with MAPKAPK2 or MAPKAPK3 The MAPK level components of this cascade are p38MAPK-alpha, -beta, -gamma and -sigma. All of those isoforms are activated by phosphorylation of the Thr and Tyr in the Thr-Gly-Tyr motif in their activation loops. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 2 p38 MAPK : MAPKAPK 2 or MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442951 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome MAPKAPK2 and/or MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442936 MAPKAPK2 Reactome DB_ID: 442914 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000001295 MAPKAPK2 MAPKAPK2 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000001295 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442914 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442914 Reactome R-GGA-442914 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442914.1 MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442931 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000003578 MAPKAPK3 MAPKAPK3 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000003578 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442931 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442931 Reactome R-GGA-442931 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442931.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442936 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442936 Reactome R-GGA-442936 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442936.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome p38 MAP kinase Reactome DB_ID: 442963 MAPK11 p38 MAP kinase Reactome DB_ID: 442903 UniProt:Q5ZIK8 RCJMB04_25f21 RCJMB04_25f21 CATALYTIC ACTIVITY: ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein. UniProt Q5ZIK8 1 EQUAL 361 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 442903 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442903 Reactome R-GGA-442903 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442903.1 MAPK12 p38 MAP kinase Reactome DB_ID: 442937 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000014011 MAPK12 MAPK12 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000014011 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442937 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442937 Reactome R-GGA-442937 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442937.1 MAPK13 Reactome DB_ID: 442960 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000001204 MAPK13 MAPK13 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000001204 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442960 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442960 Reactome R-GGA-442960 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442960.1 MAPK14 mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 alpha Reactome DB_ID: 442908 ENSEMBL:ENSGALP00000001201 MAPK14 MAPK14 ENSEMBL ENSGALP00000001201 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442908 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442908 Reactome R-GGA-442908 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442908.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442963 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442963 Reactome R-GGA-442963 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442963.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442951 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442951 Reactome R-GGA-442951 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442951.1 2 phospho -p38 MAPK : MAPKAPK 2 or MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442905 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phospho_p38 MAP kinase Reactome DB_ID: 442851 phosphorylated MAPK11 Reactome DB_ID: 571401 180 EQUAL 182 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 361 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 571401 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=571401 Reactome R-GGA-571401 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-571401.1 p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated MAPK12 Reactome DB_ID: 571407 Reactome Database ID Release 82 571407 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=571407 Reactome R-GGA-571407 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-571407.1 phosphorylated MAPK13 Reactome DB_ID: 571406 Reactome Database ID Release 82 571406 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=571406 Reactome R-GGA-571406 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-571406.1 phosphorylated MAPK14 Reactome DB_ID: 571404 Reactome Database ID Release 82 571404 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=571404 Reactome R-GGA-571404 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-571404.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442851 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442851 Reactome R-GGA-442851 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442851.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442905 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442905 Reactome R-GGA-442905 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442905.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein70 activeUnit: #PhysicalEntity9 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437955 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437955 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438019 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438019 Reactome R-GGA-438019 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438019.1 8622669 Pubmed 1996 MKK3- and MKK6-regulated gene expression is mediated by the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway Raingeaud, J Whitmarsh, AJ Barrett, T Derijard, B Davis, RJ Mol Cell Biol 16:1247-55 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.12.1 Active p38 MAPK phosphorylates MAPKAPK2 or 3 Human p38 MAPK alpha forms a complex with MK2 even when the signaling pathway is not activated. This heterodimer is found mainly in the nucleus. The crystal structure of the unphosphorylated p38alpha-MK2 heterodimer was determined. The C-terminal regulatory domain of MK2 binds in the docking groove of p38 MAPK alpha, and the ATP-binding sites of both kinases are at the heterodimer interface (ter Haar et al. 2007).<p>Upon activation, p38 MAPK alpha activates MK2 by phosphorylating Thr-222, Ser-272, and Thr-334 (Ben-Levy et al. 1995). <p>The phosphorylation of MK2 at Thr-334 attenuates the affinity of the binary complex MK2:p38 alpha by an order of magnitude and leads to a large conformational change of an autoinhibitory domain in MK2. This conformational change unmasks not only the MK2 substrate-binding site but also the MK2 nuclear export signal (NES) thus leading to the MK2:p38 alpha translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. Cytoplasmic active MK2 then phosphorylates downstream targets such as the heat-shock protein HSP27 and tristetraprolin (TTP) (Meng et al. 2002, Lukas et al. 2004, White et al. 2007).<p>MAPKAPK (MAPK-activated protein) kinase 3 (MK3, also known as 3pK) has been identified as the second p38 MAPK-activated kinase that is stimulated by different stresses (McLaughlin et al. 1996; Sithanandam et al. 1996; reviewed in Gaestel 2006). MK3 shows 75% sequence identity to MK2 and, like MK2, is activated by p38 MAPK alpha and p38 MAPK beta. MK3 phosphorylates peptide substrates with kinetic constants similar to MK2 and phosphorylates the same serine residues in HSP27 at the same relative rates as MK2 (Clifton et al. 1996) indicating an identical phosphorylation-site consensus sequence. Hence, it is assumed that its substrate spectrum is either identical to or at least overlapping with MK2. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 3 3 phospho -p38 MAPK : phospho- MAPKAPK 2 or phospho MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442915 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phospho MAPKAPK2 and/or phospho MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442949 phosphorylated MAPKAPK2 Reactome DB_ID: 442932 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442932 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442932 Reactome R-GGA-442932 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442932.1 phosphorylated MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442924 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442924 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442924 Reactome R-GGA-442924 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442924.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442949 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442949 Reactome R-GGA-442949 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442949.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442915 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442915 Reactome R-GGA-442915 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442915.1 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein80 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442864 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442864 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442913 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442913 Reactome R-GGA-442913 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442913.2 17255097 Pubmed 2007 Crystal structure of the p38 alpha-MAPKAP kinase 2 heterodimer Ter Haar, E Prabhakar, P Liu, X Lepre, C J Biol Chem 282:9733-9 15287722 Pubmed 2004 Catalysis and function of the p38 alpha.MK2a signaling complex Lukas, SM Kroe, RR Wildeson, J Peet, GW Frego, L Davidson, W Ingraham, RH Pargellis, CA Labadia, ME Werneburg, BG Biochemistry 43:9950-60 17395714 Pubmed 2007 Molecular basis of MAPK-activated protein kinase 2:p38 assembly White, A Pargellis, CA Studts, JM Werneburg, BG Farmer BT, 2nd Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:6353-8 8846784 Pubmed 1995 Identification of novel phosphorylation sites required for activation of MAPKAP kinase-2 Ben-Levy, R Leighton, IA Doza, YN Attwood, P Morrice, N Marshall, CJ Cohen, P EMBO J 14:5920-30 12171911 Pubmed 2002 Structure of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein (MAPKAP) kinase 2 suggests a bifunctional switch that couples kinase activation with nuclear export Meng, W Swenson, LL Fitzgibbon, MJ Hayakawa, K Ter Haar, E Behrens, AE Fulghum, JR Lippke, JA J Biol Chem 277:37401-5 INHIBITION Reactome Database ID Release 82 442897 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442897 Reactome R-GGA-442897 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442897.1 LEFT-TO-RIGHT Nuclear export of p38 MAPK mediated by its substrate MAPKAPK2 or 3 p38 MAPK alpha does not have a nuclear export signal (NES) and cannot leave the nucleus by itself, but rather needs to be associated with MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MAPKAPK2 or MK2). The NES of MAPKAPK2 facilitates the transport of both kinases from the nucleus to the cytoplasm but only after MK2 has been phosphorylated by p38alpha.<p>p38 MAPK alpha phosphorylates MK2 at Thr222, Ser272, and Thr334. The phosphorylation of Thr334 but not the kinase activity of MK2 has been demonstrated to be critical for the nuclear export of the p38 alpha - MK2 complex. Phosphorylation of Thr334 is believed to induce a conformational change in the complex exposing NES prior to interaction with the leptomycin B-sensitive nuclear export receptor. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-05-23 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 phospho -p38 MAPK : phospho- MAPKAPK 2 or phospho-MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442925 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phospho_p38 MAP kinase Reactome DB_ID: 437968 phosphorylated MAPK11 Reactome DB_ID: 437962 1 EQUAL 361 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 437962 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437962 Reactome R-GGA-437962 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437962.1 p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated MAPK12 Reactome DB_ID: 438027 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438027 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438027 Reactome R-GGA-438027 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438027.1 phosphorylated MAPK13 Reactome DB_ID: 438008 Reactome Database ID Release 82 438008 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=438008 Reactome R-GGA-438008 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-438008.1 phosphorylated MAPK14 Reactome DB_ID: 437963 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437963 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437963 Reactome R-GGA-437963 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437963.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437968 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437968 Reactome R-GGA-437968 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437968.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome phospho MAPKAPK2 and/or phospho MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442855 phosphorylated MAPKAPK2 Reactome DB_ID: 442894 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442894 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442894 Reactome R-GGA-442894 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442894.1 phosphorylated MAPKAPK3 Reactome DB_ID: 442906 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442906 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442906 Reactome R-GGA-442906 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442906.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442855 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442855 Reactome R-GGA-442855 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442855.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442925 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442925 Reactome R-GGA-442925 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442925.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 442862 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442862 Reactome R-GGA-442862 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442862.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 437980 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=437980 Reactome R-GGA-437980 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-437980.2 15686620 Pubmed 2005 Activation and signaling of the p38 MAP kinase pathway Zarubin, T Han, J Cell Res 15:11-8 8761479 Pubmed 1996 Tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of a new mitogen-activated protein (MAP)-kinase cascade in human neutrophils stimulated with various agonists Nahas, N Molski, TF Fernandez, GA Sha'afi, RI Biochem J 318:247-53 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0038066 ERK activation Lipopolysaccharide and flagellin were shown to stimulate ERK activation in chicken heterophils.<p>Bioinformatic analysis reveals no evidence of ERK1 in the chicken genome, although chicken orthologs to other mediators of MEK-ERK signaling (MEK1, MEK2, ERK2 etc.) were identified. In this Reactome model we show ERK2 activation and assume that chicken MEK-ERK mediators behave like their human counterparts. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-10-15 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-11-05 LEFT-TO-RIGHT activated MEK2 binds ERK2 Activated mammalian MEK1/2 is a serine/threonine kinase, which phosphorylates and activates ERK1/2. ERK1/2 is then translocates to the nucleus and activates transcription factors.<p> Chicken MEK2 showes 93% amino acid sequence identity to human MEK2. Multiple sequence alignment of human, mouse and chicken MEK2 by ClustalW allows to predict that the following chicken residues are involved in chicken MEK2 activation: Ser220 and Ser224 that are corresponding to human residues Ser222 and Ser226. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-10-15 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 phospho MEK2 phospho MAP2K2 phospho MKK2 Reactome DB_ID: 451487 UniProt:Q90891 MAP2K2 MAP2K2 MEK2 MKK2 PRKMK2 FUNCTION Catalyzes the concomitant phosphorylation of a threonine and a tyrosine residue in a Thr-Glu-Tyr sequence located in MAP kinases. Activates the ERK1 and ERK2 MAP kinases (By similarity).PTM Activated by phosphorylation on Ser/Thr catalyzed by MAP kinase kinase kinases (RAF).SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. STE Ser/Thr protein kinase family. MAP kinase kinase subfamily. UniProt Q90891 220 EQUAL 224 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 398 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 451487 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451487 Reactome R-GGA-451487 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451487.1 ERK2(MAPK1) Reactome DB_ID: 433942 UniProt:Q8UWG6 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 MAPK1 SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. UniProt Q8UWG6 1 EQUAL 368 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 433942 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433942 Reactome R-GGA-433942 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433942.1 phospho MEK2 : ERK2 Reactome DB_ID: 451495 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451495 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451495 Reactome R-GGA-451495 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451495.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451482 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451482 Reactome R-GGA-451482 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451482.1 18669607 Pubmed 2008 Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide up-regulation of IL-6 and CXCLi2 gene expression in chicken heterophils is mediated by ERK1/2-dependent activation of AP-1 and NF-kappaB signaling pathways Kogut, MH Genovese, KJ He, H Kaiser, P Innate Immun 14:213-22 17045653 Pubmed 2007 Flagellin and lipopolysaccharide stimulate the MEK-ERK signaling pathway in chicken heterophils through differential activation of the small GTPases, Ras and Rap1 Kogut, MH Genovese, KJ He, H Mol Immunol 44:1729-36 20163623 Pubmed 2009 Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation in chicken heterophils stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), formyl-methionylleucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) Gerilechaogetu, - Hanieh, H Abe, A Kondo, Y Anim Sci J 80:577-84 LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 activated MEK2 phosphorylates ERK2 Chicken ERK2 shares 99% of amino acid sequence identity with human and mouse ERK2. Multiple sequence alignment of human, mouse and chicken ERK2 by ClustalW allowed to predict that the following chicken residues are involved in chicken ERK2 activation: Thr193 and Tyr195 corresponding to mammalian Thr185 and Tyr187. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-10-15 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 2 phospho ERK2 : phospho MEK2 Reactome DB_ID: 451480 1 phospho-ERK2 Reactome DB_ID: 451523 193 EQUAL 195 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 368 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 451523 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451523 Reactome R-GGA-451523 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451523.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451480 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451480 Reactome R-GGA-451480 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451480.1 2 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein96 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451515 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451515 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451516 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451516 Reactome R-GGA-451516 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451516.1 LEFT-TO-RIGHT Dissociation of phospho ERK2 :phospho MEK2 complex MEK-ERK pathways are considered to be highly conserved. Their involvement in up-regulation of the inflammatory response has been demonstrated in mammals and chicken (Johnson GL and Lapadat R 2002; Kogut M et al 2008). <p> In this model we assume that chicken MEK-ERK mediators behave like their human counterparts. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-10-15 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 phospho ERK2 : phospho MEK2 Reactome DB_ID: 451526 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451526 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451526 Reactome R-GGA-451526 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451526.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451505 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451505 Reactome R-GGA-451505 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451505.1 LEFT-TO-RIGHT Dimerization of activated ERK2 MEK-ERK pathways are considered to be highly conserved. Their involvement in up-regulation of the inflammatory response has been demonstrated in mammals and chicken (Johnson GL and Lapadat R 2002; Kogut M et al 2008). <p> In this model we assume that chicken MEK-ERK mediators behave like their human counterparts. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-10-15 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 2 phospho ERK2 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 451504 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451504 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451504 Reactome R-GGA-451504 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451504.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451535 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451535 Reactome R-GGA-451535 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451535.2 LEFT-TO-RIGHT Nuclear translocation of phospho ERK2 dimer MEK-ERK pathways are considered to be highly conserved. Their involvement in up-regulation of the inflammatory response has been demonstrated in mammals and chicken (Johnson GL and Lapadat R 2002; Kogut M et al 2008). <p> In this model we assume that chicken MEK-ERK mediators behave like their human counterparts. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2009-09-22 Reviewed: D'Eustachio, P, 2010-10-15 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2010-05-04 phospho ERK2 dimer Reactome DB_ID: 451513 phospho-ERK2 Reactome DB_ID: 442961 1 EQUAL 368 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 82 442961 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=442961 Reactome R-GGA-442961 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-442961.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451513 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451513 Reactome R-GGA-451513 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451513.1 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451508 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451508 Reactome R-GGA-451508 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451508.2 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451478 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451478 Reactome R-GGA-451478 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451478.2 20954007 Pubmed 2010 Advances in avian immunology--prospects for disease control: a review Kaiser, P Avian Pathol 39:309-24 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0070371 Reactome Database ID Release 82 451524 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=451524 Reactome R-GGA-451524 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-451524.2 19196711 Pubmed 2009 Selectivity of docking sites in MAPK kinases Bardwell, AJ Frankson, E Bardwell, L J Biol Chem 284:13165-73 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0000165 Reactome Database ID Release 82 433871 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=433871 Reactome R-GGA-433871 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-GGA-433871.2 19112497 Pubmed 2008 TRAF6 autoubiquitination-independent activation of the NFkappaB and MAPK pathways in response to IL-1 and RANKL Walsh, MC Kim, GK Maurizio, PL Molnar, EE Choi, Y PLoS One 3:e4064 11057907 Pubmed 2000 Activation of the IkappaB kinase complex by TRAF6 requires a dimeric ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex and a unique polyubiquitin chain Deng, L Wang, C Spencer, E Yang, L Braun, A You, J Slaughter, C Pickart, C Chen, ZJ Cell 103:351-61