BioPAX pathway converted from "ATM phosphorylates NBN" in the Reactome database. LEFT-TO-RIGHT 2.7.11.1 ATM phosphorylates NBN NSB1 (NBN) is a component of the MRN (MRE11:RAD50:NBN) complex which acts early in homologous recombination repair (HRR) during recognition and resection of double-strand breaks (DSBs). ATM-mediated phosphorylation of NBN at serine residue S343 is required for activation of the S-phase checkpoint in response to ionizing radiation (IR), ATM-dependent activation of CHK2 and cell survival after exposure to IR (Lim et al. 2000, Gatei et al. 2000, Lee and Paull 2004). The phosphorylation of NBN by ATM may be enhanced by the presence of BRCA1 (Foray et al. 2003). Authored: Matthews, L, 2003-11-18 00:00:00 Reviewed: Borowiec, James A, 2015-06-12 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2015-05-12 DNA DSBs:MRN:p-S1981,Ac-K3016-ATM:KAT5 Reactome DB_ID: 5682055 nucleoplasm GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005654 KAT5 Histone acetyltransferase KAT5 KAT5_HUMAN Tip60 Reactome DB_ID: 3321979 UniProt:Q92993 KAT5 KAT5 HTATIP TIP60 FUNCTION Catalytic subunit of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex, a multiprotein complex involved in transcriptional activation of select genes principally by acetylation of nucleosomal histones H2A and H4 (PubMed:12776177, PubMed:15042092, PubMed:15121871, PubMed:15310756, PubMed:14966270, PubMed:16387653, PubMed:19909775, PubMed:25865756, PubMed:27153538, PubMed:29335245, PubMed:29174981, PubMed:33076429, PubMed:32822602). Histone acetylation alters nucleosome-DNA interactions and promotes interaction of the modified histones with other proteins which positively regulate transcription (PubMed:12776177, PubMed:15042092, PubMed:15121871, PubMed:15310756, PubMed:14966270). The NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex is required for the activation of transcriptional programs associated with proto-oncogene mediated growth induction, tumor suppressor mediated growth arrest and replicative senescence, apoptosis, and DNA repair (PubMed:17709392, PubMed:19783983, PubMed:32832608). The NuA4 complex plays a direct role in repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by promoting homologous recombination (HR): the complex inhibits TP53BP1 binding to chromatin via MBTD1, which recognizes and binds histone H4 trimethylated at 'Lys-20' (H4K20me), and KAT5 that catalyzes acetylation of 'Lys-15' of histone H2A (H2AK15ac), thereby blocking the ubiquitination mark required for TP53BP1 localization at DNA breaks (PubMed:27153538, PubMed:32832608). Also involved in DSB repair by mediating acetylation of 'Lys-5' of histone H2AX (H2AXK5ac), promoting NBN/NBS1 assembly at the sites of DNA damage (PubMed:17709392, PubMed:26438602). The NuA4 complex plays a key role in hematopoietic stem cell maintenance and is required to maintain acetylated H2A.Z/H2AZ1 at MYC target genes (By similarity). The NuA4 complex is also required for spermatid development by promoting acetylation of histones: histone hyperacetylation is required for histone replacement during the transition from round to elongating spermatids (By similarity). Component of a SWR1-like complex that specifically mediates the removal of histone H2A.Z/H2AZ1 from the nucleosome (PubMed:24463511). Also acetylates non-histone proteins, such as ARNTL/BMAL1, ATM, AURKB, CHKA, CGAS, ERCC4/XPF, LPIN1, NDC80/HEC1, NR1D2, RAN, SOX4, FOXP3, ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer (PubMed:16141325, PubMed:17360565, PubMed:17996965, PubMed:24835996, PubMed:26829474, PubMed:29040603, PubMed:30409912, PubMed:30704899, PubMed:32034146, PubMed:32817552, PubMed:34077757). Directly acetylates and activates ATM (PubMed:16141325). Promotes nucleotide excision repair (NER) by mediating acetylation of ERCC4/XPF, thereby promoting formation of the ERCC4-ERCC1 complex (PubMed:32034146). Relieves NR1D2-mediated inhibition of APOC3 expression by acetylating NR1D2 (PubMed:17996965). Acts as a regulator of regulatory T-cells (Treg) by catalyzing FOXP3 acetylation, thereby promoting FOXP3 transcriptional repressor activity (PubMed:17360565, PubMed:24835996). Involved in skeletal myoblast differentiation by mediating acetylation of SOX4 (PubMed:26291311). Catalyzes acetylation of APBB1/FE65, increasing its transcription activator activity (PubMed:33938178). Promotes transcription elongation during the activation phase of the circadian cycle by catalyzing acetylation of ARNTL/BMAL1, promoting elongation of circadian transcripts (By similarity). Together with GSK3 (GSK3A or GSK3B), acts as a regulator of autophagy: phosphorylated at Ser-86 by GSK3 under starvation conditions, leading to activate acetyltransferase activity and promote acetylation of key autophagy regulators, such as ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer (PubMed:30704899). Acts as a regulator of the cGAS-STING innate antiviral response by catalyzing acetylation the N-terminus of CGAS, thereby promoting CGAS DNA-binding and activation (PubMed:32817552). Also regulates lipid metabolism by mediating acetylation of CHKA or LPIN1 (PubMed:34077757). Promotes lipolysis of lipid droplets following glucose deprivation by mediating acetylation of isoform 1 of CHKA, thereby promoting monomerization of CHKA and its conversion into a tyrosine-protein kinase (PubMed:34077757). Acts as a regulator of fatty-acid-induced triacylglycerol synthesis by catalyzing acetylation of LPIN1, thereby promoting the synthesis of diacylglycerol (PubMed:29765047). In addition to protein acetyltransferase, can use different acyl-CoA substrates, such as (2E)-butenoyl-CoA (crotonyl-CoA) and 2-hydroxyisobutanoyl-CoA (2-hydroxyisobutyryl-CoA), and is able to mediate protein crotonylation and 2-hydroxyisobutyrylation, respectively (PubMed:29192674, PubMed:34608293). Acts as a key regulator of chromosome segregation and kinetochore-microtubule attachment during mitosis by mediating acetylation or crotonylation of target proteins (PubMed:26829474, PubMed:29040603, PubMed:30409912, PubMed:34608293). Catalyzes acetylation of AURKB at kinetochores, increasing AURKB activity and promoting accurate chromosome segregation in mitosis (PubMed:26829474). Acetylates RAN during mitosis, promoting microtubule assembly at mitotic chromosomes (PubMed:29040603). Acetylates NDC80/HEC1 during mitosis, promoting robust kinetochore-microtubule attachment (PubMed:30409912). Catalyzes crotonylation of MAPRE1/EB1, thereby ensuring accurate spindle positioning in mitosis (PubMed:34608293).ACTIVITY REGULATION Acyltransferase and acetyltransferase activities are activated by phosphorylation and autoacetylation (PubMed:20100829, PubMed:30704899). Autoacetylation activates the histone acetyltransferase activity (PubMed:20100829, PubMed:25865756, PubMed:30704899).SUBUNIT Component of the NuA4 histone acetyltransferase complex which contains the catalytic subunit KAT5/TIP60 and the subunits EP400, TRRAP/PAF400, BRD8/SMAP, EPC1, DMAP1/DNMAP1, RUVBL1/TIP49, RUVBL2, ING3, actin, ACTL6A/BAF53A, MORF4L1/MRG15, MORF4L2/MRGX, MRGBP, YEATS4/GAS41, VPS72/YL1 and MEAF6 (PubMed:12963728, PubMed:10966108, PubMed:15196461, PubMed:14966270, PubMed:29174981). KAT5/TIP60, EPC1, and ING3 together constitute a minimal HAT complex termed Piccolo NuA4. The NuA4 complex interacts with MYC (PubMed:12776177). Interacts with ATM (PubMed:16141325). Interacts with JADE1 (PubMed:15502158). Interacts with PLA2G4A/CPLA2, EDNRA and HDAC7 (PubMed:11416127, PubMed:11262386, PubMed:12551922). Interacts with the cytoplasmic tail of APP and APBB1/FE65 (PubMed:33938178). Interacts with TRIM24 and TRIM68 (PubMed:18451177, PubMed:19909775). Forms a complex with SENP6 and UBE2I in response to UV irradiation. Identified in a complex with HINT1 (PubMed:16835243). Interacts with ATF2 and CUL3 (PubMed:18397884). Interacts with NR1D2 (via N-terminus) (PubMed:17996965). Component of a SWR1-like complex (PubMed:24463511). Interacts with FOXP3 (PubMed:17360565, PubMed:24835996). Interacts with ZBTB49 (PubMed:25245946). Interacts with SRF (By similarity). Interacts with ATF3; promoting autoacetylation and deubiquitination by USP7 (PubMed:25865756). Interacts with EP300/p300; interaction promotes KAT5 autoacetylation (PubMed:24835996). Interacts with PRKDC; interaction is impaired following KAT5 sumoylation (PubMed:32832608).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT.PTM Phosphorylated on Ser-86 and Ser-90; enhanced during G2/M phase (PubMed:12468530, PubMed:26829474, PubMed:29335245). The phosphorylated form has a higher activity (PubMed:12468530, PubMed:29335245). Phosphorylation at Ser-90 by CDK1 or CDK9 is a prerequisite for phosphorylation at Ser-86 by GSK3 (PubMed:26829474, PubMed:30704899). Phosphorylation at Ser-86 by GSK3 (GSK3A or GSK3B) activates acetyltransferase and acyltransferase activities (PubMed:30704899). Phosphorylation at Ser-90 by CDK9 promotes KAT5 recruitment to chromatin (PubMed:29335245). Phosphorylation by VRK1 following DNA damage promotes KAT5 association with chromatin and histone acetyltransferase activity (PubMed:33076429).PTM Autoacetylated (PubMed:20100829, PubMed:24835996, PubMed:25301942, PubMed:26291311, PubMed:33938178). Autoacetylation is required for histone acetyltransferase activity (PubMed:20100829, PubMed:25865756). Autoacetylation at Lys-327 is facilitated by interaction with EP300/p300: it prevents ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by the proteasome and promotes acetylation of target proteins (PubMed:24835996). Deacetylated by HDAC3 and SIRT1 (PubMed:20100829, PubMed:25301942). Deacetylation by HDAC3 promotes its ubiquitination and cytoplasmic localization (PubMed:25301942).PTM Sumoylated by UBE2I at Lys-430 and Lys-451, leading to increase of its histone acetyltransferase activity in UV-induced DNA damage response, as well as its translocation to nuclear bodies (PubMed:17704809). Sumoylation with SUMO2 by PIAS4 at Lys-430 promotes repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) via homologous recombination (HR) (PubMed:32832608). Sumoylation by PIAS4 impairs interaction with PRKDC, inhibiting non-homologous end joining (NHEJ)-mediated repair of DSBs, thereby facilitating HR (PubMed:32832608). Desumoylated by SENP3 (PubMed:32832608).PTM Ubiquitinated by MDM2, leading to its proteasome-dependent degradation (PubMed:11927554, PubMed:24835996). Ubiquitination is prevented by autoacetylation at Lys-327 (PubMed:24835996). Ubiquitinated following deacetylation by HDAC3, leading to cytoplasmic localization (PubMed:25301942). Deubiquitinated by USP7 following interaction with ATF3, promoting its stabilization (PubMed:25865756).PTM (Microbial infection) In case of HIV-1 infection, interaction with the viral Tat protein leads to KAT5 polyubiquitination and targets it to degradation.SIMILARITY Belongs to the MYST (SAS/MOZ) family.CAUTION The role of the Tudor-knot domain, also named chromo barrel or chromodomain, is unclear. Based on its similarity with some chromo domains, it was first reported to bind histone H3 trimethylated on 'Lys-4' and/or 'Lys-9' (H3K4me3 and/or H3K9me3, respectively) (PubMed:19783983, PubMed:25560918). However, another group was not able to see any binding to methylated histones (PubMed:29494751). The 3D structure of the domain suggests that the inability to bind histones is caused by occlusion of the putative peptide-binding site by a basic amino acid side chain within a unique beta hairpin (PubMed:29494751). Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt Q92993 1 EQUAL 513 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 3321979 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=3321979 Reactome R-HSA-3321979 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-3321979.1 Reactome http://www.reactome.org 1 p-S1981,Ac-K3016-ATM Reactome DB_ID: 5693527 UniProt:Q13315 ATM ATM FUNCTION Serine/threonine protein kinase which activates checkpoint signaling upon double strand breaks (DSBs), apoptosis and genotoxic stresses such as ionizing ultraviolet A light (UVA), thereby acting as a DNA damage sensor. Recognizes the substrate consensus sequence [ST]-Q. Phosphorylates 'Ser-139' of histone variant H2AX at double strand breaks (DSBs), thereby regulating DNA damage response mechanism. Also plays a role in pre-B cell allelic exclusion, a process leading to expression of a single immunoglobulin heavy chain allele to enforce clonality and monospecific recognition by the B-cell antigen receptor (BCR) expressed on individual B-lymphocytes. After the introduction of DNA breaks by the RAG complex on one immunoglobulin allele, acts by mediating a repositioning of the second allele to pericentromeric heterochromatin, preventing accessibility to the RAG complex and recombination of the second allele. Also involved in signal transduction and cell cycle control. May function as a tumor suppressor. Necessary for activation of ABL1 and SAPK. Phosphorylates DYRK2, CHEK2, p53/TP53, FBXW7, FANCD2, NFKBIA, BRCA1, CTIP, nibrin (NBN), TERF1, UFL1, RAD9, UBQLN4 and DCLRE1C (PubMed:9843217, PubMed:9733515, PubMed:10550055, PubMed:10766245, PubMed:10839545, PubMed:10910365, PubMed:10802669, PubMed:10973490, PubMed:11375976, PubMed:12086603, PubMed:15456891, PubMed:19965871, PubMed:30612738, PubMed:30886146, PubMed:26774286). May play a role in vesicle and/or protein transport. Could play a role in T-cell development, gonad and neurological function. Plays a role in replication-dependent histone mRNA degradation. Binds DNA ends. Phosphorylation of DYRK2 in nucleus in response to genotoxic stress prevents its MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and subsequent proteasome degradation. Phosphorylates ATF2 which stimulates its function in DNA damage response. Phosphorylates ERCC6 which is essential for its chromatin remodeling activity at DNA double-strand breaks (PubMed:29203878). Phosphorylates TTC5/STRAP at 'Ser-203' in the cytoplasm in response to DNA damage, which promotes TTC5/STRAP nuclear localization (PubMed:15448695).ACTIVITY REGULATION Inhibited by wortmannin.SUBUNIT Homodimer (PubMed:28508083). Dimers or tetramers in inactive state. On DNA damage, autophosphorylation dissociates ATM into monomers rendering them catalytically active. Binds p53/TP53, ABL1, BRCA1, NBN/nibrin and TERF1. Part of the BRCA1-associated genome surveillance complex (BASC), which contains BRCA1, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, PMS2 and the RAD50-MRE11-NBN protein complex. This association could be a dynamic process changing throughout the cell cycle and within subnuclear domains. Interacts with RAD17; DNA damage promotes the association. Interacts with EEF1E1; the interaction, induced on DNA damage, up-regulates TP53. Interacts with DCLRE1C, KAT8, KAT5, NABP2, ATMIN and CEP164. Interacts with AP2B1 and AP3B2; the interaction occurs in cytoplasmic vesicles (By similarity). Interacts with TELO2 and TTI1. Interacts with DDX1. Interacts with BRAT1. Interacts with CYREN (via XLF motif) (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Found in pancreas, kidney, skeletal muscle, liver, lung, placenta, brain, heart, spleen, thymus, testis, ovary, small intestine, colon and leukocytes.INDUCTION By ionizing radiation.DOMAIN The FATC domain is required for interaction with KAT5.PTM Phosphorylated by NUAK1/ARK5 (PubMed:12409306). Autophosphorylation on Ser-367, Ser-1893, Ser-1981 correlates with DNA damage-mediated activation of the kinase (PubMed:12556884, PubMed:16141325, PubMed:16858402, PubMed:21144835, PubMed:27664052). During the late stages of DNA damage response, dephosphorylated following deacetylation by SIRT7, leading to ATM deactivation (PubMed:30944854).PTM Acetylation, on DNA damage, is required for activation of the kinase activity, dimer-monomer transition, and subsequent autophosphorylation on Ser-1981 (PubMed:12556884, PubMed:16141325, PubMed:16858402, PubMed:17923702, PubMed:21144835). Acetylated in vitro by KAT5/TIP60 (PubMed:16141325). Deacetylated by SIRT7 during the late stages of DNA damage response, promoting ATM dephosphorylation and subsequent deactivation (PubMed:30944854).DISEASE Defects in ATM may contribute to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL) and T-prolymphocytic leukemia (TPLL). TPLL is characterized by a high white blood cell count, with a predominance of prolymphocytes, marked splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, skin lesions and serous effusion. The clinical course is highly aggressive, with poor response to chemotherapy and short survival time. TPLL occurs both in adults as a sporadic disease and in younger AT patients.DISEASE Defects in ATM may contribute to B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (BNHL), including mantle cell lymphoma (MCL).DISEASE Defects in ATM may contribute to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (BCLL). BCLL is the commonest form of leukemia in the elderly. It is characterized by the accumulation of mature CD5+ B-lymphocytes, lymphadenopathy, immunodeficiency and bone marrow failure.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PI3/PI4-kinase family. ATM subfamily. UniProt Q13315 1981 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine MOD MOD:00046 3016 EQUAL N6-acetyl-L-lysine MOD MOD:00064 1 EQUAL 3056 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 5693527 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5693527 Reactome R-HSA-5693527 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5693527.1 1 DNA DSBs:MRN Reactome DB_ID: 3785763 DNA double-strand break ends Reactome DB_ID: 75165 Reactome Database ID Release 83 75165 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=75165 Reactome R-ALL-75165 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-75165.2 ChEBI 61120 additional information MI MI:0361 1 MRN MRE11:RAD50:NBS1 MRE11:RAD50:NBN Reactome DB_ID: 75164 NBN NBS1 Reactome DB_ID: 75163 UniProt:O60934 NBN NBN NBS NBS1 P95 FUNCTION Component of the MRE11-RAD50-NBN (MRN complex) which plays a critical role in the cellular response to DNA damage and the maintenance of chromosome integrity. The complex is involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair, DNA recombination, maintenance of telomere integrity, cell cycle checkpoint control and meiosis. The complex possesses single-strand endonuclease activity and double-strand-specific 3'-5' exonuclease activity, which are provided by MRE11. RAD50 may be required to bind DNA ends and hold them in close proximity. NBN modulate the DNA damage signal sensing by recruiting PI3/PI4-kinase family members ATM, ATR, and probably DNA-PKcs to the DNA damage sites and activating their functions. It can also recruit MRE11 and RAD50 to the proximity of DSBs by an interaction with the histone H2AX. NBN also functions in telomere length maintenance by generating the 3' overhang which serves as a primer for telomerase dependent telomere elongation. NBN is a major player in the control of intra-S-phase checkpoint and there is some evidence that NBN is involved in G1 and G2 checkpoints. The roles of NBS1/MRN encompass DNA damage sensor, signal transducer, and effector, which enable cells to maintain DNA integrity and genomic stability. Forms a complex with RBBP8 to link DNA double-strand break sensing to resection. Enhances AKT1 phosphorylation possibly by association with the mTORC2 complex.SUBUNIT Component of the MRN complex composed of two heterodimers RAD50/MRE11 associated with a single NBN (PubMed:26215093, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:11238951). As part of the MRN complex, interacts with MCM9; the interaction recruits the complex to DNA repair sites (PubMed:26215093). Component of the BASC complex, at least composed of BRCA1, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, RAD50, MRE11 and NBN (PubMed:10783165). Interacts with histone H2AX this requires phosphorylation of H2AX on 'Ser-139' (PubMed:12419185). Interacts with HJURP (PubMed:17823411). Interacts with INTS3 (PubMed:19683501). Interacts with KPNA2 (PubMed:16188882). Interacts with TERF2 (PubMed:10888888). Interacts with RBBP8; the interaction links the role of the MRN complex in DNA double-strand break sensing to resection (PubMed:19759395). Interacts with SP100; recruits NBN to PML bodies (PubMed:12470659). Interacts with ATF2 (PubMed:15916964). Interacts with MTOR, MAPKAP1 isoform 2 and RICTOR; indicative for an association with the mTORC2 complex (PubMed:23762398). Interacts with MRNIP (PubMed:27568553). Interacts with UFL1; promoting UFL1 recruitment to double-strand breaks following DNA damage (PubMed:30886146). Interacts with CYREN (via XLF motif) (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 protein UL12.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitous (PubMed:9590180). Expressed at high levels in testis (PubMed:9590180).INDUCTION Up-regulated by ionizing radiation (IR).DOMAIN The FHA and BRCT domains are likely to have a crucial role for both binding to histone H2AX and for relocalization of MRE11/RAD50 complex to the vicinity of DNA damage.DOMAIN The C-terminal domain contains a MRE11-binding site, and this interaction is required for the nuclear localization of the MRN complex.DOMAIN The EEXXXDDL motif at the C-terminus is required for the interaction with ATM and its recruitment to sites of DNA damage and promote the phosphorylation of ATM substrates, leading to the events of DNA damage response.PTM Phosphorylated by ATM in response of ionizing radiation, and such phosphorylation is responsible intra-S phase checkpoint control and telomere maintenance.DISEASE Defects in NBN might play a role in the pathogenesis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).MISCELLANEOUS In case of infection by adenovirus E4, the MRN complex is inactivated and degraded by viral oncoproteins, thereby preventing concatenation of viral genomes in infected cells. UniProt O60934 1 EQUAL 754 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 75163 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=75163 Reactome R-HSA-75163 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-75163.1 1 MRE11A Double-strand break repair protein MRE11A MRE11 homolog 1 Reactome DB_ID: 59544 UniProt:P49959 MRE11 MRE11 HNGS1 MRE11A FUNCTION Component of the MRN complex, which plays a central role in double-strand break (DSB) repair, DNA recombination, maintenance of telomere integrity and meiosis (PubMed:9651580, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:11741547, PubMed:29670289). The complex possesses single-strand endonuclease activity and double-strand-specific 3'-5' exonuclease activity, which are provided by MRE11 (PubMed:9651580, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:11741547, PubMed:29670289). RAD50 may be required to bind DNA ends and hold them in close proximity (PubMed:9651580, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:11741547, PubMed:29670289). This could facilitate searches for short or long regions of sequence homology in the recombining DNA templates, and may also stimulate the activity of DNA ligases and/or restrict the nuclease activity of MRE11 to prevent nucleolytic degradation past a given point (PubMed:9651580, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:11741547, PubMed:29670289, PubMed:30612738). The complex may also be required for DNA damage signaling via activation of the ATM kinase (PubMed:15064416). In telomeres the MRN complex may modulate t-loop formation (PubMed:10888888).ACTIVITY REGULATION Interaction with SAMHD1 stimulates the double-strand-specific 3'-5' exonuclease activity.SUBUNIT Component of the MRN complex composed of two heterodimers RAD50/MRE11 associated with a single NBN (PubMed:9651580, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:10839544, PubMed:26215093). As part of the MRN complex, interacts with MCM9; the interaction recruits the complex to DNA repair sites (PubMed:26215093). Component of the BASC complex, at least composed of BRCA1, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, RAD50, MRE11 and NBN (PubMed:10783165). Found in a complex with TERF2 (PubMed:10888888). Interacts with DCLRE1C/Artemis and DCLRE1B/Apollo (PubMed:15456891, PubMed:15723659, PubMed:18469862). Interacts with ATF2 (PubMed:15916964). Interacts with EXD2 (PubMed:26807646). Interacts with MRNIP (PubMed:27568553). Interacts with SAMHD1; leading to stimulate 3'-5' exonuclease activity (PubMed:28834754, PubMed:29670289). Interacts (when ubiquitinated) with UBQLN4 (via its UBA domain) (PubMed:30612738). Interacts with CYREN (via XLF motif) (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 protein UL12 (PubMed:20943970).PTM Ubiquitinated following DNA damage. Ubiquitination triggers interaction with UBQLN4, leading to MRE11 removal from chromatin and degradation by the proteasome.DISEASE Defects in MRE11 can be a cause of nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC), a group of recessive diseases that affect kidney, retina and brain. A homozygous truncating mutation MRE11 has been found in patients with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, ataxia and dysarthria.MISCELLANEOUS In case of infection by adenovirus E4, the MRN complex is inactivated and degraded by viral oncoproteins, thereby preventing concatenation of viral genomes in infected cells.SIMILARITY Belongs to the MRE11/RAD32 family. UniProt P49959 1 EQUAL 708 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 59544 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=59544 Reactome R-HSA-59544 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-59544.1 1 RAD50 Reactome DB_ID: 75160 UniProt:Q92878 RAD50 RAD50 FUNCTION Component of the MRN complex, which plays a central role in double-strand break (DSB) repair, DNA recombination, maintenance of telomere integrity and meiosis. The complex possesses single-strand endonuclease activity and double-strand-specific 3'-5' exonuclease activity, which are provided by MRE11. RAD50 may be required to bind DNA ends and hold them in close proximity. This could facilitate searches for short or long regions of sequence homology in the recombining DNA templates, and may also stimulate the activity of DNA ligases and/or restrict the nuclease activity of MRE11 to prevent nucleolytic degradation past a given point (PubMed:11741547, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:9651580). The complex may also be required for DNA damage signaling via activation of the ATM kinase (PubMed:15064416). In telomeres the MRN complex may modulate t-loop formation (PubMed:10888888).SUBUNIT Component of the MRN complex composed of two heterodimers RAD50/MRE11 associated with a single NBN (PubMed:8756642, PubMed:9590181, PubMed:9705271, PubMed:10839544, PubMed:26215093). As part of the MRN complex, interacts with MCM8 and MCM9; the interaction recruits the complex to DNA repair sites (PubMed:26215093). Component of the BASC complex, at least composed of BRCA1, MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, ATM, BLM, RAD50, MRE11 and NBN (PubMed:10783165). Found in a complex with TERF2 (PubMed:10888888). Interacts with RINT1 (PubMed:11096100). Interacts with BRCA1 via its N-terminal domain (PubMed:10426999). Interacts with DCLRE1C/Artemis (PubMed:15456891, PubMed:15723659). Interacts with MRNIP (PubMed:27568553). Interacts with CYREN (via XLF motif) (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 protein UL12 (PubMed:20943970).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at very low level in most tissues, except in testis where it is expressed at higher level. Expressed in fibroblasts.DOMAIN The zinc-hook, which separates the large intramolecular coiled coil regions, contains 2 Cys residues that coordinate one molecule of zinc with the help of the 2 Cys residues of the zinc-hook of another RAD50 molecule, thereby forming a V-shaped homodimer. The two heads of the homodimer, which constitute the ATP-binding domain, interact with the MRE11 homodimer (By similarity).MISCELLANEOUS In case of infection by adenovirus E4, the MRN complex is inactivated and degraded by viral oncoproteins, thereby preventing concatenation of viral genomes in infected cells.SIMILARITY Belongs to the SMC family. RAD50 subfamily. UniProt Q92878 1 EQUAL 1312 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 75160 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=75160 Reactome R-HSA-75160 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-75160.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 75164 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=75164 Reactome R-HSA-75164 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-75164.1 ComplexPortal CPX-4442 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 3785763 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=3785763 Reactome R-HSA-3785763 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-3785763.1 ComplexPortal CPX-4442 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 5682055 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5682055 Reactome R-HSA-5682055 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5682055.1 ATP Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ATP(4-) Reactome DB_ID: 29358 ATP(4-) [ChEBI:30616] ATP(4-) ATP atp Adenosine 5'-triphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:30616 Reactome Database ID Release 83 29358 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=29358 Reactome R-ALL-29358 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-29358.3 COMPOUND C00002 DNA DSB:p-MRN:p-S1981,Ac-K3016-ATM:KAT5 Reactome DB_ID: 5682162 DNA DSBs:p-MRN DNA DSBs:MRE11:RAD50:p-S343-NBN Reactome DB_ID: 5682175 1 p-MRN MRE11:RAD50:p-S343-NBN MRE11:RAD50:p-S343-NBS1 Reactome DB_ID: 5682166 1 1 p-S343-NBN phospho-NBS1 Reactome DB_ID: 75237 343 EQUAL 1 EQUAL 754 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 75237 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=75237 Reactome R-HSA-75237 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-75237.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 5682166 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5682166 Reactome R-HSA-5682166 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5682166.1 ComplexPortal CPX-4442 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 5682175 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5682175 Reactome R-HSA-5682175 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5682175.1 ComplexPortal CPX-4442 1 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 5682162 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5682162 Reactome R-HSA-5682162 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5682162.1 ADP Adenosine 5'-diphosphate ADP(3-) Reactome DB_ID: 113582 ADP(3-) [ChEBI:456216] ADP(3-) ADP 5'-O-[(phosphonatooxy)phosphinato]adenosine ADP trianion ChEBI CHEBI:456216 Reactome Database ID Release 83 113582 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113582 Reactome R-ALL-113582 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-113582.3 COMPOUND C00008 ACTIVATION activeUnit: #Protein2 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004674 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 83 5682167 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5682167 Reactome Database ID Release 83 5693598 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=5693598 Reactome R-HSA-5693598 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-5693598.2 10802669 Pubmed 2000 ATM-dependent phosphorylation of nibrin in response to radiation exposure Gatei, M Young, D Cerosaletti, K M Desai-Mehta, A Spring, K Kozlov, S Lavin, M F Gatti, R A Concannon, P Khanna, K Nat. Genet. 25:115-9 15064416 Pubmed 2004 Direct activation of the ATM protein kinase by the Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 complex Lee, Ji-Hoon Paull, Tanya T Science 304:93-6 12773400 Pubmed 2003 A subset of ATM- and ATR-dependent phosphorylation events requires the BRCA1 protein. Foray, N Marot, D Gabriel, A Randrianarison, V Perricaudet, M Ashworth, A Jeggo, P EMBO J 22:2860-71 12861053 Pubmed 2003 Distinct functions of Nijmegen breakage syndrome in ataxia telangiectasia mutated-dependent responses to DNA damage. Lee, JH Xu, B Lee, CH Ahn, JY Song, MS Lee, H Canman, CE Lee, JS Kastan, MB Lim, DS Mol Cancer Res 1:674-81 10766245 Pubmed 2000 ATM phosphorylates p95/nbs1 in an S-phase checkpoint pathway Lim, D S Kim, S T Xu, B Maser, RS Lin, J Petrini, JH Kastan, M B Nature 404:613-7