BioPAX pathway converted from "GTSE1 facilitates proteasome-mediated degradation of TP53" in the Reactome database. LEFT-TO-RIGHT GTSE1 facilitates proteasome-mediated degradation of TP53 GTSE1 promotes down-regulation of TP53 in a proteasome-dependent way. Nuclear export of TP53 facilitated by GTSE1 and MDM2likely makes ubiquitinated TP53 available to the proteasome machinery. GTSE1-mediated decrease of TP53 levels is needed for the G2 checkpoint recovery (cell cycle re-entry after DNA damage induced G2 arrest) and rescues cells from DNA damage induced apoptosis during S/G2 phase (Monte et al. 2003, Monte et al. 2004). Authored: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2016-01-15 Reviewed: Bird, Alexander W, 2016-01-22 Edited: Orlic-Milacic, Marija, 2016-01-15 p-S435-GTSE1:PolyUb-TP53 Tetramer Reactome DB_ID: 8852349 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 p-S435-GTSE1 Reactome DB_ID: 8852316 UniProt:Q9NYZ3 GTSE1 GTSE1 FUNCTION May be involved in p53-induced cell cycle arrest in G2/M phase by interfering with microtubule rearrangements that are required to enter mitosis. Overexpression delays G2/M phase progression.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Expressed in G2/M phase. Not detected in quiescent cells.PTM Phosphorylated in mitosis. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt Q9NYZ3 435 EQUAL O-phospho-L-serine MOD MOD:00046 1 EQUAL 720 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 8852316 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8852316 Reactome R-HSA-8852316 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8852316.1 Reactome http://www.reactome.org 1 PolyUb-TP53 Tetramer Reactome DB_ID: 8852348 PolyUb-p53 PolyUb-TP53 Reactome DB_ID: 6793681 UniProt:P04637 TP53 TP53 P53 FUNCTION Acts as a tumor suppressor in many tumor types; induces growth arrest or apoptosis depending on the physiological circumstances and cell type (PubMed:11025664, PubMed:12524540, PubMed:12810724, PubMed:15186775, PubMed:15340061, PubMed:17317671, PubMed:17349958, PubMed:19556538, PubMed:20673990, PubMed:20959462, PubMed:22726440, PubMed:24051492, PubMed:9840937, PubMed:24652652). Involved in cell cycle regulation as a trans-activator that acts to negatively regulate cell division by controlling a set of genes required for this process (PubMed:11025664, PubMed:12524540, PubMed:12810724, PubMed:15186775, PubMed:15340061, PubMed:17317671, PubMed:17349958, PubMed:19556538, PubMed:20673990, PubMed:20959462, PubMed:22726440, PubMed:24051492, PubMed:9840937, PubMed:24652652). One of the activated genes is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases. Apoptosis induction seems to be mediated either by stimulation of BAX and FAS antigen expression, or by repression of Bcl-2 expression. Its pro-apoptotic activity is activated via its interaction with PPP1R13B/ASPP1 or TP53BP2/ASPP2 (PubMed:12524540). However, this activity is inhibited when the interaction with PPP1R13B/ASPP1 or TP53BP2/ASPP2 is displaced by PPP1R13L/iASPP (PubMed:12524540). In cooperation with mitochondrial PPIF is involved in activating oxidative stress-induced necrosis; the function is largely independent of transcription. Induces the transcription of long intergenic non-coding RNA p21 (lincRNA-p21) and lincRNA-Mkln1. LincRNA-p21 participates in TP53-dependent transcriptional repression leading to apoptosis and seems to have an effect on cell-cycle regulation. Implicated in Notch signaling cross-over. Prevents CDK7 kinase activity when associated to CAK complex in response to DNA damage, thus stopping cell cycle progression. Isoform 2 enhances the transactivation activity of isoform 1 from some but not all TP53-inducible promoters. Isoform 4 suppresses transactivation activity and impairs growth suppression mediated by isoform 1. Isoform 7 inhibits isoform 1-mediated apoptosis. Regulates the circadian clock by repressing CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1-mediated transcriptional activation of PER2 (PubMed:24051492).SUBUNIT Forms homodimers and homotetramers (PubMed:19011621). Binds DNA as a homotetramer. Interacts with AXIN1. Probably part of a complex consisting of TP53, HIPK2 and AXIN1 (By similarity). Interacts with histone acetyltransferases EP300 and methyltransferases HRMT1L2 and CARM1, and recruits them to promoters. Interacts (via C-terminus) with TAF1; when TAF1 is part of the TFIID complex. Interacts with ING4; this interaction may be indirect. Found in a complex with CABLES1 and TP73. Interacts with HIPK1, HIPK2, and TP53INP1. Interacts with WWOX. May interact with HCV core protein. Interacts with USP7 and SYVN1. Interacts with HSP90AB1. Interacts with CHD8; leading to recruit histone H1 and prevent transactivation activity (By similarity). Interacts with ARMC10, CDKN2AIP, NUAK1, STK11/LKB1, UHRF2 and E4F1. Interacts with YWHAZ; the interaction enhances TP53 transcriptional activity. Phosphorylation of YWHAZ on 'Ser-58' inhibits this interaction. Interacts (via DNA-binding domain) with MAML1 (via N-terminus). Interacts with MKRN1. Interacts with PML (via C-terminus). Interacts with MDM2; leading to ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of TP53. Directly interacts with FBXO42; leading to ubiquitination and degradation of TP53. Interacts (phosphorylated at Ser-15 by ATM) with the phosphatase PP2A-PPP2R5C holoenzyme; regulates stress-induced TP53-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Interacts with PPP2R2A. Interacts with AURKA, DAXX, BRD7 and TRIM24. Interacts (when monomethylated at Lys-382) with L3MBTL1. Isoform 1 interacts with isoform 2 and with isoform 4. Interacts with GRK5. Binds to the CAK complex (CDK7, cyclin H and MAT1) in response to DNA damage. Interacts with CDK5 in neurons. Interacts with AURKB, SETD2, UHRF2 and NOC2L. Interacts (via N-terminus) with PTK2/FAK1; this promotes ubiquitination by MDM2. Interacts with PTK2B/PYK2; this promotes ubiquitination by MDM2. Interacts with PRKCG. Interacts with PPIF; the association implicates preferentially tetrameric TP53, is induced by oxidative stress and is impaired by cyclosporin A (CsA). Interacts with SNAI1; the interaction induces SNAI1 degradation via MDM2-mediated ubiquitination and inhibits SNAI1-induced cell invasion. Interacts with KAT6A. Interacts with UBC9. Interacts with ZNF385B; the interaction is direct. Interacts (via DNA-binding domain) with ZNF385A; the interaction is direct and enhances p53/TP53 transactivation functions on cell-cycle arrest target genes, resulting in growth arrest. Interacts with ANKRD2. Interacts with RFFL and RNF34; involved in p53/TP53 ubiquitination. Interacts with MTA1 and COP1. Interacts with CCAR2 (via N-terminus). Interacts with MORC3 (PubMed:17332504). Interacts (via C-terminus) with POU4F2 isoform 1 (via C-terminus) (PubMed:17145718). Interacts (via oligomerization region) with NOP53; the interaction is direct and may prevent the MDM2-mediated proteasomal degradation of TP53 (PubMed:22522597). Interacts with AFG1L; mediates mitochondrial translocation of TP53 (PubMed:27323408). Interacts with UBD (PubMed:25422469). Interacts with TAF6 isoform 1 and isoform 4 (PubMed:20096117). Interacts with C10orf90/FATS; the interaction inhibits binding of TP53 and MDM2 (By similarity). Interacts with NUPR1; interaction is stress-dependent (PubMed:18690848). Forms a complex with EP300 and NUPR1; this complex binds CDKN1A promoter leading to transcriptional induction of CDKN1A (PubMed:18690848). Interacts with PRMT5 in response to DNA damage; the interaction is TTC5/STRAP dependent (PubMed:19011621). Interacts with PPP1R13L (via SH3 domain and ANK repeats); the interaction inhibits pro-apoptotic activity of p53/TP53 (PubMed:12524540). Interacts with PPP1R13B/ASPP1 and TP53BP2/ASPP2; the interactions promotes pro-apoptotic activity (PubMed:12524540). When phosphorylated at Ser-15, interacts with DDX3X and gamma-tubulin (PubMed:28842590). Interacts with KAT7/HBO1; leading to inhibit histone acetyltransferase activity of KAT7/HBO1 (PubMed:17954561). Interacts (via N-terminus) with E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase MUL1; the interaction results in ubiquitination of cytoplasmic TP53 at Lys-24 and subsequent proteasomal degradation (PubMed:21597459). Interacts with S100A4; this interaction promotes TP53 degradation (PubMed:23752197, PubMed:32442400). Interacts with BANP (By similarity). Interacts with TTC5/STRAP; the interaction may result in increased mitochondrial-dependent apoptosis (PubMed:25168243). Interacts with NQO1; this interaction is NADH-dependent, stabilizes TP53 in response to oxidative stress and protects it from ubiquitin-independent degradation by the 20S proteasome (PubMed:15687255). Interacts with DAZAP2 at TP53 target gene promoters; the interaction is triggered by DNA damage and leads to modulation of the expression of a subset of TP53 target genes, reducing DNA damage-induced cell death by limiting the expression of cell death-mediating TP53 target genes (PubMed:33591310).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with cancer-associated/HPV E6 viral proteins leading to ubiquitination and degradation of TP53 giving a possible model for cell growth regulation. This complex formation requires an additional factor, E6-AP, which stably associates with TP53 in the presence of E6.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with human cytomegalovirus/HHV-5 protein UL123.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via N-terminus) with human adenovirus 5 E1B-55K protein; this interaction leads to the inhibition of TP53 function and/or its degradation.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/HHV-8 protein ORF45; this interaction results in the cytoplasmic localization of TP53 thereby decreasing its transcriptional activity.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitous. Isoforms are expressed in a wide range of normal tissues but in a tissue-dependent manner. Isoform 2 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in brain, lung, prostate, muscle, fetal brain, spinal cord and fetal liver. Isoform 3 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in lung, spleen, testis, fetal brain, spinal cord and fetal liver. Isoform 7 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in prostate, uterus, skeletal muscle and breast. Isoform 8 is detected only in colon, bone marrow, testis, fetal brain and intestine. Isoform 9 is expressed in most normal tissues but is not detected in brain, heart, lung, fetal liver, salivary gland, breast or intestine.INDUCTION Up-regulated in response to DNA damage. Isoform 2 is not induced in tumor cells in response to stress.DOMAIN The nuclear export signal acts as a transcriptional repression domain. The TADI and TADII motifs (residues 17 to 25 and 48 to 56) correspond both to 9aaTAD motifs which are transactivation domains present in a large number of yeast and animal transcription factors.PTM Acetylation of Lys-382 by CREBBP enhances transcriptional activity (PubMed:10656795, PubMed:15448695, PubMed:20228809, PubMed:23431171). Acetylation of Lys-382 by EP300 (PubMed:10656795, PubMed:15448695, PubMed:20228809, PubMed:23431171). Deacetylation of Lys-382 by SIRT1 impairs its ability to induce proapoptotic program and modulate cell senescence (PubMed:10656795, PubMed:15448695, PubMed:20228809, PubMed:23431171). Deacetylation by SIRT2 impairs its ability to induce transcription activation in a AKT-dependent manner (PubMed:10656795, PubMed:15448695, PubMed:20228809, PubMed:23431171). Acetylation at Lys-381 increases stability (PubMed:29474172). Deacetylation at Lys-381 by SIRT6 decreases its stability, thereby regulating cell senescence (PubMed:29474172).PTM Phosphorylation on Ser residues mediates transcriptional activation. Phosphorylated by HIPK1 (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-9 by HIPK4 increases repression activity on BIRC5 promoter. Phosphorylated on Thr-18 by VRK1. Phosphorylated on Ser-20 by CHEK2 in response to DNA damage, which prevents ubiquitination by MDM2. Phosphorylated on Ser-20 by PLK3 in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS), promoting p53/TP53-mediated apoptosis. Phosphorylated on Thr-55 by TAF1, which promotes MDM2-mediated degradation. Phosphorylated on Ser-33 by CDK7 in a CAK complex in response to DNA damage. Phosphorylated on Ser-46 by HIPK2 upon UV irradiation. Phosphorylation on Ser-46 is required for acetylation by CREBBP. Phosphorylated on Ser-392 following UV but not gamma irradiation. Phosphorylated by NUAK1 at Ser-15 and Ser-392; was initially thought to be mediated by STK11/LKB1 but it was later shown that it is indirect and that STK11/LKB1-dependent phosphorylation is probably mediated by downstream NUAK1 (PubMed:21317932). It is unclear whether AMP directly mediates phosphorylation at Ser-15. Phosphorylated on Thr-18 by isoform 1 and isoform 2 of VRK2. Phosphorylation on Thr-18 by isoform 2 of VRK2 results in a reduction in ubiquitination by MDM2 and an increase in acetylation by EP300. Stabilized by CDK5-mediated phosphorylation in response to genotoxic and oxidative stresses at Ser-15, Ser-33 and Ser-46, leading to accumulation of p53/TP53, particularly in the nucleus, thus inducing the transactivation of p53/TP53 target genes. Phosphorylated by DYRK2 at Ser-46 in response to genotoxic stress. Phosphorylated at Ser-315 and Ser-392 by CDK2 in response to DNA-damage. Phosphorylation at Ser-15 is required for interaction with DDX3X and gamma-tubulin (PubMed:28842590).PTM Dephosphorylated by PP2A-PPP2R5C holoenzyme at Thr-55. SV40 small T antigen inhibits the dephosphorylation by the AC form of PP2A.PTM May be O-glycosylated in the C-terminal basic region. Studied in EB-1 cell line.PTM Ubiquitinated by MDM2 and SYVN1, which leads to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:10722742, PubMed:12810724, PubMed:15340061, PubMed:17170702, PubMed:19880522). Ubiquitinated by RFWD3, which works in cooperation with MDM2 and may catalyze the formation of short polyubiquitin chains on p53/TP53 that are not targeted to the proteasome (PubMed:10722742, PubMed:12810724, PubMed:20173098). Ubiquitinated by MKRN1 at Lys-291 and Lys-292, which leads to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:19536131). Deubiquitinated by USP10, leading to its stabilization (PubMed:20096447). Ubiquitinated by TRIM24, RFFL, RNF34 and RNF125, which leads to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:19556538). Ubiquitination by TOPORS induces degradation (PubMed:19473992). Deubiquitination by USP7, leading to stabilization (PubMed:15053880). Isoform 4 is monoubiquitinated in an MDM2-independent manner (PubMed:15340061). Ubiquitinated by COP1, which leads to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:19837670). Ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation is negatively regulated by CCAR2 (PubMed:25732823). Polyubiquitinated by C10orf90/FATS, polyubiquitination is 'Lys-48'-linkage independent and non-proteolytic, leading to TP53 stabilization (By similarity). Polyubiquitinated by MUL1 at Lys-24 which leads to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:21597459).PTM Monomethylated at Lys-372 by SETD7, leading to stabilization and increased transcriptional activation (PubMed:15525938, PubMed:16415881). Monomethylated at Lys-370 by SMYD2, leading to decreased DNA-binding activity and subsequent transcriptional regulation activity (PubMed:17108971). Lys-372 monomethylation prevents interaction with SMYD2 and subsequent monomethylation at Lys-370 (PubMed:17108971). Dimethylated at Lys-373 by EHMT1 and EHMT2 (PubMed:20118233). Monomethylated at Lys-382 by KMT5A, promoting interaction with L3MBTL1 and leading to repress transcriptional activity (PubMed:17707234). Dimethylation at Lys-370 and Lys-382 diminishes p53 ubiquitination, through stabilizing association with the methyl reader PHF20 (PubMed:22864287). Demethylation of dimethylated Lys-370 by KDM1A prevents interaction with TP53BP1 and represses TP53-mediated transcriptional activation (PubMed:17805299). Monomethylated at Arg-333 and dimethylated at Arg-335 and Arg-337 by PRMT5; methylation is increased after DNA damage and might possibly affect TP53 target gene specificity (PubMed:19011621).PTM Sumoylated with SUMO1. Sumoylated at Lys-386 by UBC9.DISEASE TP53 is found in increased amounts in a wide variety of transformed cells. TP53 is frequently mutated or inactivated in about 60% of cancers. TP53 defects are found in Barrett metaplasia a condition in which the normally stratified squamous epithelium of the lower esophagus is replaced by a metaplastic columnar epithelium. The condition develops as a complication in approximately 10% of patients with chronic gastroesophageal reflux disease and predisposes to the development of esophageal adenocarcinoma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the p53 family.CAUTION Interaction with BANP was reported to enhance phosphorylation on Ser-15 upon ultraviolet irradiation (PubMed:15701641). However, the publication has been retracted due to image duplication and manipulation. Interaction with BANP has been confirmed in mouse studies (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-15 has been confirmed by other studies (PubMed:10570149, PubMed:11554766, PubMed:16219768, PubMed:15866171, PubMed:17317671, PubMed:17954561, PubMed:20959462, PubMed:25772236). Its nuclear and cytoplasmic localization has been confirmed by other studies (PubMed:15340061, PubMed:17170702, PubMed:19011621, PubMed:21597459, PubMed:22726440, PubMed:17591690, PubMed:18206965). UniProt P04637 ubiquitinylated lysine MOD MOD:01148 1 EQUAL 393 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 6793681 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=6793681 Reactome R-HSA-6793681 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-6793681.1 4 Reactome Database ID Release 83 8852348 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8852348 Reactome R-HSA-8852348 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8852348.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 8852349 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8852349 Reactome R-HSA-8852349 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8852349.1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Ub ubiquitin Reactome DB_ID: 113595 RPS27A RPS27A(1-76) ubiquitin (RPS27A) Reactome DB_ID: 939205 UniProt:P62979 RPS27A RPS27A UBA80 UBCEP1 SUBUNIT Ribosomal protein S27a is part of the 40S ribosomal subunit.MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.MISCELLANEOUS For a better understanding, features related to ubiquitin are only indicated for the first chain.SIMILARITY In the N-terminal section; belongs to the ubiquitin family.SIMILARITY In the C-terminal section; belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eS31 family. UniProt P62979 1 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939205 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939205 Reactome R-HSA-939205 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939205.1 UBA52 UBA52(1-76) ubiquitin (UBA52) Reactome DB_ID: 939203 UniProt:P62987 UBA52 UBA52 UBCEP2 SUBUNIT Ribosomal protein L40 is part of the 60S ribosomal subunit (PubMed:23169626, PubMed:23636399, PubMed:32669547). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via UBA domain) (PubMed:15147878).MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.MISCELLANEOUS For a better understanding, features related to ubiquitin are only indicated for the first chain.SIMILARITY In the N-terminal section; belongs to the ubiquitin family.SIMILARITY In the C-terminal section; belongs to the eukaryotic ribosomal protein eL40 family. UniProt P62987 1 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939203 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939203 Reactome R-HSA-939203 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939203.1 UBB UBB(1-76) ubiquitin (UBB 1) Reactome DB_ID: 939214 UniProt:P0CG47 UBB UBB SUBUNIT Interacts with SKP1-KMD2A and SKP1-KMD2B complexes.MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.MISCELLANEOUS The mRNA encoding variant UBB(+1) is produced by an unknown mechanism involving the deletion of a GT dinucleotide in the close proximity of a GAGAG motif (PubMed:9422699). This variant mRNA is found in normal brain, but the encoded protein accumulates only in brain neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques in Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies, as well as polyglutaminopathies (PubMed:14597671). UBB(+1) variant cannot be used for polyubiquitination, is not effectively degraded by the proteasome when ubiquitinated and ubiquitinated UBB(+1) is refractory to disassembly by deubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs). In healthy brain, UBB(+1) C-terminus can be cleaved by UCHL3 (PubMed:21762696).MISCELLANEOUS For a better understanding, features related to ubiquitin are only indicated for the first chain.SIMILARITY Belongs to the ubiquitin family. UniProt P0CG47 1 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939214 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939214 Reactome R-HSA-939214 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939214.1 UBB(77-152) ubiquitin (UBB 2) Reactome DB_ID: 939213 77 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939213 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939213 Reactome R-HSA-939213 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939213.1 UBB(153-228) ubiquitin (UBB 3) Reactome DB_ID: 939230 153 EQUAL 228 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939230 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939230 Reactome R-HSA-939230 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939230.1 UBC UBC(1-76) ubiquitin (UBC 1) Reactome DB_ID: 939188 UniProt:P0CG48 UBC UBC MISCELLANEOUS Ubiquitin is encoded by 4 different genes. UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. UBB and UBC genes code for a polyubiquitin precursor with exact head to tail repeats, the number of repeats differ between species and strains.MISCELLANEOUS For the sake of clarity sequence features are annotated only for the first chain, and are not repeated for each of the following chains.SIMILARITY Belongs to the ubiquitin family. UniProt P0CG48 1 EQUAL 76 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939188 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939188 Reactome R-HSA-939188 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939188.1 UBC(77-152) ubiquitin (UBC 2) Reactome DB_ID: 939164 77 EQUAL 152 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939164 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939164 Reactome R-HSA-939164 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939164.1 UBC(153-228) ubiquitin (UBC 3) Reactome DB_ID: 939258 153 EQUAL 228 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939258 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939258 Reactome R-HSA-939258 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939258.1 UBC(229-304) ubiquitin (UBC 4) Reactome DB_ID: 939192 229 EQUAL 304 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939192 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939192 Reactome R-HSA-939192 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939192.1 UBC(305-380) ubiquitin (UBC 5) Reactome DB_ID: 939232 305 EQUAL 380 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939232 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939232 Reactome R-HSA-939232 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939232.1 UBC(381-456) ubiquitin (UBC 6) Reactome DB_ID: 939191 381 EQUAL 456 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939191 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939191 Reactome R-HSA-939191 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939191.1 UBC(457-532) ubiquitin (UBC 7) Reactome DB_ID: 939184 457 EQUAL 532 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939184 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939184 Reactome R-HSA-939184 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939184.1 UBC(533-608) ubiquitin (UBC 8) Reactome DB_ID: 939239 533 EQUAL 608 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939239 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939239 Reactome R-HSA-939239 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939239.1 UBC(609-684) ubiquitin (UBC 9) Reactome DB_ID: 939165 609 EQUAL 684 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 939165 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=939165 Reactome R-HSA-939165 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-939165.1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 113595 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=113595 Reactome R-HSA-113595 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-113595.1 ACTIVATION 26S proteasome Reactome DB_ID: 68819 PSMB6 Proteasome subunit beta type 6 Proteasome subunit beta type 6 precursor Proteasome delta chain Macropain delta chain Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex delta chain Proteasome subunit Y Reactome DB_ID: 68756 UniProt:P28072 PSMB6 PSMB6 LMPY Y FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Within the 20S core complex, PSMB6 displays a peptidylglutamyl-hydrolizing activity also termed postacidic or caspase-like activity, meaning that the peptides bond hydrolysis occurs directly after acidic residues.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 protein Tat.INDUCTION Down-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma (at protein level). Up-regulated in anaplastic thyroid cancer cell lines.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28072 35 EQUAL 239 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68756 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68756 Reactome R-HSA-68756 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68756.2 1 PSMD7 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 7 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S12 Proteasome subunit p40 Mov34 protein homolog Reactome DB_ID: 68806 UniProt:P51665 PSMD7 PSMD7 MOV34L FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD7, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Within the complex, PSMD7 interacts with subunit PSMD4 through their respective MPN domain. Interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707).MISCELLANEOUS Does not bind a metal ion.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase M67A family. UniProt P51665 1 EQUAL 324 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68806 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68806 Reactome R-HSA-68806 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68806.2 1 PSMD9 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 9 26S proteasome regulatory subunit p27 Reactome DB_ID: 68810 UniProt:O00233 PSMD9 PSMD9 FUNCTION Acts as a chaperone during the assembly of the 26S proteasome, specifically of the base subcomplex of the PA700/19S regulatory complex (RC). During the base subcomplex assembly is part of an intermediate PSMD9:PSMC6:PSMC3 module, also known as modulator trimer complex; PSMD9 is released during the further base assembly process.SUBUNIT Interacts with PSMC3. Part of a transient complex (modulator) containing PSMD9, PSMC6 and PSMC3 formed during the assembly of the 26S proteasome.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in all tissues tested, highly expressed in liver and kidney.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit p27 family.CAUTION Was initially identified as a component of the 26S proteasome. UniProt O00233 1 EQUAL 223 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68810 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68810 Reactome R-HSA-68810 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68810.2 1 PSMA5 Proteasome subunit alpha type 5 Proteasome zeta chain Macropain zeta chain Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex zeta chain Reactome DB_ID: 68732 UniProt:P28066 PSMA5 PSMA5 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7. PSMA5 interacts directly with the PSMG1-PSMG2 heterodimer which promotes 20S proteasome assembly.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in fetal brain (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated in colon cancer cell lines. Up-regulated in fetal Down syndrome (DS) brain (at protein level). May be the target of the transcriptional activator NFE2L2.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P28066 1 EQUAL 241 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68732 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68732 Reactome R-HSA-68732 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68732.2 1 PSMF1 Proteasome inhibitor PI31 subunit hPI31 Reactome DB_ID: 68818 UniProt:Q92530 PSMF1 PSMF1 FUNCTION Plays an important role in control of proteasome function. Inhibits the hydrolysis of protein and peptide substrates by the 20S proteasome. Also inhibits the activation of the proteasome by the proteasome regulatory proteins PA700 and PA28.SUBUNIT Monomer and homodimer. Interacts with FBXO7. Interacts with the 20S proteasome.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome inhibitor PI31 family. UniProt Q92530 1 EQUAL 271 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68818 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68818 Reactome R-HSA-68818 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68818.2 1 PSMD12 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 12 26S proteasome regulatory subunit p55 Reactome DB_ID: 68792 UniProt:O00232 PSMD12 PSMD12 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP) (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD12, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). Interacts with ERCC6 (PubMed:26030138).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit p55 family. UniProt O00232 2 EQUAL 456 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68792 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68792 Reactome R-HSA-68792 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68792.2 1 p27K PSMA6 Proteasome subunit alpha type 6 Proteasome iota chain Macropain iota chain Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex iota chain 27 kDa prosomal protein PROS-27 Reactome DB_ID: 68734 UniProt:P60900 PSMA6 PSMA6 PROS27 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7 (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). Interacts with ALKBH4 (PubMed:23145062).SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P60900 1 EQUAL 246 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68734 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68734 Reactome R-HSA-68734 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68734.2 1 PSMB1 Proteasome subunit beta type 1 Proteasome component C5 Macropain subunit C5 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C5 Proteasome gamma chain Reactome DB_ID: 68738 UniProt:P20618 PSMB1 PSMB1 PSC5 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7 (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). Interacts with SERPINB2 (PubMed:14732874). Interacts with RFPL4A (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 protein Tat.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P20618 29 EQUAL 241 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68738 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68738 Reactome R-HSA-68738 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68738.2 1 SEM1 DSS1 SHFM1 26S proteasome complex subunit DSS1 DSS1_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 8866674 UniProt:P60896 SEM1 SEM1 DSS1 SHFDG1 SHFM1 C7orf76 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair (PubMed:15117943). Component of the TREX-2 complex (transcription and export complex 2), composed of at least ENY2, GANP, PCID2, SEM1, and either centrin CETN2 or CETN3 (PubMed:22307388). The TREX-2 complex functions in docking export-competent ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) to the nuclear entrance of the nuclear pore complex (nuclear basket). TREX-2 participates in mRNA export and accurate chromatin positioning in the nucleus by tethering genes to the nuclear periphery. Binds and stabilizes BRCA2 and is thus involved in the control of R-loop-associated DNA damage and thus transcription-associated genomic instability. R-loop accumulation increases in SEM1-depleted cells.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including SEM1, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Belongs to the TREX-2 complex (transcription and export complex 2), composed of at least ENY2, GANP, PCID2, SEM1, and either centrin CETN2 or CETN3 (PubMed:22307388). Component of the homologous recombination repair (HR) complex composed of ERCC5/XPG, BRCA2, PALB2, DSS1 and RAD51 (PubMed:26833090). Interacts with the C-terminal of BRCA2 (PubMed:10373512, PubMed:21719596).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed in limb bud, craniofacial primordia and skin.SIMILARITY Belongs to the DSS1/SEM1 family. UniProt P60896 1 EQUAL 70 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 8866674 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8866674 Reactome R-HSA-8866674 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8866674.3 1 PSMB9 Proteasome subunit beta type 9 Proteasome subunit beta type 9 precursor Proteasome chain 7 Macropain chain 7 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex chain 7 RING12 protein Low molecular mass protein 2 Reactome DB_ID: 68765 UniProt:P28065 PSMB9 PSMB9 LMP2 PSMB6i RING12 FUNCTION The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This subunit is involved in antigen processing to generate class I binding peptides. Replacement of PSMB6 by PSMB9 increases the capacity of the immunoproteasome to cleave model peptides after hydrophobic and basic residues.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Component of the immunoproteasome, where it displaces the equivalent housekeeping subunit PSMB6. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated by interferon gamma (at protein level). Up-regulated by IRF1. Up-regulated by tumor necrosis factor-alpha (at protein level). Up-regulated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in glial cells. Up-regulated in Crohn's bowel disease (CD). Up-regulated by heat shock treatment. Up-regulated by CD40L via the NFKB1 pathway in cancer cells.PTM Autocleaved. The resulting N-terminal Thr residue of the mature subunit is responsible for the nucleophile proteolytic activity.MISCELLANEOUS Encoded in the MHC class II region.MISCELLANEOUS A model for self-activation in which residue Thr-21 serves as nucleophile and Lys-53 as proton donor/acceptor has been proposed. Subunit processing of mammalian beta-subunits proceeds via a novel ordered two-step mechanism involving autocatalysis.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28065 21 EQUAL 219 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68765 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68765 Reactome R-HSA-68765 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68765.2 1 PSMC2 26S protease regulatory subunit 7 MSS1 protein Reactome DB_ID: 68771 UniProt:P35998 PSMC2 PSMC2 MSS1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC2 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP) (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC2 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with NDC80/HEC; this interaction is detected only during M phase (PubMed:9295362, PubMed:10409732). Interacts and SQSTM1 (PubMed:15340068). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487). Directly interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat.INDUCTION Expression is not cell cycle-dependent and occurs throughout the cell cycle.PTM Monoubiquitinated by RNF181.SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P35998 2 EQUAL 433 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68771 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68771 Reactome R-HSA-68771 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68771.2 1 p31 PSMD8 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 8 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S14 Reactome DB_ID: 68808 UniProt:P48556 PSMD8 PSMD8 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD8, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components. Interacts with DDI2 (PubMed:29290612). Interacts with TASOR (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S14 family.CAUTION It is uncertain whether Met-1 or Met-64 is the initiator. UniProt P48556 1 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68808 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68808 Reactome R-HSA-68808 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68808.2 1 PSMB10 Proteasome subunit beta type 10 Proteasome subunit beta type 10 precursor Proteasome MECl-1 Macropain subunit MECl-1 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit MECl-1 Reactome DB_ID: 68741 UniProt:P40306 PSMB10 PSMB10 LMP10 MECL1 FUNCTION The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This subunit is involved in antigen processing to generate class I binding peptides.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Component of the immunoproteasome, where it displaces the equivalent housekeeping subunit PSMB7. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma (at protein level). Up-regulated by IRF1. Up-regulated by TNF (at protein level). Up-regulated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in glial cells. Up-regulated in Crohn's bowel disease (CD). Up-regulated by CD40L via the NFKB1 pathway in cancer cells.PTM Autocleaved. The resulting N-terminal Thr residue of the mature subunit is responsible for the nucleophile proteolytic activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P40306 40 EQUAL 273 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68741 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68741 Reactome R-HSA-68741 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68741.2 1 PSMB5 Proteasome subunit beta type 5 Proteasome subunit beta type 5 precursor Proteasome epsilon chain Macropain epsilon chain Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex epsilon chain Proteasome subunit X Proteasome chain 6 Proteasome subunit MB1 Reactome DB_ID: 68753 UniProt:P28074 PSMB5 PSMB5 LMPX MB1 X FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Within the 20S core complex, PSMB5 displays a chymotrypsin-like activity.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:8163024, PubMed:34711951). The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:8163024, PubMed:34711951). The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:8163024, PubMed:34711951). The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7 (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:8163024, PubMed:34711951). Directly interacts with POMP (PubMed:15944226). Interacts with ABCB1 and TAP1 (PubMed:15488952).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.INDUCTION Down-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma (at protein level). Induced in breast cancer tissue. Up-regulated by sulforaphane in breast cancer cells.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28074 60 EQUAL 263 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68753 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68753 Reactome R-HSA-68753 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68753.2 1 PSMB3 Proteasome subunit beta type 3 Proteasome theta chain Proteasome chain 13 Proteasome component C10-II Reactome DB_ID: 68747 UniProt:P49720 PSMB3 PSMB3 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.INDUCTION Up-regulated in asthenozoospermic sperm.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P49720 2 EQUAL 205 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68747 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68747 Reactome R-HSA-68747 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68747.2 1 PSMD13 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 13 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S11 26S proteasome regulatory subunit p40.5 Reactome DB_ID: 68794 UniProt:Q9UNM6 PSMD13 PSMD13 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD13, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S11 family. UniProt Q9UNM6 1 EQUAL 376 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68794 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68794 Reactome R-HSA-68794 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68794.2 1 AF PSMD4 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 4 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S5A Rpn10 Multiubiquitin chain binding protein Antisecretory factor-1 ASF Reactome DB_ID: 68800 UniProt:P55036 PSMD4 PSMD4 MCB1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMD4 acts as an ubiquitin receptor subunit through ubiquitin-interacting motifs and selects ubiquitin-conjugates for destruction. Displays a preferred selectivity for longer polyubiquitin chains.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components including PSMD4 (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with NUB1 (PubMed:11585840). Interacts with SQSTM1 (PubMed:15340068). Interacts with UBQLN4 (PubMed:15280365). Interacts with UBE3A (PubMed:22645313). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via ubiquitin-like domain) (PubMed:15147878). Interacts with DDI2 (PubMed:29290612).DOMAIN The 2 UIM motifs are involved in the binding to a multi-ubiquitin chain in a cooperative way.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S5A family. UniProt P55036 1 EQUAL 377 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68800 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68800 Reactome R-HSA-68800 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68800.2 1 PSMD3 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 3 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S3 Proteasome subunit p58 Reactome DB_ID: 68798 UniProt:O43242 PSMD3 PSMD3 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD3, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via ubiquitin-like domain) (PubMed:15147878). Interacts with ERCC6 (PubMed:26030138).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S3 family. UniProt O43242 1 EQUAL 534 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68798 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68798 Reactome R-HSA-68798 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68798.2 1 PSMC4 26S protease regulatory subunit 6B MIP224 MB67 interacting protein TAT-binding protein-7 TBP-7 Reactome DB_ID: 68777 UniProt:P43686 PSMC4 PSMC4 MIP224 TBP7 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC4 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC4 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775,PubMed:27342858). Interacts with NR1I3. Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487). Interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707). Interacts with ZFAND1 (PubMed:29804830).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P43686 1 EQUAL 418 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68777 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68777 Reactome R-HSA-68777 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68777.2 1 PSMC1 26S protease regulatory subunit 4 P26s4 Reactome DB_ID: 68768 UniProt:P62191 PSMC1 PSMC1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC1 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC1 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with SCA7 (PubMed:11734547). Interacts with NGLY1 (PubMed:15358861). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P62191 2 EQUAL 440 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68768 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68768 Reactome R-HSA-68768 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68768.2 1 PSMC5 Probable 26S protease regulatory subunit 8 Reactome DB_ID: 68780 UniProt:P62195 PSMC5 PSMC5 SUG1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC5 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC5 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Component of a complex with USP49 and RUVBL1 (PubMed:23824326). Interacts with PRPF19. Interacts with TRIM5 (PubMed:22078707). Interacts with NDC80 (PubMed:9295362, PubMed:10409732). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487). Interacts, in vitro, with the thyroid hormone receptor (in a thyroid hormone T3-dependent manner) and with retinoid X receptor (RXR) (By similarity). Interacts with ERCC6 (PubMed:26030138).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P62195 2 EQUAL 406 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68780 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68780 Reactome R-HSA-68780 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68780.2 1 PSMD10 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 10 26S proteasome regulatory subunit p28 Gankyrin Reactome DB_ID: 68788 UniProt:O75832 PSMD10 PSMD10 FUNCTION Acts as a chaperone during the assembly of the 26S proteasome, specifically of the PA700/19S regulatory complex (RC). In the initial step of the base subcomplex assembly is part of an intermediate PSMD10:PSMC4:PSMC5:PAAF1 module which probably assembles with a PSMD5:PSMC2:PSMC1:PSMD2 module. Independently of the proteasome, regulates EGF-induced AKT activation through inhibition of the RHOA/ROCK/PTEN pathway, leading to prolonged AKT activation. Plays an important role in RAS-induced tumorigenesis.FUNCTION Acts as an proto-oncoprotein by being involved in negative regulation of tumor suppressors RB1 and p53/TP53. Overexpression is leading to phosphorylation of RB1 and proteasomal degradation of RB1. Regulates CDK4-mediated phosphorylation of RB1 by competing with CDKN2A for binding with CDK4. Facilitates binding of MDM2 to p53/TP53 and the mono- and polyubiquitination of p53/TP53 by MDM2 suggesting a function in targeting the TP53:MDM2 complex to the 26S proteasome. Involved in p53-independent apoptosis. Involved in regulation of NF-kappa-B by retaining it in the cytoplasm. Binds to the NF-kappa-B component RELA and accelerates its XPO1/CRM1-mediated nuclear export.SUBUNIT Part of transient complex containing PSMD10, PSMC4, PSMC5 and PAAF1 formed during the assembly of the 26S proteasome. Stays associated throughout the assembly of the PA700/19S RC and is released upon association with the 20S core. Interacts with PSMC4. Interacts with RB1. Interacts with CDK4. Interacts with MDM2. Interacts with RELA. Associates with a CDK4:CCND2 serine/threonine kinase complex. Interacts with ARHGDIA and increases the interaction between ARHGDIA and RHOA, hence promotes ARHGDIA inactivation of RHOA and ROCK.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Tends to be up-regulated in cancer cells with RAS mutations, including lung cancers and adenocarconimas (at protein level).CAUTION Was initially identified as a genuine component of the 26S proteasome. UniProt O75832 1 EQUAL 226 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68788 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68788 Reactome R-HSA-68788 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68788.2 1 PSME2 Proteasome activator complex subunit 2 Proteasome activator 28-beta subunit PA28beta PA28b Activator of multicatalytic protease subunit 2 11S regulator complex beta subunit REG-beta Reactome DB_ID: 68814 UniProt:Q9UL46 PSME2 PSME2 FUNCTION Implicated in immunoproteasome assembly and required for efficient antigen processing. The PA28 activator complex enhances the generation of class I binding peptides by altering the cleavage pattern of the proteasome.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of PSME1 and PSME2, which forms a hexameric ring.INDUCTION By IFNG/IFN-gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PA28 family. UniProt Q9UL46 2 EQUAL 239 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68814 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68814 Reactome R-HSA-68814 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68814.2 1 PSME3 Proteasome activator complex subunit 3 Proteasome activator 28-gamma subunit PA28gamma PA28g Activator of multicatalytic protease subunit 3 11S regulator complex gamma subunit REG-gamma Ki nuclear autoantigen Reactome DB_ID: 68816 UniProt:P61289 PSME3 PSME3 FUNCTION Subunit of the 11S REG-gamma (also called PA28-gamma) proteasome regulator, a doughnut-shaped homoheptamer which associates with the proteasome. 11S REG-gamma activates the trypsin-like catalytic subunit of the proteasome but inhibits the chymotrypsin-like and postglutamyl-preferring (PGPH) subunits. Facilitates the MDM2-p53/TP53 interaction which promotes ubiquitination- and MDM2-dependent proteasomal degradation of p53/TP53, limiting its accumulation and resulting in inhibited apoptosis after DNA damage. May also be involved in cell cycle regulation. Mediates CCAR2 and CHEK2-dependent SIRT1 inhibition (PubMed:25361978).SUBUNIT Homoheptamer; the stability of the heptamer is essential for the specific activation of the trypsine-like subunit and inhibition of the chymotrypsin-like and postglutamyl-preferring (PGPH) subunits of the proteasome. Interacts with p53/TP53 and MDM2. Interacts with MAP3K3 (By similarity). Associates with the proteasome. Interacts with CCAR2. Interacts with PSME3IP1 (via C-terminus); the interaction is direct and promotes the association of PSME3 with the 20S proteasome (PubMed:29934401). Interacts with COIL; the interaction is inhibited by PSME3IP1 (PubMed:29934401).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with human cytomegalovirus UL27.INDUCTION Up-regulated in thyroid carcinoma cells.DOMAIN The C-terminal sequences affect heptamer stability and proteasome affinity.PTM Phosphorylated by MAP3K3 (By similarity). Phosphorylation at Ser-247 promotes its association with CCAR2.PTM Acetylation at the major site Lys-195 is important for oligomerization and ability to degrade its target substrates. Deacetylated by SIRT1.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PA28 family. UniProt P61289 2 EQUAL 254 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68816 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68816 Reactome R-HSA-68816 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68816.2 1 p44 PSMC6 26S protease regulatory subunit S10B Proteasome subunit p42 Conserved ATPase domain protein 44 CADp44 Reactome DB_ID: 68783 UniProt:P62333 PSMC6 PSMC6 SUG2 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC6 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC6 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487).SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family.CAUTION Alternative initiation from an upstream conserved methionine cannot be fully excluded but is not experimentally supported while initiation from the displayed methionine is supported by PubMed:17323924. UniProt P62333 1 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68783 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68783 Reactome R-HSA-68783 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68783.2 1 HSN3 PSMB4 Proteasome subunit beta type 4 Proteasome subunit beta type 4 precursor Proteasome beta chain Macropain beta chain Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex beta chain Proteasome chain 3 HsBPROS26 Reactome DB_ID: 68750 UniProt:P28070 PSMB4 PSMB4 PROS26 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). SMAD1/OAZ1/PSMB4 complex mediates the degradation of the CREBBP/EP300 repressor SNIP1.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:9344905, PubMed:34711951). The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:9344905, PubMed:34711951). The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:9344905, PubMed:34711951). The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7 (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:9344905, PubMed:34711951). Forms a ternary complex with SMAD1 and OAZ1 before PSMB4 is incorporated into the 20S proteasome (PubMed:11571290, PubMed:12097147). Interacts with PRPF19 (PubMed:15660529).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HTLV-1 Tax protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Nef and Tat proteins.INDUCTION Up-regulated in fibrolamellar carcinomas.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family.CAUTION A report observed N-glycosylation at Asn-83 (PubMed:19139490). However, as the protein does not localize in an extracellular compartment of the cell, additional evidence is required to confirm this result. UniProt P28070 46 EQUAL 264 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68750 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68750 Reactome R-HSA-68750 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68750.2 1 PSMB2 Proteasome subunit beta type 2 Proteasome component C7-I Macropain subunit C7-I Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C7-I Reactome DB_ID: 68744 UniProt:P49721 PSMB2 PSMB2 FUNCTION Non-catalytic component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 protein Tat.INDUCTION Up-regulated in ovarian cancer cell lines.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P49721 1 EQUAL 201 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68744 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68744 Reactome R-HSA-68744 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68744.2 1 PSMB7 Proteasome subunit beta type 7 Proteasome subunit beta type 7 precursor Proteasome subunit Z Macropain chain Z Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex chain Z Reactome DB_ID: 68759 UniProt:Q99436 PSMB7 PSMB7 Z FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Within the 20S core complex, PSMB7 displays a trypsin-like activity.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat protein.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at a low level in colonic mucosa. Up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt Q99436 44 EQUAL 277 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68759 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68759 Reactome R-HSA-68759 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68759.2 1 PSME4 Proteasome activator complex subunit 4 PSME4_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 947606 UniProt:Q14997 PSME4 PSME4 KIAA0077 FUNCTION Associated component of the proteasome that specifically recognizes acetylated histones and promotes ATP- and ubiquitin-independent degradation of core histones during spermatogenesis and DNA damage response. Recognizes and binds acetylated histones via its bromodomain-like (BRDL) region and activates the proteasome by opening the gated channel for substrate entry. Binds to the core proteasome via its C-terminus, which occupies the same binding sites as the proteasomal ATPases, opening the closed structure of the proteasome via an active gating mechanism. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis: binds to acetylated histones and promotes degradation of histones, thereby participating actively to the exchange of histones during spermatogenesis. Also involved in DNA damage response in somatic cells, by promoting degradation of histones following DNA double-strand breaks.SUBUNIT Homodimer. Interacts with the 20S and 26S proteasomes. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis.DOMAIN The bromodomain-like (BRDL) region specifically recognizes and binds acetylated histones.SIMILARITY Belongs to the BLM10 family. UniProt Q14997 1 EQUAL 1843 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 947606 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=947606 Reactome R-HSA-947606 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-947606.1 1 RPN11 PSMD14 26S proteasome-associated pad1 homolog 26S proteasome regulatory subunit RPN11 Reactome DB_ID: 68722 UniProt:O00487 PSMD14 PSMD14 POH1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. The PSMD14 subunit is a metalloprotease that specifically cleaves 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains within the complex. Plays a role in response to double-strand breaks (DSBs): acts as a regulator of non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) by cleaving 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin, thereby promoting retention of JMJD2A/KDM4A on chromatin and restricting TP53BP1 accumulation. Also involved in homologous recombination repair by promoting RAD51 loading.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD4, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Within the complex, PSMD4 interacts with subunit PSMD7 through their respective MPN domain. Interacts with TXNL1 (PubMed:19349277).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed. Highest levels in heart and skeletal muscle.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase M67A family. PSMD14 subfamily. UniProt O00487 1 EQUAL 310 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68722 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68722 Reactome R-HSA-68722 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68722.3 1 PSME1 Proteasome activator complex subunit 1 Proteasome activator 28-alpha subunit PA28alpha PA28a Activator of multicatalytic protease subunit 1 11S regulator complex alpha subunit REG-alpha Interferon gamma up-regulated I-5111 protein IGUP I-5111 Reactome DB_ID: 68812 UniProt:Q06323 PSME1 PSME1 IFI5111 FUNCTION Implicated in immunoproteasome assembly and required for efficient antigen processing. The PA28 activator complex enhances the generation of class I binding peptides by altering the cleavage pattern of the proteasome.SUBUNIT Heterodimer of PSME1 and PSME2, which forms a hexameric ring. PSME1 can form homoheptamers.INDUCTION By IFNG/IFN-gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the PA28 family. UniProt Q06323 1 EQUAL 249 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68812 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68812 Reactome R-HSA-68812 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68812.2 1 PSMA3 Proteasome subunit alpha type 3 Proteasome component C8 Macropain subunit C8 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C8 Reactome DB_ID: 68728 UniProt:P25788 PSMA3 PSMA3 HC8 PSC8 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Binds to the C-terminus of CDKN1A and thereby mediates its degradation. Negatively regulates the membrane trafficking of the cell-surface thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R) isoform 2.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:26657688, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:26657688, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:26657688, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7 (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:26657688, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). Interacts with AURKB (PubMed:14674694). Interacts with CDKN1A (PubMed:11350925). Interacts with MDM2 and RB1 (PubMed:16337594). Interacts with the C-terminus of TBXA2R isoform 2 (PubMed:17499743). Interacts with DNAJB2 (PubMed:15936278).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) F protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Epstein-Barr virus EBNA3 proteins.INDUCTION Down-regulated by antioxidants BO-653 and probucol. Up-regulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) and TNF.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25788 2 EQUAL 255 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68728 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68728 Reactome R-HSA-68728 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68728.2 1 RPN2 PSMD1 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 1 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S1 26S proteasome subunit p112 Reactome DB_ID: 68786 UniProt:Q99460 PSMD1 PSMD1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components including PSMD1 (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with ADRM1 (PubMed:16990800, PubMed:16906146). Interacts with ZFAND1 (PubMed:29804830).SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S1 family. UniProt Q99460 1 EQUAL 953 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68786 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68786 Reactome R-HSA-68786 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68786.2 1 PSMD2 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 2 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S2 26S proteasome subunit p97 Tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor associated protein 2 55.11 protein Reactome DB_ID: 68796 UniProt:Q13200 PSMD2 PSMD2 TRAP2 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.FUNCTION Binds to the intracellular domain of tumor necrosis factor type 1 receptor. The binding domain of TRAP1 and TRAP2 resides outside the death domain of TNFR1.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components including PSMD2 (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with RPGRIP1L (By similarity). Interacts with CRY1 in a KDM8-dependent manner (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Found in skeletal muscle, liver, heart, brain, kidney, pancreas, lung and placenta.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S2 family. UniProt Q13200 1 EQUAL 908 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68796 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68796 Reactome R-HSA-68796 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68796.2 1 PSMB8 Proteasome subunit beta type 8 Proteasome subunit beta type 8 precursor Proteasome component C13 Macropain subunit C13 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C13 Reactome DB_ID: 68762 UniProt:P28062 PSMB8 PSMB8 LMP7 PSMB5i RING10 Y2 FUNCTION The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. This subunit is involved in antigen processing to generate class I binding peptides. Replacement of PSMB5 by PSMB8 increases the capacity of the immunoproteasome to cleave model peptides after hydrophobic and basic residues. Involved in the generation of spliced peptides resulting from the ligation of two separate proteasomal cleavage products that are not contiguous in the parental protein (PubMed:27049119). Acts as a major component of interferon gamma-induced sensitivity. Plays a key role in apoptosis via the degradation of the apoptotic inhibitor MCL1. May be involved in the inflammatory response pathway. In cancer cells, substitution of isoform 1 (E2) by isoform 2 (E1) results in immunoproteasome deficiency. Required for the differentiation of preadipocytes into adipocytes.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Component of the immunoproteasome, where it displaces the equivalent housekeeping subunit PSMB5. Component of the spermatoproteasome, a form of the proteasome specifically found in testis. Directly interacts with POMP. Interacts with TAP1.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Highly expressed in immature dendritic cells (at protein level).INDUCTION Up-regulated by IFNG/IFN-gamma and IRF1 (at protein level). Up-regulated by TNF (at protein level). Up-regulated by tetrodotoxin (TTX) in glial cells. Up-regulated in Crohn's bowel disease (CD). Down-regulated by the selective inhibitor PR-957. Down-regulated in mature dendritic cells by HSV-1 infection. Up-regulated by heat shock treatment.PTM Autocleaved. The resulting N-terminal Thr residue of the mature subunit is responsible for the nucleophile proteolytic activity.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt P28062 73 EQUAL 276 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68762 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68762 Reactome R-HSA-68762 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68762.2 1 PSMD11 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 11 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S9 26S proteasome regulatory subunit p44.5 Reactome DB_ID: 68790 UniProt:O00231 PSMD11 PSMD11 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. In the complex, PSMD11 is required for proteasome assembly. Plays a key role in increased proteasome activity in embryonic stem cells (ESCs): its high expression in ESCs promotes enhanced assembly of the 26S proteasome, followed by higher proteasome activity.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD11, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Expression decreases as ESCs differentiate.INDUCTION By FOXO4; expression in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) is mediated by FOXO4.PTM Phosphorylated by AMPK.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S9 family. UniProt O00231 2 EQUAL 422 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68790 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68790 Reactome R-HSA-68790 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68790.2 1 PSMA8 Proteasome subunit alpha type-7-like PSA7L_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 947610 UniProt:Q8TAA3 PSMA8 PSMA8 PSMA7L FUNCTION Component of the spermatoproteasome, a proteasome specifically found in testis that promotes acetylation-dependent degradation of histones, thereby participating actively to the exchange of histones during spermatogenesis. The proteasome is a protein complex that degrades unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds. Required for 20S core proteasome assembly, essential for the degradation of meiotic proteins RAD51 and RPA1 at late prophase I and the progression of meiosis I during spermatogenesis. Localizes to the synaptonemal complex, a 'zipper'-like structure that holds homologous chromosome pairs in synapsis during meiotic prophase I.SUBUNIT Component of the outer alpha-ring of the 20S proteasome core which is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Interacts with canonical subunits of the spermatoproteasome, including proteasome activators PSME4 (also called PA200) and PSME3 (also called PA28-gamma). Interacts with proteasome-interacting proteins chaperones, ubiquitin ligases and ubiquitin specific proteases. Interacts with meiotic proteins cyclin dependent kinase CDK1 and the ATPase TRIP13 as well as proteins of the synaptonemal complex SIX6OS1 and SYCE3.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt Q8TAA3 1 EQUAL 256 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 947610 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=947610 Reactome R-HSA-947610 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-947610.1 1 PSMA4 Proteasome subunit alpha type 4 Proteasome component C9 Macropain subunit C9 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C9 Proteasome subunit L Reactome DB_ID: 68730 UniProt:P25789 PSMA4 PSMA4 HC9 PSC9 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interaction with HTLV-1 TAX protein favors NFKB1 activation.INDUCTION Down-regulated by antioxidants BO-653 and probucol.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25789 1 EQUAL 261 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68730 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68730 Reactome R-HSA-68730 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68730.2 1 PSMA1 Proteasome subunit alpha type 1 Proteasome component C2 Macropain subunit C2 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C2 Proteasome nu chain 30 kDa prosomal protein PROS-30 Reactome DB_ID: 68724 UniProt:P25786 PSMA1 PSMA1 HC2 NU PROS30 PSC2 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187). The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187). The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7 (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187). Interacts with NOTCH3 (PubMed:17292860). Interacts with ZFAND1 (PubMed:29804830).INDUCTION Induced in breast cancer tissue (at protein level). Up-regulated in liver tumor tissues.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25786 1 EQUAL 263 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68724 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68724 Reactome R-HSA-68724 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68724.2 1 PSMD5 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 5 26S proteasome subunit S5B 26S protease subunit S5 basic Reactome DB_ID: 68802 UniProt:Q16401 PSMD5 PSMD5 KIAA0072 FUNCTION Acts as a chaperone during the assembly of the 26S proteasome, specifically of the base subcomplex of the PA700/19S regulatory complex (RC). In the initial step of the base subcomplex assembly is part of an intermediate PSMD5:PSMC2:PSMC1:PSMD2 module which probably assembles with a PSMD10:PSMC4:PSMC5:PAAF1 module followed by dissociation of PSMD5.SUBUNIT Interacts with PSMC1, PSMC2, PSMD1 and PSMD6. Part of transient complex containing PSMD5, PSMC2, PSMC1 and PSMD2 formed during the assembly of the 26S proteasome.DOMAIN Rich in dileucine repeats, which have been implicated in trafficking of a variety of transmembrane proteins.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S5B/HSM3 family.CAUTION Was initially identified as a genuine component of the 26S proteasome. UniProt Q16401 2 EQUAL 504 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68802 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68802 Reactome R-HSA-68802 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68802.2 1 p42A PSMD6 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 6 26S proteasome regulatory subunit S10 Proteasome regulatory particle subunit p44S10 Reactome DB_ID: 68804 UniProt:Q15008 PSMD6 PSMD6 KIAA0107 PFAAP4 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits including PSMD6, a base containing 6 ATPases and few additional components.SIMILARITY Belongs to the proteasome subunit S10 family. UniProt Q15008 1 EQUAL 389 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68804 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68804 Reactome R-HSA-68804 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68804.2 1 PSMB11 Proteasome subunit beta type-11 PSB11_HUMAN Reactome DB_ID: 947607 UniProt:A5LHX3 PSMB11 PSMB11 FUNCTION The proteasome is a multicatalytic proteinase complex which is characterized by its ability to cleave peptides with Arg, Phe, Tyr, Leu, and Glu adjacent to the leaving group at neutral or slightly basic pH. The proteasome has an ATP-dependent proteolytic activity. Incorporated instead of PSMB5 or PSMB8, this unit reduces the chymotrypsin-like activity of the proteasome (By similarity). Plays a pivotal role in development of CD8-positive T cells (By similarity).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is composed of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings, resulting in a barrel-shaped structure. The two end rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two central rings are each formed by seven beta subunits. The catalytic chamber with the active sites is on the inside of the barrel. Incorporated instead of PSMB5 and PSMB8.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1B family. UniProt A5LHX3 50 EQUAL 300 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 947607 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=947607 Reactome R-HSA-947607 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-947607.1 1 PSMA7 Proteasome subunit alpha type 7 Proteasome subunit RC6-1 Proteasome subunit XAPC7 Reactome DB_ID: 68736 UniProt:O14818 PSMA7 PSMA7 HSPC FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex). Inhibits the transactivation function of HIF-1A under both normoxic and hypoxia-mimicking conditions. The interaction with EMAP2 increases the proteasome-mediated HIF-1A degradation under the hypoxic conditions. Plays a role in hepatitis C virus internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. Mediates nuclear translocation of the androgen receptor (AR) and thereby enhances androgen-mediated transactivation. Promotes MAVS degradation and thereby negatively regulates MAVS-mediated innate immune response.SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7 (PubMed:25599644, PubMed:26133119, PubMed:27342858, PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27493187, PubMed:34711951). PSMA7 interacts directly with the PSMG1-PSMG2 heterodimer which promotes 20S proteasome assembly (PubMed:16251969). Interacts with HIF1A (PubMed:11389899). Interacts with RAB7A (PubMed:14998988). Interacts with PRKN (PubMed:15987638). Interacts with ABL1 and ABL2 (PubMed:16678104). Interacts with EMAP2 (PubMed:19362550). Interacts with MAVS (PubMed:19734229).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 TAT protein.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis B virus X protein (HBX).INDUCTION Down-regulated by the ribozyme Rz3'X. Up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues.PTM Phosphorylation by ABL1 or ABL2 leads to an inhibition of proteasomal activity and cell cycle transition blocks.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt O14818 1 EQUAL 248 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68736 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68736 Reactome R-HSA-68736 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68736.2 1 PSMC3 26S protease regulatory subunit 6A TAT-binding protein 1 TBP-1 Proteasome subunit P50 Reactome DB_ID: 68774 UniProt:P17980 PSMC3 PSMC3 TBP1 FUNCTION Component of the 26S proteasome, a multiprotein complex involved in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. This complex plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins, which could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Therefore, the proteasome participates in numerous cellular processes, including cell cycle progression, apoptosis, or DNA damage repair. PSMC3 belongs to the heterohexameric ring of AAA (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) proteins that unfolds ubiquitinated target proteins that are concurrently translocated into a proteolytic chamber and degraded into peptides.SUBUNIT Component of the 19S proteasome regulatory particle complex. The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S core particle (CP) and two 19S regulatory subunits (RP). The regulatory particle is made of a lid composed of 9 subunits, a base containing 6 ATPases including PSMC3 and few additional components (PubMed:27428775, PubMed:27342858). Interacts with PAAF1 (PubMed:15831487).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HIV-1 Tat.PTM Sumoylated by UBE2I in response to MEKK1-mediated stimuli.SIMILARITY Belongs to the AAA ATPase family. UniProt P17980 1 EQUAL 439 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68774 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68774 Reactome R-HSA-68774 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68774.2 1 PSMA2 Proteasome subunit alpha type 2 Proteasome component C3 Macropain subunit C3 Multicatalytic endopeptidase complex subunit C3 Reactome DB_ID: 68726 UniProt:P25787 PSMA2 PSMA2 HC3 PSC3 FUNCTION Component of the 20S core proteasome complex involved in the proteolytic degradation of most intracellular proteins. This complex plays numerous essential roles within the cell by associating with different regulatory particles. Associated with two 19S regulatory particles, forms the 26S proteasome and thus participates in the ATP-dependent degradation of ubiquitinated proteins. The 26S proteasome plays a key role in the maintenance of protein homeostasis by removing misfolded or damaged proteins that could impair cellular functions, and by removing proteins whose functions are no longer required. Associated with the PA200 or PA28, the 20S proteasome mediates ubiquitin-independent protein degradation. This type of proteolysis is required in several pathways including spermatogenesis (20S-PA200 complex) or generation of a subset of MHC class I-presented antigenic peptides (20S-PA28 complex).SUBUNIT The 26S proteasome consists of a 20S proteasome core and two 19S regulatory subunits. The 20S proteasome core is a barrel-shaped complex made of 28 subunits that are arranged in four stacked rings. The two outer rings are each formed by seven alpha subunits, and the two inner rings are formed by seven beta subunits. The proteolytic activity is exerted by three beta-subunits PSMB5, PSMB6 and PSMB7.INDUCTION Down-regulated by antioxidants BO-653 and probucol. Down-regulated in response to enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection (at protein level).PTM Phosphorylated on tyrosine residues; which may be important for nuclear import.SIMILARITY Belongs to the peptidase T1A family. UniProt P25787 2 EQUAL 234 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 68726 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68726 Reactome R-HSA-68726 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68726.2 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 68819 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68819 Reactome R-HSA-68819 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-68819.2 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0004175 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 83 68824 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=68824 Reactome Database ID Release 83 8852354 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8852354 Reactome R-HSA-8852354 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-8852354.2 12750368 Pubmed 2003 The cell cycle-regulated protein human GTSE-1 controls DNA damage-induced apoptosis by affecting p53 function Monte, Martin Benetti, Roberta Buscemi, Giacomo Sandy, Peter Del Sal, Giannino Schneider, C J. Biol. Chem. 278:30356-64 14707141 Pubmed 2004 hGTSE-1 expression stimulates cytoplasmic localization of p53 Monte, Martin Benetti, Roberta Collavin, Licio Marchionni, Luigi Del Sal, Giannino Schneider, C J. Biol. Chem. 279:11744-52 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0043161 gene ontology term for cellular process MI MI:0359