BioPAX pathway converted from "SARM binds viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1" in the Reactome database. LEFT-TO-RIGHT SARM binds viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1 Negative regulator SARM binds to TRIF within activated TLR3 complex SARM (sterile alpha-and armadillo-motif-containing protein) is a TIR-domain-containing adaptor, which functions as a negative regulator of TRIF (TICAM1)-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling in humans. A pairwise yeast two-hybrid assay demonstrated that SARM is capable of binding directly to TICAM1 (Carty M et al. 2006). GST pulldown studies suggest that protein-protein interactions occur between the TIR domains of SARM and TICAM1 (Carlsson E et al. 2016). The complex of TICAM1:SARM is thought to inhibit downstream TRIF signaling by preventing the recruitment of TRIF effector proteins (Carty M et al. 2006).<p>SARM expression was shown to inhibit poly(I:C)-induced TICAM1-dependent NFkappaB activaion, RANTES production and IRF activation in human embryonic kidney HEK293 cells (Carty M et al. 2006). Moreover, suppression of endogenous SARM expression by siRNA led to enhanced TLR3- and TLR4-dependent gene induction in both transformed HEK293 and primary PBMC cells (Carty M et al. 2006), Thus, SARM associates with TICAM1 via its TIR and sterile-alpha motif (SAM) domains to block the induction of proinflammatory genes downstream TLR3. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2012-05-15 Reviewed: Fitzgerald, Katherine A, 2012-11-13 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2012-11-19 SARM-1 sterile alpha and armadillo-motif-containing protein SARM isoform 1 Reactome DB_ID: 2559572 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 UniProt:Q6SZW1-1 SARM1 SARM1 KIAA0524 SAMD2 SARM FUNCTION NAD(+) hydrolase, which plays a key role in axonal degeneration following injury by regulating NAD(+) metabolism (PubMed:25908823, PubMed:27671644, PubMed:28334607). Acts as a negative regulator of MYD88- and TRIF-dependent toll-like receptor signaling pathway by promoting Wallerian degeneration, an injury-induced form of programmed subcellular death which involves degeneration of an axon distal to the injury site (PubMed:15123841, PubMed:16964262, PubMed:20306472, PubMed:25908823). Wallerian degeneration is triggered by NAD(+) depletion: in response to injury, SARM1 is activated and catalyzes cleavage of NAD(+) into ADP-D-ribose (ADPR), cyclic ADPR (cADPR) and nicotinamide; NAD(+) cleavage promoting cytoskeletal degradation and axon destruction (PubMed:25908823, PubMed:28334607, PubMed:30333228, PubMed:31128467, PubMed:31439793, PubMed:32049506, PubMed:32828421, PubMed:31439792, PubMed:33053563). Also able to hydrolyze NADP(+), but not other NAD(+)-related molecules (PubMed:29395922). Can activate neuronal cell death in response to stress (PubMed:20306472). Regulates dendritic arborization through the MAPK4-JNK pathway (By similarity). Involved in innate immune response: inhibits both TICAM1/TRIF- and MYD88-dependent activation of JUN/AP-1, TRIF-dependent activation of NF-kappa-B and IRF3, and the phosphorylation of MAPK14/p38 (PubMed:16964262).ACTIVITY REGULATION Autoinhibited: in the inactive state, the enzymatic TIR domain is held apart by the autoinhibiting ARM repeats (PubMed:27671644, PubMed:31278906, PubMed:32755591, PubMed:33053563). NAD(+)-binding to ARM repeats maintains an inactive state by promoting interaction between ARM repeats and the TIR domain, thereby facilitating inhibition of the enzymatic TIR domain (PubMed:33053563). Following activation, possibly by nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), auto-inhibitory interactions are released, allowing self-association of the TIR domains and subsequent activation of the NAD(+) hydrolase (NADase) activity (PubMed:27671644, PubMed:31128467, PubMed:32755591). Self-association of TIR domains is facilitated by the octamer of SAM domains (PubMed:31278906, PubMed:31439792). NAD(+) hydrolase activity is inhibited by nicotinamide (PubMed:28334607). Specifically inhibited by berberine chloride and zinc chloride (PubMed:32828421).SUBUNIT Homooctamer; forms an octomeric ring via SAM domains (PubMed:31278906, PubMed:31439792, PubMed:32755591, PubMed:33053563). Interacts with TICAM1/TRIF and thereby interferes with TICAM1/TRIF function (PubMed:16964262). Interacts with MAPK10/JNK3 and SDC2 (via cytoplasmic domain) (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Predominantly expressed in brain, kidney and liver. Expressed at lower level in placenta.INDUCTION Up-regulated by lipopolysaccharides (LPS).DOMAIN The TIR domain mediates NAD(+) hydrolase (NADase) activity (PubMed:28334607). Self-association of TIR domains is required for NADase activity (PubMed:27671644, PubMed:31278906).DOMAIN The ARM repeats inhibit the NAD(+) hydrolase (NADase) activity by binding to NAD(+): NAD(+)-binding to ARM repeats facilitates inhibition of the TIR domain NADase through their domain interface (PubMed:33053563). In contrast to classical ARM repeats, the last helix of ARM 6 does not fold back to interact with the first two helices, but instead turns towards the N-terminus of SARM1 (PubMed:33053563). As a result, the two following motifs ARM 7 and ARM 8 reverse their directions and lie perpendicularly (PubMed:33053563). Moreover, ARM repeats interact with different domains not only within each protomer but also of the adjacent ones (PubMed:33053563).PTM Phosphorylation at Ser-548 by JNK kinases (MAPK8, MAPK9 and /or MAPK10) enhance the NAD(+) hydrolase (NADase) activity (PubMed:30333228). Phosphorylation at Ser-548 and subsequent activation takes place in response to oxidative stress conditions and inhibits mitochondrial respiration (PubMed:30333228).SIMILARITY Belongs to the SARM1 family. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt Isoform Q6SZW1-1 1 EQUAL 724 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 2559572 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2559572 Reactome R-HSA-2559572 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2559572.1 Reactome http://www.reactome.org viral dsRNA:TLR3:TRIF viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1 Reactome DB_ID: 168907 endosome membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0010008 TRIF TICAM1 Reactome DB_ID: 450316 UniProt:Q8IUC6 TICAM1 TICAM1 PRVTIRB TRIF FUNCTION Involved in innate immunity against invading pathogens. Adapter used by TLR3, TLR4 (through TICAM2) and TLR5 to mediate NF-kappa-B and interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) activation, and to induce apoptosis (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303, PubMed:28747347). Ligand binding to these receptors results in TRIF recruitment through its TIR domain (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303). Distinct protein-interaction motifs allow recruitment of the effector proteins TBK1, TRAF6 and RIPK1, which in turn, lead to the activation of transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7, NF-kappa-B and FADD respectively (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303). Phosphorylation by TBK1 on the pLxIS motif leads to recruitment and subsequent activation of the transcription factor IRF3 to induce expression of type I interferon and exert a potent immunity against invading pathogens (PubMed:25636800). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (By similarity).SUBUNIT Homodimer (PubMed:12539043). Found in a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex at least composed of DHX36, DDX1, DDX21 and TICAM1; this complex exists in resting cells with or without poly(I:C) RNA ligand stimulation. Interacts (via TIR domain) with DDX21 (via C-terminus). Interacts (via TIR domain) with DHX36 (via C-terminus) (By similarity). Interacts with AZI2 and IRF7 (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:15611223). Interacts with TICAM2 in TLR4 recruitment (PubMed:12721283, PubMed:25736436). Interaction with PIAS4 inhibits the TICAM1-induced NF-kappa-B, IRF and IFNB1 activation (PubMed:15251447). Interacts with IKBKB and IKBKE. Interaction with SARM1 blocks TICAM1-dependent transcription factor activation (PubMed:16964262). Interacts with TRAF3 (By similarity). Interacts (when phosphorylated) with IRF3; following activation and phosphorylation on the pLxIS motif by TBK1, recruits IRF3 (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:14739303, PubMed:25636800, PubMed:27302953). Interacts with TBK1, TRAF6 and RIPK1 and these interactions are enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:14982987, PubMed:25736436). Interacts with TRAFD1 (By similarity). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via UBA domain) (PubMed:21695056). Interacts with TLR4 in response to LPS in a WDFY1-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts with WDFY1 in response to poly(I:C) (By similarity). Interacts (via the TIR domain) with TLR3 in response to poly(I:C) and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:25736436). Interacts with TRIM56 (PubMed:22948160). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of proinflammatory cytokines (By similarity). Interacts (via the TIR domain) with TLR5 (PubMed:20855887). Interacts with TRIM8 (PubMed:28747347).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease; this interaction leads to TICAM1 cleavage, thereby disrupting TLR3 signaling and preventing the establishment of an antiviral state.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Seneca Valley virus protease 3C; this interaction allows the cleavage of TICAM1/TRIF and subsequent suppression of host innate immunity.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via C-terminus) with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) protease 3C.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitously expressed but with higher levels in liver.DOMAIN The pLxIS motif constitutes an IRF3-binding motif: following phosphorylation by TBK1, the phosphorylated pLxIS motif of TICAM1 recruits IRF3 (PubMed:25636800). IRF3 is then phosphorylated and activated by TBK1 to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines (PubMed:25636800).DOMAIN The N-terminal region is essential for activation of the IFNB promoter activity.DOMAIN The N-terminal domain (TRIF-NTD) is globular and consists of two alpha-helical subdomains connected by a 14-residue linker. It shares structural similarity with IFIT family members N-terminal regions.PTM Phosphorylated by TBK1 (PubMed:14530355, PubMed:25636800). Following activation, phosphorylated by TBK1 at Ser-210 in the pLxIS motif (PubMed:25636800). The phosphorylated pLxIS motif constitutes an IRF3-binding motif, leading to recruitment of the transcription factor IRF3 to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines (PubMed:25636800, PubMed:27302953).PTM Polyubiquitinated at Lys-229 by TRIM38 with 'Lys-48'-linked chains, leading to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:23056470). Polyubiquitinated with 'Lys-6'- and 'Lys-33'-linked chains in a TRIM8-dependent manner; ubiquitination disrupts the interaction with TBK1 and subsequent interferon production (PubMed:28747347).PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved and degraded by hepatitis A virus (HAV) protein 3CD allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by CVB3 protease 3C allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by Seneca Valley virus protease 3C allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by protease 3C of human enterovirus D68 (EV68) allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by HCV protease NS3/4A, thereby disrupting TLR3 signaling and preventing the establishment of an antiviral state. UniProt Q8IUC6 1 EQUAL 712 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 450316 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=450316 Reactome R-HSA-450316 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-450316.1 2 viral dsRNA :TLR3 Reactome DB_ID: 167985 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome TLR3 ligand Reactome DB_ID: 9038432 Rotavirus dsRNA Reactome DB_ID: 8982440 endosome lumen GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0031904 Reactome Database ID Release 81 8982440 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8982440 Reactome R-ROT-8982440 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ROT-8982440.2 ChEBI 33697 additional information MI MI:0361 viral double-stranded RNA HSV1 dsRNA intermediate form HSV1 dsRNA replicative intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 6791257 Reactome Database ID Release 81 6791257 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=6791257 Reactome R-HER-6791257 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HER-6791257.1 ChEBI 67208 viral double-stranded RNA HCV dsRNA intermediate form HCV dsRNA replicative intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 8982462 Reactome Database ID Release 81 8982462 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8982462 Reactome R-HCV-8982462 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HCV-8982462.2 ChEBI 67208 viral double-stranded RNA HBV dsRNA intermediate form HBV dsRNA replicative intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 8982481 Reactome Database ID Release 81 8982481 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8982481 Reactome R-HBV-8982481 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HBV-8982481.2 ChEBI 67208 FLUAV dsRNA Stranded Influenza A dsRNA intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 9028895 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9028895 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9028895 Reactome R-FLU-9028895 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-FLU-9028895.3 ChEBI 67208 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9038432 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9038432 Reactome R-NUL-9038432 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-NUL-9038432.1 1 TLR3 Toll-like Receptor 3 Reactome DB_ID: 2000341 UniProt:O15455 TLR3 TLR3 FUNCTION Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.SUBUNIT Monomer and homodimer; dimerization is triggered by ligand-binding, the signaling unit is composed of one ds-RNA of around 40 bp and two TLR3 molecules, and lateral clustering of signaling units along the length of the ds-RNA ligand is required for TLR3 signal transduction. Interacts (via transmembrane domain) with UNC93B1; the interaction is required for transport from the ER to the endosomes (PubMed:33432245). Interacts with SRC; upon binding of double-stranded RNA. Interacts with TICAM1 (via the TIR domain) in response to poly(I:C) and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:25736436). The tyrosine-phosphorylated form (via TIR domain) interacts with WDFY1 (via WD repeat 2) in response to poly(I:C) (PubMed:25736436).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at high level in placenta and pancreas. Also detected in CD11c+ immature dendritic cells. Only expressed in dendritic cells and not in other leukocytes, including monocyte precursors. TLR3 is the TLR that is expressed most strongly in the brain, especially in astrocytes, glia, and neurons.DOMAIN ds-RNA binding is mediated by LRR 1 to 3, and LRR 17 to 18.PTM Heavily N-glycosylated, except on that part of the surface of the ectodomain that is involved in ligand binding.PTM TLR3 signaling requires a proteolytic cleavage mediated by cathepsins CTSB and CTSH, the cleavage occurs between amino acids 252 and 346. The cleaved form of TLR3 is the predominant form found in endosomes.POLYMORPHISM The Phe-412 allele (dbSNP:rs3775291) occurs with a frequency of 30% in populations with European and Asian ancestry, and confers some natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.SIMILARITY Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family. UniProt O15455 24 EQUAL 904 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 81 2000341 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2000341 Reactome R-HSA-2000341 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2000341.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 167985 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=167985 Reactome R-HSA-167985 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-167985.4 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 168907 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=168907 Reactome R-HSA-168907 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-168907.3 SARM:TICAM1:activated TLR3 SARM:TICAM1:viral dsRNA:TLR3 SARM:TRIF:viral dsRNA:TLR3 Reactome DB_ID: 9014322 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9014322 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9014322 Reactome R-HSA-9014322 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9014322.2 Reactome Database ID Release 81 9014320 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9014320 Reactome R-HSA-9014320 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9014320.2 26592460 Pubmed 2016 SARM modulates MyD88-mediated TLR activation through BB-loop dependent TIR-TIR interactions Carlsson, Emil Ding, Jeak Ling Byrne, Bernadette Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1863:244-53 16964262 Pubmed 2006 The human adaptor SARM negatively regulates adaptor protein TRIF-dependent Toll-like receptor signaling Carty, Michael Goodbody, Rory Schröder, Martina Stack, Julianne Moynagh, Paul N Bowie, Andrew G Nat. Immunol. 7:1074-81 GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0034128 gene ontology term for cellular process MI MI:0359