BioPAX pathway converted from "IKBKG subunit of IKK complex binds K63pUb- RIP1 within the TLR3 complex" in the Reactome database. LEFT-TO-RIGHT Nemo subunit of IKK complex binds polyubiquinated RIP1 IKBKG subunit of IKK complex binds K63pUb- RIP1 within the TLR3 complex Structural studies showed that NEMO binds both Lys-63- and linear polyubiquitin chains,both critical for NF-kB activation. Authored: Shamovsky, V, 2010-06-01 Reviewed: Gillespie, ME, 2010-11-30 Reviewed: Fitzgerald, Katherine A, 2012-11-13 Edited: Shamovsky, V, 2011-08-12 activated TLR3:TICAM1:K63pUb-RIP1 viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1:K63pUb-RIP1 Reactome DB_ID: 9014344 endosome membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0010008 viral dsRNA:TLR3:TRIF viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1 Reactome DB_ID: 168907 viral dsRNA :TLR3 Reactome DB_ID: 167985 TLR3 Toll-like Receptor 3 Reactome DB_ID: 2000341 UniProt:O15455 TLR3 TLR3 FUNCTION Key component of innate and adaptive immunity. TLRs (Toll-like receptors) control host immune response against pathogens through recognition of molecular patterns specific to microorganisms. TLR3 is a nucleotide-sensing TLR which is activated by double-stranded RNA, a sign of viral infection. Acts via the adapter TRIF/TICAM1, leading to NF-kappa-B activation, IRF3 nuclear translocation, cytokine secretion and the inflammatory response.SUBUNIT Monomer and homodimer; dimerization is triggered by ligand-binding, the signaling unit is composed of one ds-RNA of around 40 bp and two TLR3 molecules, and lateral clustering of signaling units along the length of the ds-RNA ligand is required for TLR3 signal transduction. Interacts (via transmembrane domain) with UNC93B1; the interaction is required for transport from the ER to the endosomes (PubMed:33432245). Interacts with SRC; upon binding of double-stranded RNA. Interacts with TICAM1 (via the TIR domain) in response to poly(I:C) and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:25736436). The tyrosine-phosphorylated form (via TIR domain) interacts with WDFY1 (via WD repeat 2) in response to poly(I:C) (PubMed:25736436).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Expressed at high level in placenta and pancreas. Also detected in CD11c+ immature dendritic cells. Only expressed in dendritic cells and not in other leukocytes, including monocyte precursors. TLR3 is the TLR that is expressed most strongly in the brain, especially in astrocytes, glia, and neurons.DOMAIN ds-RNA binding is mediated by LRR 1 to 3, and LRR 17 to 18.PTM Heavily N-glycosylated, except on that part of the surface of the ectodomain that is involved in ligand binding.PTM TLR3 signaling requires a proteolytic cleavage mediated by cathepsins CTSB and CTSH, the cleavage occurs between amino acids 252 and 346. The cleaved form of TLR3 is the predominant form found in endosomes.POLYMORPHISM The Phe-412 allele (dbSNP:rs3775291) occurs with a frequency of 30% in populations with European and Asian ancestry, and confers some natural resistance to HIV-1 infection.SIMILARITY Belongs to the Toll-like receptor family. Homo sapiens NCBI Taxonomy 9606 UniProt O15455 24 EQUAL 904 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 2000341 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=2000341 Reactome R-HSA-2000341 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-2000341.1 Reactome http://www.reactome.org 2 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome TLR3 ligand Reactome DB_ID: 9038432 Rotavirus dsRNA Reactome DB_ID: 8982440 endosome lumen GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0031904 Reactome Database ID Release 83 8982440 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8982440 Reactome R-ROT-8982440 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ROT-8982440.2 ChEBI 33697 additional information MI MI:0361 viral double-stranded RNA HSV1 dsRNA intermediate form HSV1 dsRNA replicative intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 6791257 Reactome Database ID Release 83 6791257 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=6791257 Reactome R-HER-6791257 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HER-6791257.1 ChEBI 67208 viral double-stranded RNA HCV dsRNA intermediate form HCV dsRNA replicative intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 8982462 Reactome Database ID Release 83 8982462 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8982462 Reactome R-HCV-8982462 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HCV-8982462.2 ChEBI 67208 viral double-stranded RNA HBV dsRNA intermediate form HBV dsRNA replicative intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 8982481 Reactome Database ID Release 83 8982481 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=8982481 Reactome R-HBV-8982481 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HBV-8982481.2 ChEBI 67208 FLUAV dsRNA Stranded Influenza A dsRNA intermediate form Reactome DB_ID: 9028895 Reactome Database ID Release 83 9028895 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9028895 Reactome R-FLU-9028895 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-FLU-9028895.3 ChEBI 67208 Reactome Database ID Release 83 9038432 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9038432 Reactome R-NUL-9038432 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-NUL-9038432.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 167985 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=167985 Reactome R-HSA-167985 4 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-167985.4 1 TRIF TICAM1 Reactome DB_ID: 450316 UniProt:Q8IUC6 TICAM1 TICAM1 PRVTIRB TRIF FUNCTION Involved in innate immunity against invading pathogens. Adapter used by TLR3, TLR4 (through TICAM2) and TLR5 to mediate NF-kappa-B and interferon-regulatory factor (IRF) activation, and to induce apoptosis (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303, PubMed:28747347). Ligand binding to these receptors results in TRIF recruitment through its TIR domain (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303). Distinct protein-interaction motifs allow recruitment of the effector proteins TBK1, TRAF6 and RIPK1, which in turn, lead to the activation of transcription factors IRF3 and IRF7, NF-kappa-B and FADD respectively (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:12539043, PubMed:14739303). Phosphorylation by TBK1 on the pLxIS motif leads to recruitment and subsequent activation of the transcription factor IRF3 to induce expression of type I interferon and exert a potent immunity against invading pathogens (PubMed:25636800). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (By similarity).SUBUNIT Homodimer (PubMed:12539043). Found in a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex at least composed of DHX36, DDX1, DDX21 and TICAM1; this complex exists in resting cells with or without poly(I:C) RNA ligand stimulation. Interacts (via TIR domain) with DDX21 (via C-terminus). Interacts (via TIR domain) with DHX36 (via C-terminus) (By similarity). Interacts with AZI2 and IRF7 (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:15611223). Interacts with TICAM2 in TLR4 recruitment (PubMed:12721283, PubMed:25736436). Interaction with PIAS4 inhibits the TICAM1-induced NF-kappa-B, IRF and IFNB1 activation (PubMed:15251447). Interacts with IKBKB and IKBKE. Interaction with SARM1 blocks TICAM1-dependent transcription factor activation (PubMed:16964262). Interacts with TRAF3 (By similarity). Interacts (when phosphorylated) with IRF3; following activation and phosphorylation on the pLxIS motif by TBK1, recruits IRF3 (PubMed:12471095, PubMed:14739303, PubMed:25636800, PubMed:27302953). Interacts with TBK1, TRAF6 and RIPK1 and these interactions are enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:14982987, PubMed:25736436). Interacts with TRAFD1 (By similarity). Interacts with UBQLN1 (via UBA domain) (PubMed:21695056). Interacts with TLR4 in response to LPS in a WDFY1-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts with WDFY1 in response to poly(I:C) (By similarity). Interacts (via the TIR domain) with TLR3 in response to poly(I:C) and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:25736436). Interacts with TRIM56 (PubMed:22948160). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines (By similarity). Interacts (via the TIR domain) with TLR5 (PubMed:20855887). Interacts with TRIM8 (PubMed:28747347).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3/4A protease; this interaction leads to TICAM1 cleavage, thereby disrupting TLR3 signaling and preventing the establishment of an antiviral state.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Seneca Valley virus protease 3C; this interaction allows the cleavage of TICAM1/TRIF and subsequent suppression of host innate immunity.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via C-terminus) with coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) protease 3C.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Ubiquitously expressed but with higher levels in liver.DOMAIN The pLxIS motif constitutes an IRF3-binding motif: following phosphorylation by TBK1, the phosphorylated pLxIS motif of TICAM1 recruits IRF3 (PubMed:25636800). IRF3 is then phosphorylated and activated by TBK1 to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines (PubMed:25636800).DOMAIN The N-terminal region is essential for activation of the IFNB promoter activity.DOMAIN The N-terminal domain (TRIF-NTD) is globular and consists of two alpha-helical subdomains connected by a 14-residue linker. It shares structural similarity with IFIT family members N-terminal regions.PTM Phosphorylated by TBK1 (PubMed:14530355, PubMed:25636800). Following activation, phosphorylated by TBK1 at Ser-210 in the pLxIS motif (PubMed:25636800). The phosphorylated pLxIS motif constitutes an IRF3-binding motif, leading to recruitment of the transcription factor IRF3 to induce type-I interferons and other cytokines (PubMed:25636800, PubMed:27302953).PTM Polyubiquitinated at Lys-229 by TRIM38 with 'Lys-48'-linked chains, leading to proteasomal degradation (PubMed:23056470). Polyubiquitinated with 'Lys-6'- and 'Lys-33'-linked chains in a TRIM8-dependent manner; ubiquitination disrupts the interaction with TBK1 and subsequent interferon production (PubMed:28747347).PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved and degraded by hepatitis A virus (HAV) protein 3CD allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by CVB3 protease 3C allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by Seneca Valley virus protease 3C allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by protease 3C of human enterovirus D68 (EV68) allowing the virus to disrupt host TLR3 signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by HCV protease NS3/4A, thereby disrupting TLR3 signaling and preventing the establishment of an antiviral state. UniProt Q8IUC6 1 EQUAL 712 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 450316 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=450316 Reactome R-HSA-450316 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-450316.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 83 168907 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=168907 Reactome R-HSA-168907 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-168907.3 1 K63polyUb-RIP1 K63polyUb-RIPK1 K63-linked polyUb - RIP1 Reactome DB_ID: 937021 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 UniProt:Q13546 RIPK1 RIPK1 RIP RIP1 FUNCTION Serine-threonine kinase which is a key regulator of TNF-mediated apoptosis, necroptosis and inflammatory pathways (PubMed:32657447, PubMed:31827280, PubMed:31827281). Exhibits kinase activity-dependent functions that regulate cell death and kinase-independent scaffold functions regulating inflammatory signaling and cell survival (PubMed:11101870, PubMed:19524512, PubMed:19524513, PubMed:29440439, PubMed:30988283). Has kinase-independent scaffold functions: upon binding of TNF to TNFR1, RIPK1 is recruited to the TNF-R1 signaling complex (TNF-RSC also known as complex I) where it acts as a scaffold protein promoting cell survival, in part, by activating the canonical NF-kappa-B pathway (By similarity). Kinase activity is essential to regulate necroptosis and apoptosis, two parallel forms of cell death: upon activation of its protein kinase activity, regulates assembly of two death-inducing complexes, namely complex IIa (RIPK1-FADD-CASP8), which drives apoptosis, and the complex IIb (RIPK1-RIPK3-MLKL), which drives necroptosis (By similarity). RIPK1 is required to limit CASP8-dependent TNFR1-induced apoptosis (By similarity). In normal conditions, RIPK1 acts as an inhibitor of RIPK3-dependent necroptosis, a process mediated by RIPK3 component of complex IIb, which catalyzes phosphorylation of MLKL upon induction by ZBP1 (PubMed:19524512, PubMed:19524513, PubMed:29440439, PubMed:30988283). Inhibits RIPK3-mediated necroptosis via FADD-mediated recruitment of CASP8, which cleaves RIPK1 and limits TNF-induced necroptosis (PubMed:19524512, PubMed:19524513, PubMed:29440439, PubMed:30988283). Required to inhibit apoptosis and necroptosis during embryonic development: acts by preventing the interaction of TRADD with FADD thereby limiting aberrant activation of CASP8 (By similarity). In addition to apoptosis and necroptosis, also involved in inflammatory response by promoting transcriptional production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-6 (IL6) (PubMed:31827280, PubMed:31827281). Phosphorylates RIPK3: RIPK1 and RIPK3 undergo reciprocal auto- and trans-phosphorylation (PubMed:19524513). Phosphorylates DAB2IP at 'Ser-728' in a TNF-alpha-dependent manner, and thereby activates the MAP3K5-JNK apoptotic cascade (PubMed:17389591, PubMed:15310755). Required for ZBP1-induced NF-kappa-B activation in response to DNA damage (By similarity).ACTIVITY REGULATION Serine-threonine kinase activity is inhibited by linear polyubiquitination ('Met-1'-linked) by the LUBAC complex (By similarity). Inhibited by necrostatins, including necrostatin-1, necrostatin-3 and necrostatin-4 (PubMed:23473668).SUBUNIT Homodimer (PubMed:29440439, PubMed:29681455). Interacts (via RIP homotypic interaction motif) with RIPK3 (via RIP homotypic interaction motif); this interaction induces RIPK1 phosphorylation and formation of a RIPK1-RIPK3 necroptosis-inducing complex (PubMed:11734559, PubMed:29883609, PubMed:19524512, PubMed:10358032, PubMed:29681455). Upon TNF-induced necrosis, the RIPK1-RIPK3 dimer further interacts with PGAM5 and MLKL; the formation of this complex leads to PGAM5 phosphorylation and increase in PGAM5 phosphatase activity (PubMed:22265414). Interacts (via the death domain) with TNFRSF6 (via the death domain) and TRADD (via the death domain) (PubMed:8612133). Is recruited by TRADD to TNFRSF1A in a TNF-dependent process (PubMed:24130170). Binds RNF216, EGFR, IKBKG, TRAF1, TRAF2 and TRAF3 (PubMed:8612133, PubMed:9927690, PubMed:11854271, PubMed:11116146). Interacts with BNLF1 (PubMed:10409763). Interacts with SQSTM1 upon TNF-alpha stimulation (PubMed:10356400). May interact with MAVS/IPS1 (PubMed:16127453). Interacts with ZFAND5 (PubMed:14754897). Interacts with RBCK1 (PubMed:17449468). Interacts with ZBP1 (By similarity). Interacts with BIRC2/c-IAP1, BIRC3/c-IAP2 and XIAP/BIRC4 (PubMed:21931591). Interacts (via kinase domain) with DAB2IP (via Ras-GAP domain); the interaction occurs in a TNF-alpha-dependent manner (PubMed:17389591, PubMed:15310755). Interacts with ARHGEF2 (PubMed:21887730). Interacts (via protein kinase domain) with RFFL; involved in RIPK1 ubiquitination (PubMed:18450452). Interacts with RNF34; involved in RIPK1 ubiquitination (Ref.34). Interacts with TICAM1 and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of WDFY1 (PubMed:25736436). Interacts with PELI1 (PubMed:29883609). Interacts (via death domain) with CRADD (via death domain); the interaction is direct (PubMed:9044836). Component of complex IIa composed of at least RIPK1, FADD and CASP8 (By similarity). Component of the AIM2 PANoptosome complex, a multiprotein complex that drives inflammatory cell death (PANoptosis) (By similarity). Interacts with MAP3K7, CFLAR, CASP8, FADD and NEMO (By similarity).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with mumps virus protein SH; this interaction inhibits downstream NF-kappa-B pathway activation.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Murid herpesvirus 1 protein RIR1.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via RIP homotypic interaction motif) with herpes simplex virus 1/HHV-1 protein RIR1/ICP6 (via RIP homotypic interaction motif); this interaction prevents necroptosis activation.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts (via RIP homotypic interaction motif) with herpes simplex virus 2/HHV-2 protein RIR1/ICP10 (via RIP homotypic interaction motif); this interaction prevents necroptosis activation.DOMAIN The RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM) mediates interaction with the RHIM motif of RIPK1. Both motifs form a hetero-amyloid serpentine fold, stabilized by hydrophobic packing and featuring an unusual Cys-Ser ladder of alternating Ser (from RIPK1) and Cys (from RIPK3).DOMAIN The death domain mediates dimerization and activation of its kinase activity during necroptosis and apoptosis (PubMed:29440439). It engages other DD-containing proteins as well as a central (intermediate) region important for NF-kB activation and RHIM-dependent signaling (PubMed:10356400).PTM (Microbial infection) Proteolytically cleaved by S.flexneri OspD3 within the RIP homotypic interaction motif (RHIM), leading to its degradation and inhibition of necroptosis.PTM Proteolytically cleaved by CASP8 at Asp-324 (PubMed:10521396, PubMed:31827281, PubMed:31827280). Cleavage is crucial for limiting TNF-induced apoptosis, necroptosis and inflammatory response (PubMed:31827281, PubMed:31827280). Cleavage abolishes NF-kappa-B activation and enhances the interaction of TRADD with FADD (PubMed:10521396). Proteolytically cleaved by CASP6 during intrinsic apoptosis (PubMed:22858542).PTM RIPK1 and RIPK3 undergo reciprocal auto- and trans-phosphorylation (PubMed:18408713, PubMed:19524513, PubMed:31827280). Phosphorylation of Ser-161 by RIPK3 is necessary for the formation of the necroptosis-inducing complex (PubMed:18408713). Phosphorylation at Ser-25 represses its kinase activity and consequently prevents TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent cell death (PubMed:30988283). Phosphorylated at Ser-320 by MAP3K7 which requires prior ubiquitination with 'Lys-63'-linked chains by BIRC2/c-IAP1 and BIRC3/c-IAP2 (By similarity). This phosphorylation positively regulates RIPK1 interaction with RIPK3 to promote necroptosis but negatively regulates RIPK1 kinase activity and its interaction with FADD to mediate apoptosis (By similarity).PTM Ubiquitinated with 'Lys-11'-, 'Lys-48'-, 'Lys-63'- and linear-linked type ubiquitin (PubMed:15258597, PubMed:16603398, PubMed:18450452, PubMed:21455173, PubMed:21931591, PubMed:29883609, Ref.34). Polyubiquitination with 'Lys-63'-linked chains by TRAF2 induces association with the IKK complex (PubMed:15258597). Deubiquitination of 'Lys-63'-linked chains and polyubiquitination with 'Lys-48'-linked chains by TNFAIP3 leads to RIPK1 proteasomal degradation and consequently down-regulates TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappa-B signaling (PubMed:15258597). 'Lys-48'-linked polyubiquitination by RFFL or RNF34 also promotes proteasomal degradation and negatively regulates TNF-alpha-induced NF-kappa-B signaling (PubMed:18450452, Ref.34). Linear polyubiquitinated; the head-to-tail linear polyubiquitination ('Met-1'-linked) is mediated by the LUBAC complex and decreases protein kinase activity (PubMed:21455173). Deubiquitination of linear polyubiquitin by CYLD promotes the kinase activity (By similarity). Polyubiquitinated with 'Lys-48' and 'Lys-63'-linked chains by BIRC2/c-IAP1 and BIRC3/c-IAP2, leading to activation of NF-kappa-B (PubMed:21931591). Ubiquitinated with 'Lys-63'-linked chains by PELI1 (PubMed:29883609). Ubiquitination at Lys-377 with 'Lys-63'-linked chains by BIRC2/c-IAP1 and BIRC3/c-IAP2 is essential for its phosphorylation at Ser-320 mediated by MAP3K7 (By similarity). This ubiquitination is required for NF-kB activation, suppresses RIPK1 kinase activity and plays a critical role in preventing cell death during embryonic development (By similarity).PTM (Microbial infection) Glycosylated at Arg-603 by enteropathogenic E.coli protein NleB1: arginine GlcNAcylation prevents homotypic/heterotypic death domain interactions.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. TKL Ser/Thr protein kinase family. UniProt Q13546 377 EQUAL ubiquitinylated lysine MOD MOD:01148 1 EQUAL 671 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 937021 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=937021 Reactome R-HSA-937021 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-937021.1 2 Reactome Database ID Release 83 9014344 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9014344 Reactome R-HSA-9014344 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9014344.2 IKK complex CHUK:IKBKB:IKBKG IKKA:IKBKB:IKBKG Inhibitor of KappaB kinase (IKK) Complex Reactome DB_ID: 168113 CHUK IKKA IKK1 Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase alpha subunit Reactome DB_ID: 168104 UniProt:O15111 CHUK CHUK IKKA TCF16 FUNCTION Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation and phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on serine residues (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). These modifications allow polyubiquitination of the inhibitors and subsequent degradation by the proteasome (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). In turn, free NF-kappa-B is translocated into the nucleus and activates the transcription of hundreds of genes involved in immune response, growth control, or protection against apoptosis (PubMed:9244310, PubMed:9252186, PubMed:9346484, PubMed:18626576). Negatively regulates the pathway by phosphorylating the scaffold protein TAXBP1 and thus promoting the assembly of the A20/TNFAIP3 ubiquitin-editing complex (composed of A20/TNFAIP3, TAX1BP1, and the E3 ligases ITCH and RNF11) (PubMed:21765415). Therefore, CHUK plays a key role in the negative feedback of NF-kappa-B canonical signaling to limit inflammatory gene activation. As part of the non-canonical pathway of NF-kappa-B activation, the MAP3K14-activated CHUK/IKKA homodimer phosphorylates NFKB2/p100 associated with RelB, inducing its proteolytic processing to NFKB2/p52 and the formation of NF-kappa-B RelB-p52 complexes (PubMed:20501937). In turn, these complexes regulate genes encoding molecules involved in B-cell survival and lymphoid organogenesis. Participates also in the negative feedback of the non-canonical NF-kappa-B signaling pathway by phosphorylating and destabilizing MAP3K14/NIK. Within the nucleus, phosphorylates CREBBP and consequently increases both its transcriptional and histone acetyltransferase activities (PubMed:17434128). Modulates chromatin accessibility at NF-kappa-B-responsive promoters by phosphorylating histones H3 at 'Ser-10' that are subsequently acetylated at 'Lys-14' by CREBBP (PubMed:12789342). Additionally, phosphorylates the CREBBP-interacting protein NCOA3. Also phosphorylates FOXO3 and may regulate this pro-apoptotic transcription factor (PubMed:15084260). Phosphorylates RIPK1 at 'Ser-25' which represses its kinase activity and consequently prevents TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent cell death (By similarity). Phosphorylates AMBRA1 following mitophagy induction, promoting AMBRA1 interaction with ATG8 family proteins and its mitophagic activity (PubMed:30217973).ACTIVITY REGULATION Activated when phosphorylated and inactivated when dephosphorylated.SUBUNIT Component of the I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) core complex consisting of CHUK, IKBKB and IKBKG; probably four alpha/CHUK-beta/IKBKB dimers are associated with four gamma/IKBKG subunits (PubMed:32935379). The IKK core complex seems to associate with regulatory or adapter proteins to form a IKK-signalosome holo-complex (PubMed:10195894, PubMed:12612076). The IKK complex associates with TERF2IP/RAP1, leading to promote IKK-mediated phosphorylation of RELA/p65 (By similarity). Part of a complex composed of NCOA2, NCOA3, CHUK/IKKA, IKBKB, IKBKG and CREBBP (PubMed:11971985). Part of a 70-90 kDa complex at least consisting of CHUK/IKKA, IKBKB, NFKBIA, RELA, ELP1 and MAP3K14 (PubMed:9751059). Directly interacts with TRPC4AP (By similarity). May interact with TRAF2 (PubMed:19150425). Interacts with NALP2 (PubMed:15456791). May interact with MAVS/IPS1 (PubMed:16177806). Interacts with ARRB1 and ARRB2 (PubMed:15173580). Interacts with NLRC5; prevents CHUK phosphorylation and kinase activity (PubMed:20434986). Interacts with PIAS1; this interaction induces PIAS1 phosphorylation (PubMed:17540171). Interacts with ZNF268 isoform 2; the interaction is further increased in a TNF-alpha-dependent manner (PubMed:23091055). Interacts with FOXO3 (PubMed:15084260). Interacts with IFIT5; the interaction synergizes the recruitment of IKK to MAP3K7 and enhances IKK phosphorylation (PubMed:26334375). Interacts with LRRC14 (PubMed:27426725). Interacts with SASH1 (PubMed:23776175). Directly interacts with DDX3X after the physiological activation of the TLR7 and TLR8 pathways; this interaction enhances CHUK autophosphorylation (PubMed:30341167).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with InlC of Listeria monocytogenes.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Widely expressed.DOMAIN The kinase domain is located in the N-terminal region. The leucine zipper is important to allow homo- and hetero-dimerization. At the C-terminal region is located the region responsible for the interaction with NEMO/IKBKG.PTM Phosphorylated by MAP3K14/NIK, AKT and to a lesser extent by MEKK1, and dephosphorylated by PP2A. Autophosphorylated.PTM (Microbial infection) Acetylation of Thr-179 by Yersinia YopJ prevents phosphorylation and activation, thus blocking the I-kappa-B signaling pathway.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. I-kappa-B kinase subfamily. UniProt O15111 1 EQUAL 745 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 168104 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=168104 Reactome R-HSA-168104 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-168104.2 1 IKKB IKBKB IKK2 IKK-beta Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B kinase beta subunit Reactome DB_ID: 168114 UniProt:O14920 IKBKB IKBKB IKKB FUNCTION Serine kinase that plays an essential role in the NF-kappa-B signaling pathway which is activated by multiple stimuli such as inflammatory cytokines, bacterial or viral products, DNA damages or other cellular stresses (PubMed:30337470). Acts as part of the canonical IKK complex in the conventional pathway of NF-kappa-B activation. Phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B on 2 critical serine residues. These modifications allow polyubiquitination of the inhibitors and subsequent degradation by the proteasome. In turn, free NF-kappa-B is translocated into the nucleus and activates the transcription of hundreds of genes involved in immune response, growth control, or protection against apoptosis. In addition to the NF-kappa-B inhibitors, phosphorylates several other components of the signaling pathway including NEMO/IKBKG, NF-kappa-B subunits RELA and NFKB1, as well as IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKBKE (PubMed:11297557, PubMed:20410276). IKK-related kinase phosphorylations may prevent the overproduction of inflammatory mediators since they exert a negative regulation on canonical IKKs. Phosphorylates FOXO3, mediating the TNF-dependent inactivation of this pro-apoptotic transcription factor (PubMed:15084260). Also phosphorylates other substrates including NCOA3, BCL10 and IRS1 (PubMed:17213322). Within the nucleus, acts as an adapter protein for NFKBIA degradation in UV-induced NF-kappa-B activation (PubMed:11297557). Phosphorylates RIPK1 at 'Ser-25' which represses its kinase activity and consequently prevents TNF-mediated RIPK1-dependent cell death (By similarity). Phosphorylates the C-terminus of IRF5, stimulating IRF5 homodimerization and translocation into the nucleus (PubMed:25326418).SUBUNIT Component of the I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) core complex consisting of CHUK, IKBKB and IKBKG; probably four alpha/CHUK-beta/IKBKB dimers are associated with four gamma/IKBKG subunits (PubMed:32935379). The IKK core complex seems to associate with regulatory or adapter proteins to form a IKK-signalosome holo-complex (PubMed:12612076). The IKK complex associates with TERF2IP/RAP1, leading to promote IKK-mediated phosphorylation of RELA/p65 (By similarity). Part of a complex composed of NCOA2, NCOA3, CHUK/IKKA, IKBKB, IKBKG and CREBBP (PubMed:11971985). Part of a 70-90 kDa complex at least consisting of CHUK/IKKA, IKBKB, NFKBIA, RELA, ELP1 and MAP3K14 (PubMed:9751059). Found in a membrane raft complex, at least composed of BCL10, CARD11, DPP4 and IKBKB (PubMed:17287217). Interacts with SQSTM1 through PRKCZ or PRKCI (PubMed:10356400). Forms an NGF-induced complex with IKBKB, PRKCI and TRAF6 (By similarity). May interact with MAVS/IPS1 (PubMed:16177806). Interacts with NALP2 (PubMed:15456791). Interacts with TICAM1 (PubMed:14739303). Interacts with FAF1; the interaction disrupts the IKK complex formation (PubMed:17684021). Interacts with ATM (PubMed:16497931). Part of a ternary complex consisting of TANK, IKBKB and IKBKG (PubMed:12133833). Interacts with NIBP; the interaction is direct (PubMed:15951441). Interacts with ARRB1 and ARRB2 (PubMed:15173580). Interacts with TRIM21 (PubMed:19675099). Interacts with NLRC5; prevents IKBKB phosphorylation and kinase activity (PubMed:20434986). Interacts with PDPK1 (PubMed:16207722). Interacts with EIF2AK2/PKR (PubMed:10848580). The phosphorylated form interacts with PPM1A and PPM1B (PubMed:18930133). Interacts with ZNF268 isoform 2; the interaction is further increased in a TNF-alpha-dependent manner (PubMed:23091055). Interacts with IKBKE (PubMed:23453969). Interacts with NAA10, leading to NAA10 degradation (PubMed:19716809). Interacts with FOXO3 (PubMed:15084260). Interacts with AKAP13 (PubMed:23090968). Interacts with IFIT5; the interaction synergizes the recruitment of IKK to MAP3K7 and enhances IKK phosphorylation (PubMed:26334375). Interacts with LRRC14; disrupts IKBKB-IKBKG interaction preventing I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) core complex formation and leading to a decrease of IKBKB phosphorylation and NF-kappaB activation (PubMed:27426725). Interacts with SASH1 (PubMed:23776175). Interacts with ARFIP2 (PubMed:26296658). Interacts with FKBP5 (PubMed:31434731, PubMed:26101251).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Yersinia YopJ.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with vaccinia virus protein B14.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Highly expressed in heart, placenta, skeletal muscle, kidney, pancreas, spleen, thymus, prostate, testis and peripheral blood.DOMAIN The kinase domain is located in the N-terminal region. The leucine zipper is important to allow homo- and hetero-dimerization. At the C-terminal region is located the region responsible for the interaction with NEMO/IKBKG.PTM Upon cytokine stimulation, phosphorylated on Ser-177 and Ser-181 by MEKK1 and/or MAP3K14/NIK as well as TBK1 and PRKCZ; which enhances activity. Once activated, autophosphorylates on the C-terminal serine cluster; which decreases activity and prevents prolonged activation of the inflammatory response. Phosphorylated by the IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKBKE, which is associated with reduced CHUK/IKKA and IKBKB activity and NF-kappa-B-dependent gene transcription. Dephosphorylated at Ser-177 and Ser-181 by PPM1A and PPM1B.PTM (Microbial infection) Acetylation of Thr-180 by Yersinia YopJ prevents phosphorylation and activation, thus blocking the I-kappa-B pathway.PTM Ubiquitinated. Monoubiquitination involves TRIM21 that leads to inhibition of Tax-induced NF-kappa-B signaling. According to PubMed:19675099, 'Ser-163' does not serve as a monoubiquitination site. According to PubMed:16267042, ubiquitination on 'Ser-163' modulates phosphorylation on C-terminal serine residues.PTM (Microbial infection) Monoubiquitination by TRIM21 is disrupted by Yersinia YopJ.PTM Hydroxylated by PHD1/EGLN2, loss of hydroxylation under hypoxic conditions results in activation of NF-kappa-B.SIMILARITY Belongs to the protein kinase superfamily. Ser/Thr protein kinase family. I-kappa-B kinase subfamily. UniProt O14920 1 EQUAL 756 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 168114 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=168114 Reactome R-HSA-168114 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-168114.1 1 NEMO IKBKG IKKG IKK-gamma Inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase gamma subunit Reactome DB_ID: 168108 UniProt:Q9Y6K9 IKBKG IKBKG FIP3 NEMO FUNCTION Regulatory subunit of the IKK core complex which phosphorylates inhibitors of NF-kappa-B thus leading to the dissociation of the inhibitor/NF-kappa-B complex and ultimately the degradation of the inhibitor (PubMed:9751060, PubMed:14695475, PubMed:20724660). Its binding to scaffolding polyubiquitin plays a key role in IKK activation by multiple signaling receptor pathways (PubMed:16547522, PubMed:18287044, PubMed:19033441, PubMed:21606507, PubMed:27777308, PubMed:19185524, PubMed:33567255). Can recognize and bind both 'Lys-63'-linked and linear polyubiquitin upon cell stimulation, with a much higher affinity for linear polyubiquitin (PubMed:16547522, PubMed:18287044, PubMed:27777308, PubMed:19033441, PubMed:21606507, PubMed:19185524). Could be implicated in NF-kappa-B-mediated protection from cytokine toxicity. Essential for viral activation of IRF3 (PubMed:19854139). Involved in TLR3- and IFIH1-mediated antiviral innate response; this function requires 'Lys-27'-linked polyubiquitination (PubMed:20724660).FUNCTION (Microbial infection) Also considered to be a mediator for HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein activation of NF-kappa-B.SUBUNIT Homodimer; disulfide-linked (PubMed:18164680). Component of the I-kappa-B-kinase (IKK) core complex consisting of CHUK, IKBKB and IKBKG; probably four alpha/CHUK-beta/IKBKB dimers are associated with four gamma/IKBKG subunits (PubMed:9751060, PubMed:9891086, PubMed:11080499, PubMed:18462684, PubMed:17977820, PubMed:32935379). The IKK core complex seems to associate with regulatory or adapter proteins to form a IKK-signalosome holo-complex (PubMed:9751060, PubMed:9891086, PubMed:11080499). The IKK complex associates with TERF2IP/RAP1, leading to promote IKK-mediated phosphorylation of RELA/p65 (By similarity). Part of a complex composed of NCOA2, NCOA3, CHUK/IKKA, IKBKB, IKBKG and CREBBP (PubMed:11971985). Interacts with COPS3, CYLD, NALP2, TRPC4AP and PIDD1 (PubMed:15456791, PubMed:16360037, PubMed:12917691, PubMed:11418127). Interacts with ATM; the complex is exported from the nucleus (PubMed:16497931). Interacts with TRAF6 (PubMed:17728323). Interacts with IKBKE (PubMed:23453969). Interacts with TANK; the interaction is enhanced by IKBKE and TBK1 (PubMed:12133833). Part of a ternary complex consisting of TANK, IKBKB and IKBKG (PubMed:12133833). Interacts with ZFAND5 (PubMed:14754897). Interacts with RIPK2 (PubMed:18079694). Interacts with TNIP1 and TNFAIP3; TNIP1 facilitates the TNFAIP3-mediated de-ubiquitination of IKBKG (PubMed:11389905, PubMed:22099304). Interacts with TNFAIP3; the interaction is induced by TNF stimulation and by polyubiquitin (PubMed:11389905, PubMed:22099304). Binds (via UBAN region) polyubiquitin; binds both 'Lys-63'-linked and linear polyubiquitin, with higher affinity for linear ubiquitin (PubMed:16547522, PubMed:19033441, PubMed:21606507, PubMed:19185524). Interacts with NLRP10 (PubMed:22672233). Interacts with TANK; this interaction increases in response to DNA damage (PubMed:25861989). Interacts with USP10; this interaction increases in response to DNA damage (PubMed:25861989). Interacts with ZC3H12A; this interaction increases in response to DNA damage (PubMed:25861989). Interacts with IFIT5; the interaction synergizes the recruitment of IKK to MAP3K7 and enhances IKK phosphorylation (PubMed:26334375). Interacts with TRIM29; this interaction induces IKBKG/NEMO ubiquitination and proteolytic degradation (PubMed:27695001). Interacts with TRIM13; this interaction leads to IKBKG/NEMO ubiquitination (PubMed:25152375). Interacts with ARFIP2 (PubMed:26296658). Interacts with RIPK1 (By similarity). Interacts with (ubiquitinated) BCL10; interaction with polyubiquitinated BCL10 via both 'Lys-63'-linked and linear ubiquitin is required for TCR-induced NF-kappa-B activation (PubMed:18287044, PubMed:27777308). Interacts with MARCHF2; during the late stages of macrophage viral and bacterial infection; the interaction leads to ubiquitination and degradation of IKBKG/NEMO (PubMed:32935379).SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Molluscum contagiosum virus protein MC005; this interaction inhibits NF-kappa-B activation.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with HTLV-1 Tax oncoprotein; the interaction activates IKBKG.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with Shigella flexneri ipah9.8; the interaction promotes TNIP1-dependent 'Lys-27'-linked polyubiquitination of IKBKG which perturbs NF-kappa-B activation during bacterial infection.SUBUNIT (Microbial infection) Interacts with SARS coronavirus-2/SARS-CoV-2 virus protein ORF9B (via N-terminus); the interaction inhibits polyubiquitination through 'Lys-63' and NF-kappa-B activation.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Heart, brain, placenta, lung, liver, skeletal muscle, kidney and pancreas.DOMAIN The leucine-zipper domain and the CCHC NOA-type zinc-fingers constitute the UBAN region and are essential for polyubiquitin binding and for the activation of IRF3.PTM Phosphorylation at Ser-68 attenuates aminoterminal homodimerization.PTM Polyubiquitinated on Lys-285 through 'Lys-63'; the ubiquitination is mediated by NOD2 and RIPK2 and probably plays a role in signaling by facilitating interactions with ubiquitin domain-containing proteins and activates the NF-kappa-B pathway. Polyubiquitinated on Lys-399 through 'Lys-63'; the ubiquitination is mediated by BCL10, MALT1 and TRAF6 and probably plays a role in signaling by facilitating interactions with ubiquitin domain-containing proteins and activates the NF-kappa-B pathway. Monoubiquitinated on Lys-277 and Lys-309; promotes nuclear export. Polyubiquitinated through 'Lys-27' by TRIM23; involved in antiviral innate and inflammatory responses. Linear polyubiquitinated on Lys-111, Lys-143, Lys-226, Lys-246, Lys-264, Lys-277, Lys-285, Lys-292, Lys-302, Lys-309 and Lys-326; the head-to-tail polyubiquitination is mediated by the LUBAC complex and plays a key role in NF-kappa-B activation. Deubiquitinated by USP10 in a TANK-dependent and -independent manner, leading to the negative regulation of NF-kappa-B signaling upon DNA damage (PubMed:25861989). Ubiquitinated at Lys-326 by MARCHF2 following bacterial and viral infection which leads to its degradation (PubMed:32935379).PTM Sumoylated on Lys-277 and Lys-309 with SUMO1; the modification results in phosphorylation of Ser-85 by ATM leading to a replacement of the sumoylation by mono-ubiquitination on these residues.PTM Neddylated by TRIM40, resulting in stabilization of NFKBIA and down-regulation of NF-kappa-B activity.PTM (Microbial infection) Cleaved by hepatitis A virus (HAV) protease 3C allowing the virus to disrupt the host innate immune signaling.PTM (Microbial infection) Polyubiquitinated on Lys-309 and Lys-321 via 'Lys-27'-linked ubiquitin by Shigella flexneri E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase ipah9.8, leading to its degradation by the proteasome.PTM (Microbial infection) Polyubiquitination through 'Lys-63' is interrupted by interaction with SARS coronavirus-2/SARS-CoV-2 virus protein ORF9B which inhibits the NF-kappa-B pathway. UniProt Q9Y6K9 1 EQUAL 419 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 83 168108 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=168108 Reactome R-HSA-168108 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-168108.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 168113 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=168113 Reactome R-HSA-168113 3 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-168113.3 ComplexPortal CPX-3269 viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1:K63pUb-RIP1:IKK complex viral dsRNA:TLR3:TICAM1:K63pUb-RIP1:CHUK:IKBKB:IKBKG Reactome DB_ID: 9014341 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 83 9014341 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9014341 Reactome R-HSA-9014341 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9014341.2 Reactome Database ID Release 83 9014343 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9014343 Reactome R-HSA-9014343 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-HSA-9014343.2 19185524 Pubmed 2009 Structural basis for recognition of diubiquitins by NEMO Lo, YC Lin, SC Rospigliosi, CC Conze, DB Wu, CJ Ashwell, JD Eliezer, D Wu, H Mol Cell 33:602-15 16547522 Pubmed 2006 Sensing of Lys 63-linked polyubiquitination by NEMO is a key event in NF-kappaB activation [corrected] Wu, CJ Conze, DB Li, T Srinivasula, SM Ashwell, JD Nat Cell Biol 8:398-406 19303852 Pubmed 2009 Specific recognition of linear ubiquitin chains by NEMO is important for NF-kappaB activation Rahighi, S Ikeda, F Kawasaki, M Akutsu, M Suzuki, N Kato, R Kensche, T Uejima, T Bloor, S Komander, D Randow, F Wakatsuki, S Dikic, I Cell 136:1098-109 16603398 Pubmed 2006 Activation of IKK by TNFalpha requires site-specific ubiquitination of RIP1 and polyubiquitin binding by NEMO Ea, CK Deng, L Xia, ZP Pineda, G Chen, ZJ Mol Cell 22:245-57