BioPAX pathway converted from "Opsins binds G alpha-t" in the Reactome database. LEFT-TO-RIGHT Opsins binds G alpha-t This event has been computationally inferred from an event that has been demonstrated in another species.<p>The inference is based on the homology mapping from PANTHER. Briefly, reactions for which all involved PhysicalEntities (in input, output and catalyst) have a mapped orthologue/paralogue (for complexes at least 75% of components must have a mapping) are inferred to the other species. High level events are also inferred for these events to allow for easier navigation.<p><a href='/electronic_inference_compara.html' target = 'NEW'>More details and caveats of the event inference in Reactome.</a> For details on PANTHER see also: <a href='http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp' target='NEW'>http://www.pantherdb.org/about.jsp</a> Opsins:photon Reactome DB_ID: 9781517 photoreceptor disc membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0097381 Photon Reactome DB_ID: 419777 extracellular region GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005576 photon [ChEBI:30212] photon hnu Lichtquant Light gamma light quantum foton ChEBI CHEBI:30212 Reactome Database ID Release 78 419777 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=419777 Reactome R-ALL-419777 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-419777.2 Reactome http://www.reactome.org 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome Light-sensing opsins Reactome DB_ID: 9781515 Rho RHO P15409 Reactome DB_ID: 9756349 UniProt:P15409 Rho Mus musculus NCBI Taxonomy 10090 UniProt P15409 1 EQUAL 348 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9756349 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9756349 Reactome R-MMU-419802 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-419802.1 Opn1mw OPN1LW O35599 Reactome DB_ID: 9781493 UniProt:O35599 Opn1mw UniProt O35599 1 EQUAL 364 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781493 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781493 Reactome R-MMU-419769 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-419769.1 Opn1sw OPN1SW P51491 Reactome DB_ID: 9781497 UniProt:P51491 Opn1sw UniProt P51491 1 EQUAL 348 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781497 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781497 Reactome R-MMU-419772 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-419772.1 Opn3 OPN3 Q9WUK7 Reactome DB_ID: 9781501 UniProt:Q9WUK7 Opn3 UniProt Q9WUK7 1 EQUAL 402 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781501 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781501 Reactome R-MMU-391827 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-391827.1 Opn5 OPN5 Q6VZZ7 Reactome DB_ID: 9781505 UniProt:Q6VZZ7 Opn5 UniProt Q6VZZ7 1 EQUAL 354 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781505 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781505 Reactome R-MMU-391831 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-391831.1 Rgr RGR Q9Z2B3 Reactome DB_ID: 9781509 UniProt:Q9Z2B3 Rgr UniProt Q9Z2B3 1 EQUAL 291 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781509 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781509 Reactome R-MMU-419753 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-419753.1 Rrh RRH O35214 Reactome DB_ID: 9781513 UniProt:O35214 Rrh UniProt O35214 1 EQUAL 337 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781513 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781513 Reactome R-MMU-419801 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-419801.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781515 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781515 Reactome R-MMU-419811 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-419811.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781517 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781517 Reactome R-MMU-419779 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-419779.1 G-alpha(t)-GDP:G-beta-gamma Reactome DB_ID: 9781681 plasma membrane GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005886 G-alpha(t)-GDP Reactome DB_ID: 9781679 GDP Guanosine 5'-diphosphate Guanosine diphosphate Reactome DB_ID: 114549 GDP [ChEBI:17552] GDP Guanosine 5'-diphosphate Guanosine diphosphate ChEBI CHEBI:17552 Reactome Database ID Release 78 114549 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=114549 Reactome R-ALL-114549 2 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-ALL-114549.2 COMPOUND C00035 additional information MI MI:0361 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome G-protein alpha (t) subunit Reactome DB_ID: 9781677 Gnat1 GNAT1 P20612 Reactome DB_ID: 9781674 UniProt:P20612 Gnat1 UniProt P20612 2 EQUAL 350 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781674 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781674 Reactome R-MMU-167411 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-167411.1 Gnat2 Reactome DB_ID: 4085979 UniProt:P50149 Gnat2 Gnat2 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as modulators or transducers in various transmembrane signaling systems. Transducin is an amplifier and one of the transducers of a visual impulse that performs the coupling between rhodopsin and cGMP-phosphodiesterase.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units; alpha, beta and gamma. The alpha chain contains the guanine nucleotide binding site.TISSUE SPECIFICITY In the retina, expressed in the rod photoreceptors.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G-alpha family. G(i/o/t/z) subfamily. UniProt P50149 2 EQUAL 354 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 4085979 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=4085979 Reactome R-MMU-4085979 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-4085979.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781677 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781677 Reactome R-MMU-420878 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-420878.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781679 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781679 Reactome R-MMU-420882 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-420882.1 1 G-protein beta-gamma complex Reactome DB_ID: 9759174 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome G-protein gamma subunit Reactome DB_ID: 9759165 Gng2 G-protein gamma 2 subunit GBG2_MOUSE Gng2 Reactome DB_ID: 428101 UniProt:P63213 Gng2 Gng2 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with ARHGEF5 (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with GRK2 (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Adrenal gland and brain.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt P63213 2 EQUAL 68 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 428101 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=428101 Reactome R-MMU-428101 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-428101.1 Gng3 GNG3 P63216 Reactome DB_ID: 9759138 UniProt:P63216 Gng3 Gng3 Gngt3 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with SCN8A.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Abundantly expressed in brain. Low levels in testis.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt P63216 1 EQUAL 72 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759138 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759138 Reactome R-MMU-164376 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-164376.1 Gng4 GNG4 P50153 Reactome DB_ID: 9759141 UniProt:P50153 Gng4 Gng4 Gngt4 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with beta-1 and beta-2, but not with beta-3 (By similarity). Interacts with KCNK1.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Brain.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt P50153 1 EQUAL 72 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759141 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759141 Reactome R-MMU-164350 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-164350.1 Gng5 GNG5 Q80SZ7 Reactome DB_ID: 9759144 UniProt:Q80SZ7 Gng5 Gng5 Gngt5 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt Q80SZ7 2 EQUAL 65 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759144 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759144 Reactome R-MMU-164383 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-164383.1 Gng7 GNG7 Q61016 Reactome DB_ID: 9759147 UniProt:Q61016 Gng7 Gng7 Gngt7 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction. Plays a role in the regulation of adenylyl cyclase signaling in certain regions of the brain. Plays a role in the formation or stabilzation of a G protein heterotrimer (G(olf) subunit alpha-beta-gamma-7) that is required for adenylyl cyclase activity in the striatum.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Brain. Found in the hippocampus, striatum, midbrain and cortex.DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE Mice display increased startle response but normal prepulse inhibition of the startle response. No effect on survival to weaning, fertility and mortality.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt Q61016 2 EQUAL 65 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759147 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759147 Reactome R-MMU-164325 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-164325.1 Gng8 GNG8 P63078 Reactome DB_ID: 9759150 UniProt:P63078 Gng8 Gng8 Gng9 Gngt9 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction. This subunit may have a very specific role in the development and turnover of olfactory and vomeronasal neurons.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt P63078 1 EQUAL 67 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759150 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759150 Reactome R-MMU-164371 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-164371.1 Gngt2 GNGT2 Q61017 Reactome DB_ID: 9759153 UniProt:Q61017 Gngt2 Gngt2 Gng8 Gngt8 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt Q61017 1 EQUAL 66 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759153 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759153 Reactome R-MMU-167440 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-167440.1 Gng10 GNG10 Q9CXP8 Reactome DB_ID: 9759156 UniProt:Q9CXP8 Gng10 Gng10 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction. Interacts with beta-1 and beta-2, but not with beta-3 (By similarity).SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt Q9CXP8 1 EQUAL 65 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759156 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759156 Reactome R-MMU-164344 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-164344.1 Gng11 GNG11 P61953 Reactome DB_ID: 9759159 UniProt:P61953 Gng11 Gng11 Gngt11 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with beta-1 and beta-3, but not with beta-2 (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt P61953 1 EQUAL 70 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759159 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759159 Reactome R-MMU-164329 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-164329.1 Gng13 G-protein gamma 13 subunit GBG13_MOUSE Gng13 Reactome DB_ID: 428090 UniProt:Q9JMF3 Gng13 Gng13 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt Q9JMF3 1 EQUAL 64 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 428090 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=428090 Reactome R-MMU-428090 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-428090.1 Gngt1 GNGT1 Q61012 Reactome DB_ID: 9759163 UniProt:Q61012 Gngt1 Gngt1 Gng1 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.TISSUE SPECIFICITY Retinal rod outer segment.MASS SPECTROMETRY Includes farnesylation and methylation.SIMILARITY Belongs to the G protein gamma family. UniProt Q61012 2 EQUAL 71 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759163 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759163 Reactome R-MMU-167428 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-167428.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759165 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759165 Reactome R-MMU-167442 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-167442.1 1 Converted from EntitySet in Reactome GNB G-protein beta subunit Reactome DB_ID: 9759172 Gnb1 G-protein beta 1 subunit GBB1_MOUSE Gnb1 Reactome DB_ID: 4551475 cytosol GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005829 UniProt:P62874 Gnb1 Gnb1 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction (By similarity).SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with ARHGEF5 (By similarity). The heterodimer formed by GNB1 and GNG2 interacts with GRK2 (By similarity). Interacts with ARHGEF18 and RASD2 (By similarity).PTM Phosphorylation at His-266 by NDKB contributes to G protein activation by increasing the high energetic phosphate transfer onto GDP.SIMILARITY Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. UniProt P62874 2 EQUAL 340 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 4551475 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=4551475 Reactome R-MMU-4551475 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-4551475.1 Gnb2 G-protein beta 2 subunit GBB2_MOUSE Gnb2 Reactome DB_ID: 4551493 UniProt:P62880 Gnb2 Gnb2 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with ARHGEF18 and RASD2. Interacts with ATXN10. Interacts with SCN8A.DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE Expressed in meiotically incompetent oocytes. Expression increases in fully grown meiotically competent oocytes. Expression then decreases during metaphase-II arrested eggs, one-cell embryo, two-cell embryo and eight-cell embryo stages, and increases again during blastocyst stage.SIMILARITY Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. UniProt P62880 2 EQUAL 340 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 4551493 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=4551493 Reactome R-MMU-4551493 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-4551493.1 Gnb3 G-protein beta 3 subunit GBB3_MOUSE Gnb3 Reactome DB_ID: 4551480 UniProt:Q61011 Gnb3 Gnb3 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma. Interacts with RASD2 (By similarity).SIMILARITY Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. UniProt Q61011 1 EQUAL 340 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 4551480 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=4551480 Reactome R-MMU-4551480 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-4551480.1 Gnb4 G-protein beta 4 subunit Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 GBB4_MOUSE Gnb4 Reactome DB_ID: 4551495 UniProt:P29387 Gnb4 Gnb4 FUNCTION Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.SUBUNIT G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.SIMILARITY Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. UniProt P29387 2 EQUAL 340 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 4551495 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=4551495 Reactome R-MMU-4551495 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-4551495.1 Gnb5 G-protein beta 5 subunit Guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5 GBB5_MOUSE Gnb5 Reactome DB_ID: 4551482 UniProt:P62881 Gnb5 Gnb5 FUNCTION Enhances GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins, hence involved in the termination of the signaling initiated by the G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) by accelerating the GTP hydrolysis on the G-alpha subunits, thereby promoting their inactivation (Probable). Increases RGS9 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity, hence contributes to the deactivation of G protein signaling initiated by D(2) dopamine receptors (By similarity). May play an important role in neuronal signaling, including in the parasympathetic, but not sympathetic, control of heart rate (By similarity).SUBUNIT Component of a complex composed of RGS9, GNB5 and RGS9BP; within this complex, the presence of GNB5 stabilizes both itself and RGS9 and increases RGS9 GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity (By similarity) (PubMed:12119397, PubMed:16908407, PubMed:18204463). Interacts with RGS6 and RGS7 (By similarity).TISSUE SPECIFICITY Isoform 1 is only detected in retina (PubMed:8910430). Isoform 2 is detected in brain (at protein level) (PubMed:8071339). Isoform 2 is detected in brain (PubMed:8071339).SIMILARITY Belongs to the WD repeat G protein beta family. UniProt P62881 1 EQUAL 395 EQUAL Reactome Database ID Release 78 4551482 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=4551482 Reactome R-MMU-4551482 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-4551482.1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759172 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759172 Reactome R-MMU-6814413 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-6814413.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9759174 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9759174 Reactome R-MMU-167434 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-167434.1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781681 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781681 Reactome R-MMU-420877 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-420877.1 G-alpha(t):GDP:G-beta-gamma:Opsins Reactome DB_ID: 9781683 1 1 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781683 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781683 Reactome R-MMU-8982635 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8982635.1 ACTIVATION GENE ONTOLOGY GO:0005085 gene ontology term for cellular function MI MI:0355 Same Catalyst Activity Reactome Database ID Release 78 9781690 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9781690 Reactome Database ID Release 78 9853636 Database identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser?DB=gk_current&ID=9853636 Reactome R-MMU-8982637 1 Reactome stable identifier. Use this URL to connect to the web page of this instance in Reactome: http://www.reactome.org/cgi-bin/eventbrowser_st_id?ST_ID=R-MMU-8982637.1 Transducin (Gt) is a heterotrimeric G protein encoded by GNAT genes and is naturally expressed in vertebrate retina rods and cones. There are two types, alpha-1 chain (expressed in rods by GNAT1) (Lerea CL et al, 1989) and alpha-2 chain (expressed in cones by GNAT2) (Morris TA and Fong SL, 1993). Photon activated-opsins can bind to G(t) alpha subunits and stimulate them. Activation of the G(t) alpha subunit results in the "vertebrate phototransduction cascade" (Chen CK, 2005). Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase is activated which lowers cGMP levels (an intracellular second messenger molecule). Lower cGMP levels can then lead to the closure of cGMP-regulated Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels and a hyperpolarized membrane potential.<br> 16634148 Pubmed 2005 The vertebrate phototransduction cascade: amplification and termination mechanisms Chen, CK Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol 154:101-21 8406495 Pubmed 1993 Characterization of the gene encoding human cone transducin alpha-subunit (GNAT2) Morris, TA Fong, SL Genomics 17:442-8 2534964 Pubmed 1989 Alpha transducin is present in blue-, green-, and red-sensitive cone photoreceptors in the human retina Lerea, CL Bunt-Milam, AH Hurley, JB Neuron 3:367-76 inferred from electronic annotation EVIDENCE CODE ECO:0000203