Reactome: A Curated Pathway Database
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Pathways (6) Reactions (7) Proteins (1) Others (7)
Protein: UniProt:P26358 DNMT1 (Homo sapiens)
Last changed: 2015-03-12 14:00:50

Pathway: Gene Expression (Homo sapiens)
Gene Expression covers the pathways by which genomic DNA is transcribed to yield RNA, the regulation of these transcription processes, and the pathways by which newly-made RNA Transcripts are processed. Most annotation is centered on the generation of messenger RNAs (mRNAs) by regulated RNA polymerase II (PolII) transcription, although the activities of PolI and PolIII are also covered briefly, as are
Last changed: 2015-03-06 23:15:47

Pathway: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression (Homo sapiens)
Epigenetic processes regulate gene expression by modulating the frequency, rate, or extent of gene expression in a mitotically or meiotically heritable way that does not entail a change in the DNA sequence. Originally the definition applied only to heritability across generations but later also encompassed the heritable changes that occur during cellular differentiation within one organism. Molecul
Last changed: 2015-03-06 18:40:03

Pathway: PRC2 methylates histones and DNA (Homo sapiens)
Polycomb group proteins are responsible for the heritable repression of genes during development (Lee et al. 2006, Ku et al. 2008, reviewed in Simon and Kingston 2009, Margueron and Reinberg 2011, Di Croce and Helin 2013). Two major families of Polycomb complexes exist: Polycomb Repressive Complex 1 (PRC1) and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2). PRC1 and PRC2 each appear to comprise sets of distinct
Last changed: 2015-03-06 18:40:03

Pathway: DNA methylation (Homo sapiens)
Methylation of cytosine is catalyzed by a family of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs): DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B transfer methyl groups from S-adenosylmethionine to cytosine, producing 5-methylcytosine and homocysteine (reviewed in Klose and Bird 2006, Ooi et al. 2009, Jurkowska et al. 2011, Moore et al. 2013). (DNMT2 appears to methylate RNA rather than DNA.) DNMT1, the first enzyme discovered, preferent
Last changed: 2015-03-06 10:40:16

Pathway: NoRC negatively regulates rRNA expression (Homo sapiens)
Only about half of the rRNA gene copies in a cell are expressed. The remaining copies are silenced by modifications to histones and DNA (reviewed in Santoro and Grummt 2001, Grummt 2007, Preuss and Pikaard 2007, Birch and Zomerdijk 2008, McStay and Grummt 2008, Grummt and Langst 2013). The promoters of silenced rRNA gene copies have methylated cytosine and histone H3 dimethylated at lysine-9. As inferr
Last changed: 2015-03-06 10:40:16

Pathway: Negative epigenetic regulation of rRNA expression (Homo sapiens)
Transcription of rRNA genes is controlled by epigenetic activation and repression (reviewed in McStay and Grummt 2008, Goodfellow and Zomerdijk 2012, Grummt and Langst 2013). About half of the roughly 400 rRNA genes are expressed and these have the modifications of active chromatin: unmethylated DNA and acetylated histones. Repressed genes generally have methylated DNA and histone H3 methylated at lysi
Last changed: 2015-03-06 10:40:16

Reaction: NoRC:HDAC:DNMT methylates cytosine of the rRNA genes (Homo sapiens)
From research with human cells (Majumder et al. 2006, Espada et al. 2007) and inferences from mouse cell models, cytosine residues in the main promoter of silenced rRNA gene copiess are methylated by DNMT1 and DNMT3B. DNMT3B directly binds a triple helix formed by pRNA and the main promoter of rDNA. The methylated cytosines prevent binding of the UBF transcription factor, thus preventing transcription
Last changed: 2015-03-06 10:40:16

Reaction: NoRC:HDAC:DNMT deacetylates histone H4 and methylates histone H3 (Homo sapiens)
As inferred from mouse cell models, histones in silenced rRNA gene copies are deacetylated by HDAC1 (and possibly HDAC2), which is part of the SIN3-HDAC complex bound to NoRC. The PHD domain of the TIP5 (BAZ2A) component of NoRC binds acetylated lysine-16 of histone H4. The residues of histone H4 that are deacetylatd are lysine-5, lysine-8, and lysine-12. In the main promoters of silenced rRNA gene
Last changed: 2015-03-06 10:40:16

Reaction: Nucleolar Remodelling Complex (NoRC) binds intergenic region of rDNA (Homo sapiens)
As inferred from mouse cell models, the Nucleolar Remodeling Complex (NoRC) comprises TIP5 (BAZ2A) and the chromatin remodeller SNF2H (SMARCA5). The TAM domain of TIP5 (BAZ2A) binds promoter-associated RNA (pRNA) transcribed from the intergenic spacer region of rDNA. Binding is not sequence-specific but depends on the secondary structure of the RNA. The pRNA bound by TIP5 is required to direct the comp
Last changed: 2015-03-05 21:12:39

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