Species Homo sapiens
Opioids are chemical substances similar to opiates, the active substances found in opium (morphine, codeine etc.). Opioid action is mediated by the receptors for endogenous opioids; peptides such as the enkephalins, the endorphins or the dynorphins. Opioids possess powerful analgesic and sedative effects, and are widely used as pain-killers. Their main side-effect is the rapid establishment of a strong addiction. Opioids receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR). There are four classes of receptors: mu (MOR), kappa (KOR) and delta (DOR), and the nociceptin receptor (NOP).
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