TFIIS is a transcription factor involved in different phases of transcription, occurring in a major ubiquitous form and other tissue specific forms. TFIIS stimulates RNA Pol II complex out of elongation arrest.
Other transcription factors like ELL, Elongin family members and TFIIF interact directly with elongating Pol II and increase its elongation rate. These factors have been observed to act on naked DNA templates by suppressing transient pausing by the enzyme at all or most steps of nucleotide addition. In Drosophila, ELL is found at a large number of transcriptionally active sites on polytene chromosomes. In general, ELL is suspected to have more unidentified functions.
Elongin is a heterotrimeric protein complex that stimulates the overall rate of elongation. In addition, Elongin may act as an E3 Ubiquitin ligase. Ubiquitylation of RNA Pol II occurs rapidly after genotoxic assault by UV light or chemicals, and results in degradation by proteasome. The FACT complex appears to promote elongation by facilitating passage of polymerase through chromatin.
All these factors contribute to the formation of a processive elongation complex centered around the RNA Pol II complex positioned on the DNA:RNA hybrid. This enables the RNA Pol II elongation complex to function as a platform that coordinates mRNA processing and export (Reviewed by Shilatifard et al., 2003).