Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a member of the ubiquitin-like (Ubl) family. It is strongly induced upon exposure to type I Interferons (IFNs), viruses, bacterial LPS, and other stresses. Once released the mature ISG15 conjugates with an array of target proteins, a process termed ISGylation. ISGylation utilizes a mechanism similar to ubiquitination, requiring a three-step enzymatic cascade. UBE1L is the ISG15 E1 activating enzyme which specifically activates ISG15 at the expense of ATP. ISG15 is then transfered from E1 to the E2 conjugating enzyme UBCH8 and then to the target protein with the aid of an ISG15 E3 ligase, such as HERC5 and EFP. Hundreds of target proteins for ISGylation have been identified. Several proteins that are part of antiviral signaling pathways, such as RIG-I, MDA5, Mx1, PKR, filamin B, STAT1, IRF3 and JAK1, have been identified as targets for ISGylation. ISG15 also conjugates some viral proteins, inhibiting viral budding and release. ISGylation appears to act either by disrupting the activity of a target protein and/or by altering its localization within the cell.