Reactome: A Curated Pathway Database

Hemoglobin A binds oxygen and releases protons and carbon dioxide (R-HSA-1247668) [Homo sapiens]


The binding of oxygen (O2) to hemoglobin (HbA) decreases the affinity of HbA for protons (H+) bound at histidine residues and carbon dioxide (CO2) bound chemically as a carbamate at the N-terminus of the HbA (Ferguson and Roughton 1934, Kernohan & Roughton 1968, Klocke 1973, Morrow et al. 1973, Morrow et al. 1976, Tazawa et al. 1983, Kraan & Rispens 1985, Doyle et al. 1987, Mertzlufft & Brandt 1989, Kalhoff et al.1994, Dash & Bassingthwaighte 2010, reviewed in Jensen 2004). This property of HbA is known as the Haldane Effect and facilitates the exchange of CO2 for O2 in the lungs.

Additional Information
Compartment cytosol
Reverse Reaction Hemoglobin A is protonated and carbamated causing release of oxygen
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Literature References
pubMedId Title Journal Year
7541176 The Haldane effect under different acid-base conditions in premature and adult humans Adv Exp Med Biol 1994
2506737 Hyperoxic intubation apnoea: an in vivo model for the proof of the Christiansen-Douglas-Haldane effect Adv Exp Med Biol 1989
3938604 Contribution of the Haldane effect to the increase in arterial carbon dioxide tension in hypoxaemic subjects treated with oxygen Adv Exp Med Biol 1985
6417382 Quantitative analyses of the CO2 dissociation curve of oxygenated blood and the Haldane effect in human blood Jpn J Physiol 1983
4203704 Mechanism and kinetics of the Haldane effect in human erythrocytes J Appl Physiol 1973
20162361 Erratum to: Blood HbO2 and HbCO2 dissociation curves at varied O2, CO2, pH, 2,3-DPG and temperature levels Ann Biomed Eng 2010
3119859 Carbon dioxide and oxygen linkage in human hemoglobin tetramers J Mol Biol 1987
1395 Carbon 13 resonances of 13CO2 carbamino adducts of alpha and beta chains in human adult hemoglobin J Biol Chem 1976
4514311 Interaction of 13 CO 2 and bicarbonate with human hemoglobin preparations Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1973
4975618 Thermal studies of the rates of the reactions of carbon dioxide in concentrated haemoglobin solutions and in red blood cells. A. The reactions catalysed by carbonic anhydrase. B. The carbamino reactions of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin J Physiol 1968
16994616 The chemical relationships and physiological importance of carbamino compounds of CO(2) with haemoglobin J Physiol 1934