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The metabolism of pyruvate provides one source of acetyl-CoA which enters the citric acid (TCA, tricarboxylic acid) cycle to generate energy and the reducing equivalent NADH. These reducing equivalents are re-oxidized back to NAD+ in the electron transport chain (ETC), coupling this process with the export of protons across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The chemiosmotic gradient created is used to drive ATP synthesis.