2-LTR circle formation

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Related Species
Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Locations in the PathwayBrowser

The formation of 2-LTR circles requires the action of the cellular non-homologous DNA end-joining pathway. Specifically the cellular Ku, XRCC4 and ligase IV proteins are needed. Evidence for this is provided by the observation that cells mutant in these functions do not support detectable formation of 2-LTR circles, though integration and formation of 1-LTR circles are mostly normal. The reaction takes place in the nucleus, and formation of 2-LTR circles has been used as a surrogate assay for nuclear transport. It has also been suggested that the NHEJ system affects the toxicity of retroviral infection.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
16175173 Genome-wide analysis of retroviral DNA integration Nat Rev Microbiol 2005
16291214 Retroviral DNA integration--mechanism and consequences Adv Genet 2005
  Retroviruses   1997
Participant Of
Name Identifier Synonyms
Human immunodeficiency virus infectious disease 526 HIV infection