Reactome: A Curated Pathway Database

G-protein activation (R-HSA-202040) [Homo sapiens]


Receptor activated heterotrimeric G proteins consist of the Galpha and the tightly associated Gbeta-gamma subunits. When a ligand binds to a G protein-coupled receptor, it stabilises a conformation with an high affinity for the G-protein bound to GDP. GDP is then exchanged for GTP on the Galpha subunit. This exchange triggers the dissociation of the Galpha subunit from the Gbeta-gamma dimer and the receptor. Galpha-GTP and Gbeta-gamma, can then modulate different signalling cascades and effector proteins, while the receptor is able to activate another G protein, resulting in an amplification cascade. The Galpha subunit will eventually hydrolyze the attached GTP to GDP by its inherent enzymatic activity, allowing it to reassociate with Gbeta-gamma and start a new cycle.