Reactome: A Curated Pathway Database

Hyaluronan metabolism (R-HSA-2142845)

Species Homo sapiens


Hyaluronan (hyaluronic acid, hyaluronate or HA) is an anionic glycosaminoglycan (GAG) distributed widely throughout connective, epithelial, and neural tissues and most abundant in the extracellular matrix and skin. HA is unique among the GAGs in that it is not sulfated and is not found covalently attached to proteins as a proteoglycan. HA polymers are very large (they can reach molecular weights of 10 million Da) and can displace a large volume of water making them excellent lubricators and shock absorbers. Another unique feature of HA is that it is synthesized at the plasma membrane unlike other GAGs which are formed in the Golgi. HA is a polymer of the disaccharide unit D-glucuronic acid and D-N-acetylglucosamine, linked via alternating beta-1,4 and beta-1,3 glycosidic bonds (Toole 2000, 2004, Volpi et al. 2009).

Locations in the PathwayBrowser
Additional Information
GO Biological Process hyaluronan metabolic process (0030212)
Literature References
pubMedId Title Journal Year
10930435 Hyaluronan is not just a goo! J Clin Invest 2000
15229478 Hyaluronan: from extracellular glue to pericellular cue Nat Rev Cancer 2004
19442142 Role, metabolism, chemical modifications and applications of hyaluronan Curr Med Chem 2009