In the nucleus, SMAD2/3:SMAD4 heterotrimer complex acts as a transcriptional regulator. The activity of SMAD2/3 complex is regulated both positively and negatively by association with other transcription factors (Chen et al. 2002, Varelas et al. 2008, Stroschein et al. 1999, Wotton et al. 1999). In addition, the activity of SMAD2/3:SMAD4 complex can be inhibited by nuclear protein phosphatases and ubiquitin ligases (Lin et al. 2006, Dupont et al. 2009).
|GO Biological Process||transcription, DNA-templated (0006351)|
|18568018||TAZ controls Smad nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and regulates human embryonic stem-cell self-renewal||Nat Cell Biol||2008|
|12150994||E2F4/5 and p107 as Smad cofactors linking the TGFbeta receptor to c-myc repression||Cell||2002|
|10531062||Negative feedback regulation of TGF-beta signaling by the SnoN oncoprotein||Science||1999|
|10199400||A Smad transcriptional corepressor||Cell||1999|
|19135894||FAM/USP9x, a deubiquitinating enzyme essential for TGFbeta signaling, controls Smad4 monoubiquitination||Cell||2009|
|16751101||PPM1A functions as a Smad phosphatase to terminate TGFbeta signaling||Cell||2006|