Activation of the phototransduction cascade
Species Homo sapiens
The photoreceptor cascade starts with light isomerization of 11-cis-retinal (11cRAL) of rhodopsin (RHO) to all-trans-retinal (atRAL), inducing a conformational change in RHO to the active, metarhodopsin II (MII) state. MII activates the G protein transducin (Gt) that in turn activates phosphodiesterase 6 (PDE6). Consequently, there is a fall in the intracellular concentration of cGMP that closes cGMP-dependent cation channels (CNG channels) and hyperpolarizes the rod. This has the effect of reducing or stopping glutamate release from synaptic vesicles thus signalling to the surrounding cells how many photons were absorbed (Burns & Pugh 2010, Korenbrot 2012, Pugh & Lamb 1993).
Locations in the PathwayBrowser
Signal Transduction(Homo sapiens)