DHX36 and DHX9 are aspartate-glutamate-any amino acid aspartate/histidine (DExD/H) box helicase (DHX) proteins that localize in the cytosol. The DHX RNA helicases family includes a large number of proteins that are implicated in RNA metabolism. Members of this family, RIG-1 and MDA5, have been shown to sense a non-self RNA leading to type I IFN production. RNA helicases DHX36 and DHX9 were found to trigger host responses to non-self DNA in MyD88-dependent manner. DHX36 sensed CpG class A, while DHX9 sensed CpG class B. Both DHX36 and DHX9 were critical for antiviral immune responses in viral DNA-stimulated human plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) (Kim T et al. 2010).