Species Homo sapiens
Attenuation of the heat shock transcriptional response occurs during continuous exposure to intermediate heat shock conditions or upon recovery from stress (Abravaya et al. 1991). The attenuation phase of HSF1 cycle involves the transcriptional silencing of HSF1 bound to HSE, the release of HSF1 trimers from HSE and dissociation of HSF1 trimers to monomers. HSF1-driven heat stress associated transcription was shown to depend on inducible and reversible acetylation of HSF1 at Lys80, which negatively regulates DNA binding activity of HSF1 (Westerheide SD et al. 2009). In addition, the attenuation of HSF1 activation takes place when enough HSP70/HSP40 is produced to saturate exposed hydrophobic regions of proteins damaged as a result of heat exposure. The excess HSP70/HSP40 binds to HSF1 trimer, which leads to its dissociation from the promoter and conversion to the inactive monomeric form (Abravaya et al. 1991; Shi Y et al. 1998). Interaction of HSP70 with the transcriptional corepressor repressor element 1-silencing transcription factor corepressor (CoREST) assists in terminating heat-shock response (Gomez AV et al. 2008). HSF1 DNA-binding and transactivation activity were also inhibited upon interaction of HSF1-binding protein (HSBP1) with active trimeric HSF1(Satyal SH et al. 1998).
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Cellular responses to stress(Homo sapiens)