Beta-catenin independent WNT signaling

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
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Humans and mice have 19 identified WNT proteins that were originally classified as either 'canonical' or 'non-canonical' depending upon whether they were able to transform the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG and to induce secondary axis formation in Xenopus (Wong et al, 1994; Du et al, 1995). So-called canonical WNTs, including Wnt1, 3, 3a and 7, initiate signaling pathways that destabilize the destruction complex and allow beta-catenin to accumulate and translocate to the nucleus where it promotes transcription (reviewed in Saito-Diaz et al, 2013). Non-canonical WNTs, including Wnt 2, 4, 5a, 5b, 6, 7b, and Wnt11 activate beta-catenin-independent responses that regulate many aspects of morphogenesis and development, often by impinging on the cytoskeleton (reviewed in van Amerongen, 2012). Two of the main beta-catenin-independent pathways are the Planar Cell Polarity (PCP) pathway, which controls the establishment of polarity in the plane of a field of cells, and the WNT/Ca2+ pathway, which promotes the release of intracellular calcium and regulates numerous downstream effectors (reviewed in Gao, 2012; De, 2011).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
21903638 Wnt/Ca2+ signaling pathway: a brief overview

De, A

Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) 2011
22935904 Alternative Wnt pathways and receptors

van Amerongen, R

Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol 2012
7739543 Identification of distinct classes and functional domains of Wnts through expression of wild-type and chimeric proteins in Xenopus embryos

Du, SJ, Purcell, SM, Christian, JL, McGrew, LL, Moon, RT

Mol. Cell. Biol. 1995
8065359 Differential transformation of mammary epithelial cells by Wnt genes

Wong, GT, Gavin, BJ, McMahon, AP

Mol. Cell. Biol. 1994
23256519 The way Wnt works: Components and mechanism

Saito-Diaz, K, Chen, TW, Wang, X, Thorne, CA, Wallace, HA, Page-McCaw, A, Lee, E

Growth Factors 2013
23140633 Wnt regulation of planar cell polarity (PCP)

Gao, B

Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 2012
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