CTLA4 inhibitory signaling
Species Homo sapiens
CTLA4 is one of the best studied inhibitory receptors of the CD28 superfamily. CTLA4 inhibits Tcell activation by reducing IL2 production and IL2 expression, and by arresting T cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. CTLA-4 expressed by a T cell subpopulation exerts a dominant control on the proliferation of other T cells, which limits autoreactivity. CTLA4 also blocks CD28 signals by competing for the ligands B71 and B72 in the limited space between T cells and antigenpresenting cells. Though the mechanism is obscure, CTLA4 may also propagate inhibitory signals that actively counter those produced by CD28. CTLA4 can also function in a ligand-independent manner.?
CTLA-4 regulates the activation of pathogenic T cells by directly modulating T cell receptor signaling (i.e. TCR-zeta chain phosphorylation) as well as downstream biochemical signals (i.e. ERK activation). The cytoplasmic region of CTLA4 contains a tyrosine motif YVKM and a proline rich region. After TCR stimulation, it undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by src kinases, inducing surface retention.
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