Species Homo sapiens
The Programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) is one of the negative regulators of TCR signaling. PD-1 may exert its effects on cell differentiation and survival directly by inhibiting early activation events that are positively regulated by CD28 or indirectly through IL-2. PD-1 ligation inhibits the induction of the cell survival factor Bcl-xL and the expression of transcription factors associated with effector cell function, including GATA-3, Tbet, and Eomes. PD-1 exerts its inhibitory effects by bringing phosphatases SHP-1 and SHP-2 into the immune synapse, leading to dephosphorylation of CD3-zeta chain, PI3K and AKT.
Locations in the PathwayBrowser
Immune System(Homo sapiens)