A number of so called non-canonical WNT ligands have been shown to promote intracellular calcium release upon FZD binding. This beta-catenin-independent WNT pathway acts through heterotrimeric G proteins and promotes calcium release through phophoinositol signaling and activation of phosphodiesterase (PDE). Downstream effectors include the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMK2) and PKC (reviewed in De, 2011). The WNT Ca2+ pathway is important in dorsoventral polarity, convergent extension and organ formation in vertebrates and also has roles in negatively regulating 'canonical' beta-catenin-dependent transcription. Non-canonical WNT Ca2+ signaling is also implicated in inflammatory response and cancer (reviewed in Kohn and Moon, 2005; Sugimura and Li, 2010).