NoRC negatively regulates rRNA expression

Stable Identifier
Homo sapiens
Methylation of histones and DNA negatively regulates rRNA expression
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The Nucleolar Remodeling Complex (NoRC) comprising TIP5 (BAZ2A) and the chromatin remodeller SNF2H (SMARCA5) silences rRNA gene (reviewed in Santoro and Grummt 2001, Grummt 2007, Preuss and Pikaard 2007, Birch and Zommerdijk 2008, McStay and Grummt 2008, Grummt and Langst 2013). The TAM domain of TIP5 (BAZ2A) binds promoter-associated RNA (pRNA) transcribed from the intergenic spacer region of rDNA. The pRNA bound by TIP5 is required to direct the complex to the main promoter of the rRNA gene possibly by triple helix formation between pRNA and the rDNA. The PHD domain of TIP5 binds histone H4 acetylated at lysine-16. Transcription Termination Factor-I (TTF-I) binds to a promoter-proximal terminator (T0 site) in the rDNA and interacts with the TIP5 subunit of NoRC. NoRC also interacts with the SIN3-HDAC complex, HDAC1, HDAC2, DNMT1, and DNMT3B. DNMT3B interacts with a triple helix formed by pRNA and the rDNA. HDAC1, DNMT1, and DNMT3B have been shown to be required for proper DNA methylation of silenced rRNA gene copies, although the catalytic activity of DNMT3B was not required.

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Orthologous Events