Deadenylation of mRNA proceeds in two steps. According to current models, in the first step the poly(A) tail is shortened from about 200 adenosine residues to about 80 residues by the PAN2-PAN3 complex. In the second step the poly(A) tail is further shortened to 10-15 residues by either the CCR4-NOT complex or by the PARN exoribonuclease. How a particular mRNA is targeted to CCR4-NOT or PARN is unknown.
A number of other deadenylase enzymes can be identified in genomic searches. One particularly interesting one is nocturin, a protein that is related to the CCR-1 deadenylase and plays a role in circadian rhythms.
There is also evidence for networking between deadenylation and other aspects of gene expression. CCR4-NOT, for example, is known to be a transcription factor. PARN is part of a complex that regulates poly(A) tail length and hence translation in developing oocytes.