Reactome: A Curated Pathway Database

Activation of the AP-1 family of transcription factors (R-HSA-450341)

Species Homo sapiens


Activator protein-1 (AP-1) is a collective term referring to a group of transcription factors that bind to promoters of target genes in a sequence-specific manner. AP-1 family consists of hetero- and homodimers of bZIP (basic region leucine zipper) proteins, mainly of Jun-Jun, Jun-Fos or Jun-ATF.

AP-1 members are involved in the regulation of a number of cellular processes including cell growth, proliferation, survival, apoptosis, differentiation, cell migration. The ability of a single transcription factor to determine a cell fate critically depends on the relative abundance of AP-1 subunits, the composition of AP-1 dimers, the quality of stimulus, the cell type, the co-factor assembly.

AP-1 activity is regulated on multiple levels; transcriptional, translational and post-translational control mechanisms contribute to the balanced production of AP-1 proteins and their functions. Briefly, regulation occurs through:

  1. effects on jun, fos, atf gene transcription and mRNA turnover.
  2. AP-1 protein members turnover.
  3. post-translational modifications of AP-1 proteins that modulate their transactivation potential (effect of protein kinases or phosphatases).
  4. interactions with other transcription factors that can either induce or interfere with AP-1 activity.

Locations in the PathwayBrowser
Immune System(Homo sapiens)

TRAF6 Mediated Induction of proinflammatory cytokines(Homo sapiens)
Cross References
Database Identifier
BioModels Database BIOMD0000000477, BIOMD0000000504, BIOMD0000000251
Literature References
pubMedId Title Journal Year
9069263 AP-1 function and regulation Curr Opin Cell Biol 1997
7622446 The regulation of AP-1 activity by mitogen-activated protein kinases J Biol Chem 1995
15564374 AP-1 subunits: quarrel and harmony among siblings J Cell Sci 2004