Gene expression (Transcription)

Stable Identifier
R-HSA-74160
Type
TopLevelPathway
Species
Homo sapiens
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Summation

Gene expression encompasses transcription and translation and the regulation of these processes. RNA Polymerase I Transcription produces the large preribosomal RNA transcript (45S pre-rRNA) that is processed to yield 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA, and 5.8S rRNA, accounting for about half the RNA in a cell. RNA Polymerase II transcription produces messenger RNAs (mRNA) as well as a subset of non-coding RNAs including many small nucleolar RNAs (snRNA) and microRNAs (miRNA). RNA Polymerase III Transcription produces transfer RNAs (tRNA), 5S RNA, 7SL RNA, and U6 snRNA. Transcription from mitochondrial promoters is performed by the mitochondrial RNA polymerase, POLRMT, to yield long transcripts from each DNA strand that are processed to yield 12S rRNA, 16S rRNA, tRNAs, and a few RNAs encoding components of the electron transport chain. Regulation of gene expression can be divided into epigenetic regulation, transcriptional regulation, and post-transcription regulation (comprising translational efficiency and RNA stability). Epigenetic regulation of gene expression is the result of heritable chemical modifications to DNA and DNA-binding proteins such as histones. Epigenetic changes result in altered chromatin complexes that influence transcription. Gene Silencing by RNA mostly occurs post-transcriptionally but can also affect transcription. Small RNAs originating from the genome (miRNAs) or from exogenous RNA (siRNAs) are processed and transferred to the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC), which interacts with complementary RNA to cause cleavage, translational inhibition, or transcriptional inhibition.

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