Binding of ligand to AGER results in the activation of multiple signaling pathways, including the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade (Lander et al. 1997), cdc42/Rac (Huttunen et al. 1999), and activation of NF-?B (Tanaka et al. 2000). A membrane-proximal cytoplasmic region of the advanced glycation end-products receptor (AGER) is responsible for binding to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase-1 and -2 (ERK1/2 or MAPK3/1). This region is similar to the D-domain, an ERK docking site which is conserved in some ERK substrates (Ishihara et al. 2003).