Advanced glycosylation end product specific receptor (AGER) also known as Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) is a multi-ligand membrane receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin superfamily. It recognizes a large variety of modified proteins known as advanced glycation/glycosylation endproducts (AGEs) a heterogenous group of structures (Ikeda et al. 1996) that accumulate in patients with diabetes, atherosclerosis, renal failure or ageing (Schmidt et al. 1999). The most prevalent class of AGE in vivo are N(6)-carboxymethyllysine (NECML) adducts (Kislinger et al. 1991). AGER is a receptor for amyloid-beta peptide (Ab)(Yan et al. 1996), mediating Ab neurotoxicity and promoting Ab influx into the brain (Zhang et al. 2009). AGER also responds to the proinflammatory S100/calgranulins (Hofmann et al. 1999) and High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1/Amphoterin/DEF) (Hori et al. 1995). The major pathway is NFkappaB activation, but AGER can also activate rho-GTPases and thereby MAPK and JNK cascades. (Bierhaus et al. 2005).