Phosphorylation of Shc at three tyrosine residues, 239, 240 (Gotoh et al. 1996) and 317 (Salcini et al. 1994) involves unidentified tyrosine kinases presumed to be part of the activated receptor complex. These phosphorylated tyrosines subsequently bind SH2 signaling proteins such as Grb2, Gab2 and SHIP that are involved in the regulation of different signaling pathways. Grb2 can associate with the guanosine diphosphate-guanosine triphosphate exchange factor Sos1, leading to Ras activation and regulation of cell proliferation. Downstream signals are mediated via the Raf-MEK-Erk pathway.Grb2 can also associate through Gab2 with PI3K and with SHIP.
Figure reproduced from Gu, H. et al. 2000. Mol. Cell. Biol. 20(19):7109-7120
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