Anaphylatoxins initiate inflammatory responses

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Gallus gallus
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Anaphylatoxic peptides C3a and C5a function as mediators of host inflammatory response in mammals. These molecules are generated during complement activation and bind to their specific G protein coupled receptors (GPCR), which are expressed on granulocytes, monocytes, mast cells and activated lymphocytes (Peng Q et al. 2009; Haas PJ and van Strijp J 2007).

Expression of both C3 and C5 as well as C3aR and C5aR was detected in chicken liver and eye tissues (Haynes T et al. 2013). Moreover, chicken C3a was shown to stimulate chick retina regeneration through MAPK-STAT3 activation in a C3aR-dependent manner (Haynes T et al. 2013). In addition, functionally active anaphylatoxins and their receptors were found in teleost fish and Xenopus (Rottland J et al. 2004; Boshra H et al. 2004; Holland MC and Lambris JD 2004; Boshra H et al. 2005; Carmona-Fontaine C et al. 2011). The studies in those species suggested that the basic structure and function of anaphylatoxins and their receptors have been conserved for more than 300 million years (Sunyer JO et al. 2005). Taken together, the observations above suggest that the chicken complement signaling may release active fragments C3a and C5a, which associate with C3a and C5a receptors respectively.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
15043949 Generation, purification and functional characterization of three C3a anaphylatoxins in rainbow trout: role in leukocyte chemotaxis and respiratory burst

Rotllant, J, Parra, D, Peters, R, Boshra, H, Sunyer, JO

Dev Comp Immunol 2004
17873401 Anaphylatoxins: their role in bacterial infection and inflammation

Haas, PJ, van Strijp, J

Immunol Res 2007
19601884 The role of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in regulating innate and adaptive immune responses

Peng, Q, Li, K, Sacks, SH, Zhou, W

Inflamm Allergy Drug Targets 2009
14688343 A functional C5a anaphylatoxin receptor in a teleost species

Holland, MC, Lambris, JD

J Immunol 2004
15034053 Cloning, expression, cellular distribution, and role in chemotaxis of a C5a receptor in rainbow trout: the first identification of a C5a receptor in a nonmammalian species

Boshra, H, Li, J, Peters, R, Hansen, J, Matlapudi, A, Sunyer, JO

J Immunol 2004
16081814 Characterization of a C3a receptor in rainbow trout and Xenopus: the first identification of C3a receptors in nonmammalian species

Boshra, H, Wang, T, Hove-Madsen, L, Hansen, J, Li, J, Matlapudi, A, Secombes, CJ, Tort, L, Sunyer, JO

J Immunol 2005
16112742 Evolution of anaphylatoxins, their diversity and novel roles in innate immunity: insights from the study of fish complement

Sunyer, JO, Boshra, H, Li, J

Vet Immunol Immunopathol 2005
23942241 Complement anaphylatoxin C3a is a potent inducer of embryonic chick retina regeneration

Haynes, T, Luz-Madrigal, A, Reis, ES, Echeverri Ruiz, NP, Grajales-Esquivel, E, Tzekou, A, Tsonis, PA, Lambris, JD, Del Rio-Tsonis, K

Nat Commun 2013
22118769 Complement fragment C3a controls mutual cell attraction during collective cell migration

Carmona-Fontaine, C, Theveneau, E, Tzekou, A, Tada, M, Woods, M, Page, KM, Parsons, M, Lambris, JD, Mayor, R

Dev Cell 2011
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