TRAF6 mediated induction of proinflammatory cytokines

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Gallus gallus
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Together with ubiquitin-conjugating E2-type enzymes UBC13 and UEV1A (also known as UBE2V1), TRAF6 catalyzes Lys63-linked ubiquitination. It is believed that auto polyubiquitination and oligomerization of TRAF6 is followed by binding the ubiquitin receptors of TAB2 or TAB3 (TAK1 binding protein 2 and 3), which stimulates phosphorylation and activation of TGF beta-activated kinase 1(TAK1).

TAK1 phosphorylates IKK alpha and IKK beta, which in turn phosphorylate NF-kB inhibitors - IkB and eventually results in IkB degradation and NF-kB translocation to the nucleus. Also TAK1 mediates JNK and p38 MAP kinases activation by phosphorylating MKK4/7 and MKK3/6 respectively resulting in the activation of many transcription factors.

The role of TRAF6 is somewhat controversial and probably cell type specific. TRAF6 autoubiquitination was found to be dispensable for TRAF6 function to activate the TAK1 pathway. These findings are consistent with the new mechanism of TRAF6-mediated NF-kB activation that was suggested by Xia et al. (2009). TRAF6 generates unanchored Lys63-linked polyubiquitin chains that bind to the regulatory subunits of the TAK1 (TAB2 or TAB3) and IKK (NEMO), leading to the activation of the kinases.

Xia et al. (2009) demonstrated in vitro that unlike polyubiquitin chains covalently attached to TRAF6 or IRAK, TAB2 and NEMO-associated ubiquitin chains were unanchored and susceptible to N-terminal ubiquitin cleavage. Only K63-linked polyubiquitin chains, but not monomeric ubiquitin, activated TAK1 in a dose-dependent manner. Optimal activation of the IKK complex was achieved using ubiquitin polymers containing both K48 and K63 linkages.

Furthermore, the authors proposed that the TAK1 complexes might be brougt in close proximity by binding several TAB2/3 to a single polyubiquitin chain to facilitate TAK1 kinases trans-phosphorylation. Alternatively, the possibility that polyUb binding promotes allosteric activation of TAK1 complex should be considered.

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
11057907 Activation of the IkappaB kinase complex by TRAF6 requires a dimeric ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme complex and a unique polyubiquitin chain

Deng, L, Pickart, C, Spencer, E, You, J, Wang, C, Slaughter, C, Braun, A, Chen, ZJ, Yang, L

Cell 2000
19112497 TRAF6 autoubiquitination-independent activation of the NFkappaB and MAPK pathways in response to IL-1 and RANKL

Walsh, MC, Molnar, EE, Maurizio, PL, Choi, Y, Kim, GK

PLoS One 2008
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