The TFB1M gene is transcribed to yield mRNA and the mRNA is translated to yield precursor protein in the cytosol (McCulloch et al. 2002, Gleyzer et al. 2005, Vercauteren et al. 2008, Cotney et al. 2009). The TFB1M precursor is then imported into the mitochondiral matrix where it acts as both a 12S RNA methylase and a DNA-binding transcription factor (inferred from mouse in Metodiev et al. 2009).