The proteins participating in alternative pathway activation are C3 (and C3b), the factors B, D, and properdin. In the first place, alternative pathway activation is a positive feedback mechanism to increase C3b. When C3b binds covalently to sugars on a cell surface, it can become protected. Then Factor B binds to C3b. In the presence of Factor D, bound Factor B is cleaved to Ba and Bb. Bb contains the active site for a C3 convertase. Properdin then binds to C3bBb to stabilize the C3bBb convertase on cell surface leading to cleavage of C3. Finally, a C3bBb3b complex forms and this is a C5 convertase.