PPARA activates gene expression

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The set of genes regulated by PPAR-alpha is not fully known in humans, however many examples have been found in mice. Genes directly activated by PPAR-alpha contain peroxisome proliferator receptor elements (PPREs) in their promoters and include:
1) genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis (Acox1, Cyp4a, Acadm, Hmgcs2);
2) genes involved in fatty acid transport (Cd36, , Slc27a1, Fabp1, Cpt1a, Cpt2);
3) genes involved in producing fatty acids and very low density lipoproteins (Me1, Scd1);
4) genes encoding apolipoproteins (Apoa1, Apoa2, Apoa5);
5) genes involved in triglyceride clearance ( Angptl4);
6) genes involved in glycerol metabolism (Gpd1 in mouse);
7) genes involved in glucose metabolism (Pdk4);
8) genes involved in peroxisome proliferation (Pex11a);
9) genes involved in lipid storage (Plin, Adfp).
Many other genes are known to be regulated by PPAR-alpha but whether their regulation is direct or indirect remains to be found. These genes include: ACACA, FAS, SREBP1, FADS1, DGAT1, ABCA1, PLTP, ABCB4, UGT2B4, SULT2A1, Pnpla2, Acsl1, Slc27a4, many Acot genes, and others (reviewed in Rakhshandehroo et al. 2010).

Literature References
PubMed ID Title Journal Year
14999402 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes

Mandard, S, Kersten, S, Muller, M

Cell Mol Life Sci 2004
10529898 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: nuclear control of metabolism

Wahli, W, Desvergne, B

Endocr Rev 1999
20936127 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes

Kersten, S, Knoch, B, Rakhshandehroo, M, Müller, M

PPAR Res 2010
11330046 Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, coactivators, and downstream targets

Qi, C, Reddy, JK, Zhu, Y

Cell Biochem Biophys 2000
18288277 Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors and lipoprotein metabolism

Kersten, S

PPAR Res 2008
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